Intelligent Choice of the Right Pet Dog (A Case Study)
GROUP VI: NON-SPORTING BREEDS
AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG
THE AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG, NICKNAMED THE “ESKIE,” IS A NORDIC breed that is always white or white with biscuit cream. The American Eskimo dog is bred in three distinct sizes: toy (9 to and including 12 inches); miniature (over 12 to and including 15 inches); and standard (over 15 to and including 19 inches). Sizes under 9 inches or over 19 inches are disqualifications.
The Eskie is a member of the spitz family, or Nordic breeds, as many fanciers prefer to call this group of dogs. The Eskimo Dog is almost certainly descended from the European spitzes, including the white German Spitz, the white Keeshond, the white Pomeranian, and the Volpino Italiano (white Italian Spitz). After World War II, American breeders on the West Coast may even have incorporated some Japanese Spitz into the Eskie.
During the nineteenth century, small, white spitz-type dogs were commonly found in American communities of German immigrants. These dogs were probably descendants of white German Spitz, white Keeshonden, or large white Pomeranians that emigrated with their European masters. The immigrants’ dogs could not be recognized in their native countries after reaching the United States. They came to be known collectively as the American Spitz.
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the American Eskimo Dog was extremely popular for use in trick-dog acts in the many traveling circuses throughout the United States. For the public, this breed has had much appeal because of its sparkling white coat and quickness. Circus trainers favored the breed for this reason and also because of the Eskie’s innate intelligence, trainability, and unsurpassed agility. These circus dogs helped develop and spread the popularity of the American Eskimo Dog.
Although the American Spitz was dubbed the American Eskimo in 1917, the exact reason for selecting this name is unknown. One theory is that the word Eskimowould associate the breed with various breeds of large, Nordic dogs developed by those Native American peoples. (The Eskie appears to be a miniaturized version of the Eskimos’ sled dogs.)
In 1985 the American Eskimo Dog Club of America (AEDCA), the national parent club, was formed to work for AKC recognition for the breed as well as to protect and promote the purebred American Eskimo Dog as set forth by the AKC.
The AEDCA opened its studbook in 1986, and it was transferred to the AKC in November 1993. More than 1,750 American Eskimo Dogs were registered as foundation stock in the AKC Stud Book. The American Eskimo Dog was given Non-Sporting Group status and became eligible for full recognition on July 1, 1995.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG
General Appearance—The American Eskimo Dog, a loving companion dog, presents a picture of strength and agility, alertness and beauty. It is a small to medium-size Nordic-type dog, always white, or white with biscuit cream. The American Eskimo Dog is compactly built and well balanced, with good substance, and an alert, smooth gait. The face is Nordic type with erect triangular shaped ears, and distinctive black points (lips, nose, and eye rims). The white double coat consists of a short, dense undercoat, with a longer guard hair growing through it forming the outer coat, which is straight with no curl or wave. The coat is thicker and longer around the neck and chest forming a lion-like ruff, which is more noticeable on dogs than on bitches. The rump and hind legs down to the hocks are also covered with thicker, longer hair forming the characteristic breeches. The richly plumed tail is carried loosely on the back.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—There are three separate size divisions of the American Eskimo Dog (all measurements are heights at withers): Toy, 9 inches to and including 12 inches; Miniature, over 12 inches to and including 15 inches; and Standard, over 15 inches to and including 19 inches. There is no preference for size within each division. Disqualification: Under 9 inches or over 19 inches. Proportion—Length of back from point of shoulder to point of buttocks is slightly greater than height at withers, an approximate 1.1 to 1 ratio. Substance—The American Eskimo Dog is strong and compactly built with adequate bone.
Head—Expression is keen, intelligent and alert. Eyes are not fully round, but slightly oval. They should be set well apart, and not slanted, prominent or bulging. Tear stain, unless severe, is not to be faulted. Presence of tear stain should not outweigh consideration of type, structure or temperament. Dark to medium brown is the preferred eye color. Eye rims are black to dark brown. Eyelashes are white. Faults: amber eye color or pink eye rims. Disqualification: blue eyes. Ears should conform to head size and be triangular, slightly blunt-tipped, held erect, set on high yet well apart, and blend softly with the head. Skull is slightly crowned and softly wedge-shaped, with widest breadth between the ears. The stop is well defined, although not abrupt. The muzzle is broad, with length not exceeding the length of the skull, although it may be slightly shorter. Nose pigment is black to dark brown. Lips are thin and tight, black to dark brown in color. Faults: pink nose pigment or pink lip pigment. The jaw should be strong with a full complement of close fitting teeth. The bite is scissors, or pincer.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is carried proudly erect, well set on, medium in length, and in a strong, graceful arch. The topline is level. The body of the American Eskimo Dog is strong and compact, but not cobby. The chest is deep and broad with well-sprung ribs. Depth of chest extends approximately to point of elbows. Slight tuck-up of belly just behind the ribs. The back is straight, broad, level, and muscular. The loin is strong and well-muscled. The American Eskimo Dog is neither too long nor too short coupled. The tail is set moderately high and reaches approximately to the point of hock when down. It is carried loosely on the back, although it may be dropped when at rest.
Forequarters—Forequarters are well angulated. The shoulder is firmly set and has adequate muscle but is not overdeveloped. The shoulder blades are well laid back and slant 45° with the horizontal. At the point of shoulder the shoulder blade forms an approximate right angle with the upper arm. The legs are parallel and straight to the pasterns. The pasterns are strong and flexible with a slant of about 20°. Length of leg in proportion to the body. Dewclaws on the front legs may be removed at the owner’s discretion; if present, they are not to be faulted. Feet are oval, compact, tightly knit and well padded with hair. Toes are well arched. Pads are black to dark brown, tough and deeply cushioned. Toenails are white.
Hindquarters—Hindquarters are well angulated. The lay of the pelvis is approximately 30° to the horizontal. The upper thighs are well developed. Stifles are well bent. Hock joints are well let down and firm. The rear pasterns are straight. Legs are parallel from the rear and turn neither in nor out. Feet are as described for the front legs. Dewclaws are not present on the hind legs.
Coat—The American Eskimo Dog has a stand-off, double coat consisting of a dense undercoat and a longer coat of guard hair growing through it to form the outer coat. It is straight with no curl or wave. There is a pronounced ruff around the neck which is more noticeable on dogs than bitches. Outer part of the ear should be well covered with short, smooth hair, with longer tufts of hair growing in front of ear openings. Hair on muzzle should be short and smooth. The backs of the front legs should be well feathered, as are the rear legs down to the hock. The tail is covered profusely with long hair. THERE IS TO BE NO TRIMMING OF THE WHISKERS OR BODY COAT AND SUCH TRIMMING WILL BE SEVERELY PENALIZED. The only permissible trimming is to neaten the feet and the backs of the rear pasterns.
Color—Pure white is the preferred color, although white with biscuit cream is permissible. Presence of biscuit cream should not outweigh consideration of type, structure or temperament. The skin of the American Eskimo Dog is pink or gray. Disqualification: any color other than white or biscuit cream.
Gait—The American Eskimo Dog shall trot, not pace. The gait is agile, bold, well balanced and frictionless, with good forequarter reach and good hindquarter drive. As speed increases, the American Eskimo Dog will single track with the legs converging toward the center line of gravity while the back remains firm, strong and level.
Temperament—The American Eskimo Dog is intelligent, alert and friendly, although slightly conservative. It is never overly shy nor aggressive, and such dogs are to be severely penalized in the show ring. At home it is an excellent watchdog, sounding a warning bark to announce the arrival of any stranger. It is protective of its home and family, although it does not threaten to bite or attack people. The American Eskimo Dog learns new tasks quickly and is eager to please.
Any color other than white or biscuit cream
Height: under 9 inches or over 19 inches.
Approved October 11, 1994
Effective November 30, 1994
THE BICHON, LIKE HIS COUSIN THE CANICHE, DESCENDED FROM THE Barbet or Water-Spaniel, from which came the name Barbichon, later contracted to Bichon. The Bichons were divided into four categories: the Bichon Maltais, the Bichon Bolognais, the Bichon Havanais, and the Bichon Teneriffe. All originated in the Mediterranean region.
Appreciated for their dispositions, the dogs traveled much through antiquity. Frequently offered as items of barter, they were transported by sailors from continent to continent. The dogs found early success in Spain and it is generally felt that Spanish seamen introduced the breed to the Canary Island of Teneriffe. Most sources agree that in this period the name Teneriffe was retained mainly because of its slightly exotic nature and the enhanced commercial value the name gave the common Bichon.
In the 1300s, Italian sailors rediscovered the little dogs on their voyages and are credited with returning them to the Continent, where they became great favorites with Italian nobility, and as with other dogs of that era, were often cut “lion style.”
The Teneriffe, or Bichon, made its appearance in France under Francis I, the patron of the Renaissance (1515–47). However, its greatest success was in the court of Henry III (1574–89), where it was pampered, perfumed, and beribboned. The breed also enjoyed considerable success in Spain as a favorite of the infantas (princesses) , and painters of the Spanish school often included them in their works. One finds such a dog in several of the paintings of Goya.
After a brief renewal of interest under Napoleon III, the fate of this aristocratic dog took a new turn. In the late 1800s, it became the “common dog,” running the streets, accompanying the organ grinders of Barbary, leading the blind, and doing tricks in circuses and at fairs.
At the end of World War I a few fanciers recognized the potential of the dogs, and in France four breeders began establishing their lines through controlled breeding programs. On March 5, 1933, the official standard of the breed (as written by the president of the Toy Club of France, in conjunction with the Friends of the Belgian Breeds) was adopted by the Société Centrale Canine of France. As the breed was known by two names, “Teneriffe” and “Bichon,” the president of the International Canine Federation, Madame Nizet de Leemans, proposed a name based on the characteristics that the dogs presented, and the name Bichon Frise (plural, Bichons Frises) was adopted. Frise refers to the dog’s soft, curly hair. On October 18, 1934, the Bichon was admitted to the studbook of the French Kennel Club. The International Canine Federation recognizes the Bichon Frise as a “French-Belgian breed having the right to registration in the Book of Origins from all countries.” The breed is recognized in France, Belgium, and Italy.
In 1956, Mr. and Mrs. Francois Picault moved to the United States and settled in the Midwest, where Etoile de Steren Vor whelped the first Bichon litter born in this country (sired by Eddie White de Steren Vor). In 1959 and 1960, two breeders in different parts of the United States acquired Bichons, thus providing the origins for breed development in this country.
Accepted for entry in the Miscellaneous class on September 1, 1971, the Bichon Frise was admitted to registration in the AKC Stud Book in October 1972, and to regular show classification in the Non-Sporting Group at AKC shows April 4, 1973.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BICHON FRISE
General Appearance—The Bichon Frise is a small, sturdy, white powder puff of a dog whose merry temperament is evidenced by his plumed tail carried jauntily over the back and his dark-eyed inquisitive expression.
This is a breed that has no gross or incapacitating exaggerations, and therefore, there is no inherent reason for lack of balance or unsound movement.
Any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Bichon Frise as in any other breed, even though such faults may not be specifically mentioned in the standard.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Dogs and bitches 91⁄2 to 111⁄2 inches are to be given primary preference. Only where the comparative superiority of a specimen outside this range clearly justifies it should greater latitude be taken. In no case, however, should this latitude ever extend over 12 inches or under 9 inches. The minimum limits do not apply to puppies. Proportion—The body from the forward-most point of the chest to the point of rump is 1⁄4 longer than the height at the withers. The body from the withers to lowest point of chest represents 1⁄2 the distance from withers to ground. Substance—Compact and of medium bone throughout; neither coarse nor fine.
Head—Expression—Soft, dark-eyed, inquisitive, alert. Eyesare round, black or dark brown and are set in the skull to look directly forward. An overly large or bulging eye is a fault as is an almond shaped, obliquely set eye. Halos, the black or very dark brown skin surrounding the eyes, are necessary as they accentuate the eye and enhance expression. The eye rims themselves must be black. Broken pigment, or total absence of pigment on the eye rims produce a blank and staring expression, which is a definite fault. Eyes of any color other than black or dark brown are a very serious fault and must be severely penalized. Earsare drop and are covered with long flowing hair. When extended toward the nose, the leathers reach approximately halfway the length of the muzzle. They are set on slightly higher than eye level and rather forward on the skull, so that when the dog is alert they serve to frame the face. The skullis slightly rounded, allowing for a round and forward looking eye. The stopis slightly accentuated. Muzzle—A properly balanced head is three parts muzzle to five parts skull, measured from the nose to the stop and from the stop to the occiput. A line drawn between the outside corners of the eyes and to the nose will create a near equilateral triangle. There is a slight degree of chiseling under the eyes, but not so much as to result in a weak or snipy foreface. The lower jaw is strong. The nose is prominent and always black. Lipsare black, fine, never drooping. Biteis scissors. A bite which is undershot or overshot should be severely penalized. A crooked or out of line tooth is permissible, however, missing teeth are to be severely faulted.
Neck, Topline and Body—The arched neck is long and carried proudly behind an erect head. It blends smoothly into the shoulders. The length of neck from occiput to withers is approximately 1⁄3 the distance from forechest to buttocks. The topline is level except for a slight, muscular arch over the loin. Body—The chest is well developed and wide enough to allow free and unrestricted movement of the front legs. The lowest point of the chest extends at least to the elbow. The rib cage is moderately sprung and extends back to a short and muscular loin. The forechest is well pronounced and protrudes slightly forward of the point of shoulder. The underline has a moderate tuckup. Tailis well plumed, set on level with the topline and curved gracefully over the back so that the hair of the tail rests on the back. When the tail is extended toward the head it reaches at least halfway to the withers. A low tail set, a tail carried perpendicularly to the back, or a tail which droops behind is to be severely penalized. A corkscrew tail is a very serious fault.
Forequarters—Shoulders—The shoulder blade, upper arm and forearm are approximately equal in length. The shoulders are laid back to somewhat near a forty-five-degree angle. The upper arm extends well back so the elbow is placed directly below the withers when viewed from the side. Legsare of medium bone; straight, with no bow or curve in the forearm or wrist. The elbows are held close to the body. The pasternsslope slightly from the vertical. The dewclaws may be removed. The feetare tight and round, resembling those of a cat and point directly forward, turning neither in nor out. Padsare black. Nailsare kept short.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are of medium bone, well angulated with muscular thighs and spaced moderately wide. The upper and lower thigh are nearly equal in length meeting at a well bent stifle joint. The leg from hock joint to foot pad is perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Paws are tight and round with black pads.
Coat—The texture of the coat is of utmost importance. The undercoat is soft and dense, the outercoat of a coarser and curlier texture. The combination of the two gives a soft but substantial feel to the touch which is similar to plush or velvet and when patted springs back. When bathed and brushed, it stands off the body, creating an overall powder puff appearance. A wiry coat is not desirable. A limp, silky coat, a coat that lies down, or a lack of undercoat are very serious faults. Trimming—The coat is trimmed to reveal the natural outline of the body. It is rounded off from any direction and never cut so short as to create an overly trimmed or squared off appearance. The furnishings of the head, beard, mustache, ears and tail are left longer. The longer head hair is trimmed to create an overall rounded impression. The topline is trimmed to appear level. The coat is long enough to maintain the powder puff look which is characteristic of the breed.
Color—Color is white, may have shadings of buff, cream or apricot around the ears or on the body. Any color in excess of 10% of the entire coat of a mature specimen is a fault and should be penalized, but color of the accepted shadings should not be faulted in puppies.
Gait—Movement at a trot is free, precise and effortless. In profile the forelegs and hind legs extend equally with an easy reach and drive that maintain a steady topline. When moving, the head and neck remain somewhat erect and as speed increases there is a very slight convergence of legs toward the center line. Moving away, the hindquarters travel with moderate width between them and the foot pads can be seen. Coming and going, his movement is precise and true.
Temperament—Gentle mannered, sensitive, playful and affectionate. A cheerful attitude is the hallmark of the breed and one should settle for nothing less.
Approved October 11, 1988
Effective November 30, 1988
A TRUE AMERICAN BREED, THE BOSTON TERRIER WAS THE RESULT OF A cross between an English Bulldog and a white English Terrier, later considerably inbred. Incidental peculiarities of the first dogs used as sires are partly responsible for the present type.
About the year 1870 Robert C. Hooper, of Boston, came into the possession of an imported dog named Judge, which he purchased from William O’Brien of the same city. Judge, commonly known as “Hooper’s Judge” and destined to be the ancestor of almost all true modern Bostons, was a cross between a Bulldog and an English Terrier, and in type he resembled the former. He was a well-built, high-stationed dog of about thirty-two pounds, of dark brindle color with white blaze. His head was square and blocky and his mouth nearly even. Judge was mated to “Gyp or Kate,” as the name appears on old-time pedigrees. This white bitch, owned by Edward Burnett, of Southboro, Massachusetts, weighed around twenty pounds; she was low and square.
From the mating of Judge and Gyp descended Wells’ Eph, a dog of strong build and, like his dam, low stationed. He was dark brindle with even white markings and a nearly even mouth. Eph was bred to Tobin’s Kate, a comparatively small twenty-pound female with fairly short head and straight three-quarter tail. She was golden brindle in color. From these dogs in the main evolved the Boston Terrier breed.
In the year 1889 about thirty fanciers in and around Boston organized what was known as the American Bull Terrier Club, and they exhibited the dogs as Round Heads or Bull Terriers. As time went on, these fanciers met with considerable opposition from Bull Terrier and Bulldog fanciers who objected to the similarity of breed name, pointing out that this new breed was so unlike their own. The AKC was also not convinced that these dogs would breed true to their type, having been established over such a short time. The Boston Terrier fanciers, however, refused to be discouraged and in 1891 formed the Boston Terrier Club of America. As their dog was bred in Boston, they changed the name to Boston Terrier. After two years of sustained effort to have the Boston recognized as a purebred, they succeeded in persuading the American Kennel Club to admit the breed to the Stud Book in 1893 and the club to membership.
Up to this time, of course, the Boston Terrier was only in its infancy. There was hard work ahead to standardize the breed and to make the Bostons of that day into a more even lot. Great progress has been made, however, since 1900 in developing different strains by careful, selective breeding, which included a certain amount of inbreeding. The result is a clean-cut dog, with short head, snow-white markings, dark, soft eyes, and a body approximately the conformation of the terrier rather than the Bulldog.
The Boston, while not a fighter, is well able to take care of himself. He has a characteristically gentle disposition that has won him the nickname “the American Gentleman.” As a companion and house pet, he is eminently suitable.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BOSTON TERRIER
General Appearance—The Boston Terrier is a lively, highly intelligent, smooth coated, short-headed, compactly built, short-tailed, well balanced dog, brindle, seal or black in color and evenly marked with white. The head is in proportion to the size of the dog and the expression indicates a high degree of intelligence.
The body is rather short and well knit, the limbs strong and neatly turned, the tail is short and no feature is so prominent that the dog appears badly proportioned. The dog conveys an impression of determination, strength and activity, with style of a high order; carriage easy and graceful. A proportionate combination of “Color and White Markings” is a particularly distinctive feature of a representative specimen.
“Balance, Expression, Color and White Markings” should be given particular consideration in determining the relative value of GENERAL APPEARANCE to other points.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Weight is divided by classes as follows: Under 15 pounds; 15 pounds and under 20 pounds; 20 pounds and not to exceed 25 pounds. The length of leg must balance with the length of body to give the Boston Terrier its striking square appearance. The Boston Terrier is a sturdy dog and must not appear to be either spindly or coarse. The bone and muscle must be in proportion as well as an enhancement to the dog’s weight and structure. Fault: Blocky or chunky in appearance.
Influence of Sex. In a comparison of specimens of each sex, the only evident difference is a slight refinement in the bitch’s conformation.
Head—The skullis square, flat on top, free from wrinkles, cheeks flat, brow abrupt and the stop well defined. The ideal Boston Terrier expressionis alert and kind, indicating a high degree of intelligence. This is a most important characteristic of the breed. The eyes are wide apart, large and round and dark in color. The eyes are set square in the skull and the outside corners are on a line with the cheeks as viewed from the front. Disqualify: Eyes blue in color or any trace of blue. The earsare small, carried erect, either natural or cropped to conform to the shape of the head and situated as near to the corners of the skull as possible.
The muzzleis short, square, wide and deep and in proportion to the skull. It is free from wrinkles, shorter in length than in width or depth; not exceeding in length approximately one-third of the length of the skull. The muzzle from stop to end of the nose is parallel to the top of the skull.
The noseis black and wide, with a well defined line between the nostrils. Disqualify: Dudley nose.
The jaw is broad and square with short regular teeth. The bite is even or sufficiently undershot to square the muzzle. The chops are of good depth, but not pendulous, completely covering the teeth when the mouth is closed. Serious Fault: Wry mouth.
Head Faults: Eyes showing too much white or haw. Pinched or wide nostrils. Size of ears out of proportion to the size of the head. SeriousHead Faults: Any showing of the tongue or teeth when the mouth is closed.
Neck, Topline and Body—The length of neckmust display an image of balance to the total dog. It is slightly arched, carrying the head gracefully and setting neatly into the shoulders. The backis just short enough to square the body. The toplineis level and the rump curves slightly to the set-on of the tail. The chestis deep with good width, ribs well sprung and carried well back to the loins. The body should appear short. The tail is set on low, short, fine and tapering, straight or screw and must not be carried above the horizontal. (Note: The preferred tail does not exceed in length more than one-quarter the distance from set-on to hock.) Disqualify: Docked tail.
Forequarters—The shouldersare sloping and well laid back, which allows for the Boston Terrier’s stylish movement. The elbowsstand neither in nor out. The forelegs are set moderately wide apart and on a line with the upper tip of the shoulder blades. The forelegs are straight in bone with short, strong pasterns. The dewclaws may be removed. The feetare small, round and compact, turned neither in nor out, with well arched toes and short nails. Faults: Legs lacking in substance; splay feet.
Hindquarters—The thighsare strong and well muscled, bent at the stifles and set true. The hocksare short to the feet, turning neither in nor out, with a well defined hock joint. The feetare small and compact with short nails. Fault: Straight in stifle.
Gait—The gait of the Boston Terrier is that of a sure footed, straight gaited dog, forelegs and hind legs moving straight ahead in line with perfect rhythm, each step indicating grace and power. Gait Faults: There will be no rolling, paddling, or weaving, when gaited. Hackney gait. SeriousGait Faults: Any crossing movement, either front or rear.
Coat—The coat is short, smooth, bright and fine in texture.
Color and Markings—Brindle, seal, or black with white markings. Brindle is preferred ONLY if all other qualities are equal. (Note: SEAL DEFINED. Seal appears black except it has a red cast when viewed in the sun or bright light.) Disqualify: Solid black, solid brindle or solid seal without required white markings. Gray or liver colors.
Required Markings: White muzzle band, white blaze between the eyes, white forechest.
Desired Markings: White muzzle band, even white blaze between the eyes and over the head, white collar, white forechest, white on part or whole of forelegs and hind legs below the hocks. (Note: A representative specimen should not be penalized for not possessing “Desired Markings.”)
A dog with a preponderance of white on the head or body must possess sufficient merit otherwise to counteract its deficiencies.
Temperament—The Boston Terrier is a friendly and lively dog. The breed has an excellent disposition and a high degree of intelligence, which makes the Boston Terrier an incomparable companion.
Summary—The clean-cut short backed body of the Boston Terrier coupled with the unique characteristics of his square head and jaw, and his striking markings have resulted in a most dapper and charming American original: The Boston Terrier.
SCALE OF POINTS
Eyes blue in color or any trace of blue.
Solid black, solid brindle, or solid seal without required white markings.
Gray or liver colors.
Approved January 9, 1990
Effective February 28, 1990
TO THE BEST OF OUR KNOWLEDGE THE BULLDOG HAD ITS ORIGIN IN THE British Isles, the word bull being applied because of the dog’s use in connection with bullbaiting.
Exactly when this activity began is impossible to say, but in The Survey of Stamford the following reference is made to its probable origin:
William Earl Warren, Lord of this town in the reign of King John (1209), standing upon the walls of his castle at Stamford, saw two bulls fighting for a cow in the castle meadow, till all the butchers’ dogs pursued one of the bulls, which was maddened by the noise and multitude, through the town. This so pleased the Earl that he gave the castle meadow where the bulls combat began, for a common to the butchers of the town after the first grass was mowed, on condition that they should find a “mad bull” on a day six weeks before Christmas for the continuance of that sport forever.
Anyone who has read about the “sport” of bullbaiting knows of its extreme cruelty. From this we can gather that the original Bulldog had to be a truly ferocious animal. Beauty and symmetry of form were in no way desirable, the appearance of the dog counting for nothing. The extraordinary courage possessed by these dogs is hardly believable. Bred from a long line of fighting ancestors, they grew to be so savage and so courageous as to be almost insensitive to pain. Such was the Bulldog of British sporting days.
Then came the year 1835, when dog fighting as a sport became illegal in England. To all intents and purposes, therefore, the English Bulldog had outlived his usefulness; his days were numbered. There were, however, dog lovers who felt a deep disappointment at the passing of so fine a breed, so they quickly set themselves the task of preserving it. Though ferocity was no longer necessary or desirable, they wished to retain all the dog’s other splendid qualities. With this in mind, they proceeded to eliminate the undesirable characteristics and to preserve and accentuate the finer qualities. Within a few generations the English Bulldog became one of the finest physical specimens, minus its original viciousness.
This is the Bulldog we know today, a breed of which we may be justly proud. At the same time we must express our gratitude to our British cousins, who preserved him for posterity. The modern Bulldog is both docile and very adaptive. He is happy in an apartment or a large yard. He is an excellent family pet and loves children. His short, smooth coat makes him a favorite for owners to show, requiring only a face wash and a nail trimming. His capacious body and short nose make it important to protect him from overheating; however, with common sense, he can live happily even in a warm climate.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BULLDOG
General Appearance—The perfect Bulldog must be of medium size and smooth coat; with heavy, thick-set, low-swung body, massive short-faced head, wide shoulders and sturdy limbs. The general appearance and attitude should suggest great stability, vigor and strength. The disposition should be equable and kind, resolute and courageous (not vicious or aggressive), and demeanor should be pacific and dignified. These attributes should be countenanced by the expression and behavior.
Size, Proportion, Symmetry—Size—The size for mature dogs is about 50 pounds; for mature bitches about 40 pounds. Proportion—The circumference of the skull in front of the ears should measure at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. Symmetry —The “points” should be well distributed and bear good relation one to the other, no feature being in such prominence from either excess or lack of quality that the animal appears deformed or ill-proportioned. Influence of Sex—In comparison of specimens of different sex, due allowance should be made in favor of the bitches, which do not bear the characteristics of the breed to the same degree of perfection and grandeur as do the dogs.
Head—Eyes and Eyelids—The eyes, seen from the front, should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears as possible, and their corners should be in a straight line at right angles with the stop. They should be quite in front of the head, as wide apart as possible, provided their outer corners are within the outline of the cheeks when viewed from the front. They should be quite round in form, of moderate size, neither sunken nor bulging, and in color should be very dark. The lids should cover the white of the eyeball, when the dog is looking directly forward, and the lid should show no “haw.” Ears—The ears should be set high in the head, the front inner edge of each ear joining the outline of the skull at the top back corner of skull, so as to place them as wide apart, and as high, and as far from the eyes as possible. In size they should be small and thin. The shape termed “rose ear” is the most desirable. The rose ear folds inward at its back lower edge, the upper front edge curving over, outward and backward, showing part of the inside of the burr. (The ears should not be carried erect or prick-eared or buttoned and should never be cropped.) Skull—The skull should be very large, and in circumference, in front of the ears, should measure at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. Viewed from the front, it should appear very high from the corner of the lower jaw to the apex of the skull, and also very broad and square. Viewed at the side, the head should appear very high, and very short from the point of the nose to occiput. The forehead should be flat (not rounded or domed), neither too prominent nor overhanging the face. Cheeks—The cheeks should be well rounded, protruding sideways and outward beyond the eyes. Stop—The temples or frontal bones should be very well defined, broad, square and high, causing a hollow or groove between the eyes. This indentation, or stop, should be both broad and deep and extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable to the top of the skull. Face andMuzzle—The face, measured from the front of the cheekbone to the tip of the nose, should be extremely short, the muzzle being very short, broad, turned upward and very deep from the corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth. Nose—The nose should be large, broad and black, its tip set back deeply between the eyes. The distance from bottom of stop, between the eyes, to the tip of nose should be as short as possible and not exceed the length from the tip of nose to the edge of underlip. The nostrils should be wide, large and black, with a well-defined line between them. Any nose other than black is objectionable and a brown or liver-colored nose shall disqualify. Lips—The chops or “flews” should be thick, broad, pendant and very deep, completely overhanging the lower jaw at each side. They join the underlip in front and almost or quite cover the teeth, which should be scarcely noticeable when the mouth is closed. Bite—Jaws— The jaws should be massive, very broad, square and “undershot,” the lower jaw projecting considerably in front of the upper jaw and turning up. Teeth: The teeth should be large and strong, with the canine teeth or tusks wide apart, and the six small teeth in front, between the canines, in an even, level row.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—The neck should be short, very thick, deep and strong and well arched at the back. Topline —There should be a slight fall in the back, close behind the shoulders (its lowest part), whence the spine should rise to the loins (the top of which should be higher than the top of the shoulders), thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, forming an arch (a very distinctive feature of the breed), termed “roach back” or, more correctly, “wheel-back.” Body—The brisket and body should be very capacious, with full sides, well-rounded ribs and very deep from the shoulders down to its lowest part, where it joins the chest. It should be well let down between the shoulders and forelegs, giving the dog a broad, low, short-legged appearance. Chest —The chest should be very broad, deep and full. Underline—The body should be well ribbed up behind with the belly tucked up and not rotund. Back and Loin—The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulders and comparatively narrow at the loins. Tail—The tail may be either straight or “screwed” (but never curved or curly), and in any case must be short, hung low, with decided downward carriage, thick root and fine tip. If straight, the tail should be cylindrical and of uniform taper. If “screwed,” the bends or kinks should be well defined, and they may be abrupt and even knotty, but no portion of the member should be elevated above the base or root.
Forequarters—Shoulders—The shoulders should be muscular, very heavy, widespread and slanting outward, giving stability and great power. Forelegs—The forelegs should be short, very stout, straight and muscular, set wide apart, with well developed calves, presenting a bowed outline, but the bones of the legs should not be curved or bandy, nor the feet brought too close together. Elbows—The elbows should be low and stand well out and loose from the body. Feet —The feet should be moderate in size, compact and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, with high knuckles and very short stubby nails. The front feet may be straight or slightly out-turned.
Hindquarters—Legs—The hind legs should be strong and muscular and longer than the forelegs, so as to elevate the loins above the shoulders. Hocks should be slightly bent and well let down, so as to give length and strength from the loins to hock. The lower leg should be short, straight and strong, with the stifles turned slightly outward and away from the body. The hocks are thereby made to approach each other, and the hind feet to turn outward. Feet—The feet should be moderate in size, compact and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, with high knuckles and short stubby nails. The hind feet should be pointed well outward.
Coat and Skin—Coat—The coat should be straight, short, flat, close, of fine texture, smooth and glossy. (No fringe, feather or curl.) Skin—The skin should be soft and loose, especially at the head, neck and shoulders. Wrinkles and Dewlap—The head and face should be covered with heavy wrinkles, and at the throat, from jaw to chest, there should be two loose pendulous folds, forming the dewlap.
Color of Coat—The color of coat should be uniform, pure of its kind and brilliant. The various colors found in the breed are to be preferred in the following order: (1) red brindle, (2) all other brindles, (3) solid white, (4) solid red, fawn or fallow, (5) piebald, (6) inferior qualities of all the foregoing. Note: A perfect piebald is preferable to a muddy brindle or defective solid color. Solid black is very undesirable, but not so objectionable if occurring to a moderate degree in piebald patches. The brindles to be perfect should have a fine, even and equal distribution of the composite colors. In brindles and solid colors a small white patch on the chest is not considered detrimental. In piebalds the color patches should be well defined, of pure color and symmetrically distributed.
Gait—The style and carriage are peculiar, his gait being a loose-jointed, shuffling, sidewise motion, giving the characteristic “roll.” The action must, however, be unrestrained, free and vigorous.
Temperament—The disposition should be equable and kind, resolute and courageous (not vicious or aggressive), and demeanor should be pacific and dignified. These attributes should be countenanced by the expression and behavior.
SCALE OF POINTS
Brown or liver-colored nose.
Approved July 20, 1976
Reformatted November 28, 1990
AN ANCIENT AND UNIQUE BREED, THE CHINESE SHAR-PEI IS THOUGHT TO have originated near the small village of Tai Li, in Kwantung province. The breed has existed for centuries in the southern provinces of China, apparently since the Han Dynasty, circa 200 B.C. Statues dating back to the Han Dynasty and bearing strong resemblance to Shar-Pei have been discovered. More recently, a translation of a thirteenth-century Chinese manuscript contains references to a wrinkled dog with characteristics much like those of the Shar-Pei. DNA research confirms that the Chinese Shar-Pei is indeed an ancient breed.
The name Shar-Pei literally means “sand skin” but translates more loosely as “rough, sandy coat” or “sandpaper-like coat.” The Shar-Pei coat is short and rough, a unique quality in the dog world. A shiny, longer coat is undesirable. Another distinct characteristic is the solid blue-black tongue, a feature shared with another Chinese breed, the Chow Chow. This would suggest a common ancestor, but with lack of proof such a relationship is difficult to confirm.
Without a recorded history for dogs in China, most of what we know about the Shar-Pei is conjecture or incomplete. We do know that following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the Communist government systematically eradicated much of the dog population. A few Chinese Shar-Pei were bred and exhibited in British Hong Kong and in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It is believed that the Shar-Pei was a peasant’s dog, bred for hunting, guarding, and herding. The breed’s intelligence made it a most versatile and valuable asset in early China.
The breed was first recognized by the Hong Kong Kennel Club. Registrations were discontinued in 1968 and then resumed twenty years later, when the Hong Kong and Kowloon Kennel Association (HKKKA) established a dog registry and began registering the Shar-Pei. Most of the early exports carried an HKKKA registration number. The breed’s popularity spread throughout the world, and most kennel clubs today recognize the Chinese Shar-Pei.
In the United States the documented history of the breed dates to 1966, when a few dogs were imported from stock registered with the Hong Kong Kennel Club. The American Dog Breeders’ Association registered a Chinese Shar-Pei for J. C. Smith on October 8, 1970.
Strong interest in the breed increased in 1973, when Matgo Law, of Down-Homes Kennel in Hong Kong, appealed to dog fanciers in the United States to “save the Chinese Shar-Pei.” Law feared breed extinction would come with Communist China’s attempt to eliminate dog ownership. The response was enthusiastic. Because of their rarity, a limited number of Shar-Pei arrived in the United States in fall 1973. Recipients of these dogs corresponded with one another and decided to form a national dog club and registry. The Chinese Shar-Pei Club of America (CSPCA), the AKC parent club, held its first organizational meeting in 1974. Its first annual national specialty show was given in 1978, and successive national shows have been held every year since.
The CSPCA maintained a studbook registry and actively promoted this uniquely devoted and appealing family dog noted for its intelligence. By May 1988, when the Shar-Pei was accepted into the AKC Miscellaneous class, there were 29,263 registered. This number grew to 197,215 by July 2004.
The Chinese Shar-Pei was admitted to the AKC Stud Book on June 1, 1992, and became eligible for competition in the Non-Sporting Group two months later.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CHINESE SHAR-PEI
General Appearance—An alert, compact dog of medium size and substance; square in profile, close coupled; the well-proportioned head slightly, but not overly large for the body. The short, harsh coat, the loose skin covering the head and body, the small ears, the “hippopotamus” muzzle shape and the high set tail impart to the Shar-Pei a unique look peculiar to him alone. The loose skin and wrinkles covering the head, neck and body are superabundant in puppies but these features may be limited to the head, neck and withers in the adult.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The height is 18 to 20 inches at the withers. The weight is 45 to 60 pounds. The dog is usually larger and more square bodied than the bitch but both appear well proportioned. The height of the Shar-Pei from the ground to the withers is approximately equal to the length from the point of breastbone to the point of rump.
Head and Skull—The head is large, slightly, but not overly, proudly carried and covered with profuse wrinkles on the forehead continuing into side wrinkles framing the face. Eyes—Dark, small, almond-shaped and sunken, displaying a scowling expression. In the dilute colored dogs the eye color may be lighter. Ears—Extremely small, rather thick, equilateral triangles in shape, slightly rounded at the tips; edges of the ear may curl. Ears lie flat against the head, are set high, wide apart and forward on the skull, pointing toward the eyes. The ears have the ability to move. A pricked ear is a disqualification. Skull— Flat and broad, the stop moderately defined. Muzzle—One of the distinctive features of the breed. It is broad and full with no suggestion of snipiness. (The length from nose to stop is approximately the same as from stop to occiput.) Nose—Large and wide and darkly pigmented, preferably black but any color conforming to the general coat color of the dog is acceptable. In dilute colors, the preferred nose is self-colored. Darkly pigmented cream Shar-Pei may have some light pigment either in the center of the nose or on the entire nose. The lips and top of muzzle are well-padded and may cause a slight bulge above the nose. Tongue, roof of mouth, gums and flews—Solid bluish-black is preferred in all coat colors except in dilute colors, which have a solid lavender pigmentation. A spotted pink tongue is a major fault. A solid pink tongue is a disqualification. (Tongue colors may lighten due to heat stress; care must be taken not to confuse dilute pigmentation with a pink tongue.) Teeth—Strong, meeting in a scissors bite. Deviation from a scissors bite is a major fault.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—medium length, full and set well into the shoulders. There are moderate to heavy folds of loose skin and abundant dewlap about the neck and throat. The topline dips slightly behind the withers, slightly rising over the short, broad loin. A level, roach or swayed topline/backline shall be faulted. Chest — Broad and deep with the brisket extending to the elbow and rising slightly under the loin. Back—Short and close-coupled. Croup —Flat, with the base of the tail set extremely high, clearly exposing an up-tilted anus. Tail—The high set tail is a characteristic feature of the Shar-Pei. A low set tail shall be faulted. The tail is thick and round at the base, tapering to a fine point and curling over or to either side of the back. The absence of a complete tail is a disqualification.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Muscular, well laid back and sloping. Forelegs—When viewed from the front, straight moderately spaced, with elbows close to the body. When viewed from the side, the forelegs are straight, the pasterns are strong and flexible. The bone is substantial but never heavy and is of moderate length. Removal of front dewclaws is optional. Feet—Moderate in size, compact and firmly set, not splayed.
Hindquarters—Muscular, strong, and moderately angulated. The metatarsi (hocks) are short, perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other when viewed from the rear. Hind dewclaws must be removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—The extremely harsh coat is one of the distinguishing features of the breed. The coat is absolutely straight and off standing on the main trunk of the body but generally lies somewhat flatter on the limbs. The coat appears healthy without being shiny or lustrous. Acceptable coat lengths may range from extremely short “horse coat” up to the “brush coat,” not to exceed one inch in length at the withers. A soft coat, a wavy coat, a coat in excess of one inch at the withers or a coat that has been trimmed is a major fault. The Shar-Pei is shown in its natural state.
Color—Only solid colors and sable are acceptable and are to be judged on an equal basis. A solid color dog may have shading, primarily darker, down the back and on the ears. The shading must be variations of the same body color and may include darker hairs throughout the coat. The following colors are disqualifications: Albino; Not a solidcolor, i.e., Brindle; Parti-colored; Spotted; Patterned in any combination of colors.
Gait—The movement of the Shar-Pei is to be judged at a trot. The gait is free and balanced with the feet tending to converge on a center line of gravity when the dog moves at a vigorous trot. The gait combines good forward reach and strong drive in the hindquarters. Proper movement is essential.
Temperament—Regal, alert, intelligent, dignified, lordly, scowling, sober and snobbish essentially independent and somewhat standoffish with strangers, but extreme in his devotion to his family. The Shar-Pei stands firmly on the ground with a calm, confident stature.
Deviation from a Scissors Bite.
A soft coat, a wavy coat, a coat in excess of one inch in length at the withers or a coat that has
Solid pink tongue.
Absence of a complete tail.
Albino; not a solid color, i.e., Brindle; Parti-colored; Spotted; Patterned in any combination
Approved January 12, 1998
Effective February 28, 1998
DUE IN GREAT MEASURE TO THE RUTHLESSNESS WITH WHICH CHINESE EMPERORS destroyed the works of art and the literature of their predecessors, it is difficult to secure evidence of the antiquity of that lordly, aloof dog, the Chow Chow. Still, a bas-relief was discovered not so very long ago that dates back to the Han Dynasty, about 150 B.C. This definitely places the Chow as a hunting dog in that period. While this establishes the breed as more than 2,000 years old, it is believed by many authorities that the Chow goes back much farther; that it is, indeed, one of the oldest recognizable types of dog.
The theory has been advanced that the Chow originated through a crossing of the old mastiff of Tibet and the Samoyed, from the northern parts of Siberia. Certainly the Chow evinces some of the characteristics of both breeds. Refutation lies in the fact that the Chow possesses a blue-black tongue. On this score, some maintain that the Chow is one of the basic breeds, and that he may have been one of the ancestors of the Samoyed, the Norwegian Elkhound, the Keeshond, and the Pomeranian, all of which are of somewhat similar type.
In modern times the Chow Chow has become a fashionable pet and guard dog, but there is plenty of evidence available in China to prove that for centuries he was the principal sporting dog. Perhaps the most unusual and lavish kennel in all history was the one maintained by a T’ang emperor in about the seventh century A.D. It was so extensive that the emperor could not have availed himself of a fraction of the facilities for sport it afforded. It housed 2,500 couples of “hounds” of the Chow type, and the emperor had a staff of 10,000 huntsmen.
Apparently the Chow has been an unusually gifted breed of dog, since his uses have run the gamut of work done by nearly all recognized breeds. Credited with great scenting powers, with staunchness on point, and with cleverness in hunting tactics, he has been used frequently on Mongolian pheasant, and on the francolin of Yunnan, and on both has received great praise for his speed and stamina.
Undoubtedly the Chow Chow is of far northern origin, but he has always been found in greatest number in the south of China, particularly in the district centering about Canton. In that region of China where he is considered indigenous, he is usually called the “black-tongue,” or the “black-mouthed” dog. In the north, as in Peking, he is called lang kou (wolf dog), hsiung kou (bear dog), or the more sophisticated hei she-t’ou (black tongued) or Kwantung kou, i.e., the dog of Canton.
The name Chow Chow has little basis for its origin in China; it is believed that expression evolved from the pidgin-English term for articles brought from any part of the Orient during the latter part of the eighteenth century. It meant knickknacks or bric-a-brac, including curios such as porcelain and ivory figurines, and finally what is described today as “mixed pickles,” whether of the edible variety or not. It was far easier for the master of a sailing vessel to write “chow chow” than it was to describe all the various items of his cargo. So, in time, the expression came to include the dog.
The first European description of the Chow Chow was penned by the Reverend Gilbert White, rector of Selborne, England, published in his Natural Historyand Antiquities of Selbourne. The description, which is a most complete one, indicates that the dogs were not very different from specimens of modern times. It was a neighbor of the rector who in 1780 brought a brace of Chows from Canton on a vessel of the East India Company.
The importation of Chows into England did not begin, however, until about 1880, and the breed started toward its present popularity after Queen Victoria took an interest in it. The first specialty club was formed in England in 1895. The dog was exhibited for the first time in the United States in 1890, when a specimen named Takya, and identified as a Chinese Chow Chow owned by Miss A. C. Derby, took a third prize in the Miscellaneous class at the Westminster Kennel Club show in New York.
The AKC officially recognized the breed in 1903. The Chow Chow Club of America was admitted as an AKC member club in 1906. Today, it is one of America’s firmly established breeds.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CHOW CHOW
General Appearance—Characteristics—An ancient breed of northern Chinese origin, this all-purpose dog of China was used for hunting, herding, pulling and protection of the home. While primarily a companion today, his working origin must always be remembered when assessing true Chow type. A powerful, sturdy, squarely built, upstanding dog of Arctic type, medium in size with strong muscular development and heavy bone. The body is compact, short coupled, broad and deep, the tail set high and carried closely to the back, the whole supported by four straight, strong, sound legs. Viewed from the side, the hind legs have little apparent angulation and the hock joint and metatarsals are directly beneath the hip joint. It is this structure which produces the characteristic shorter, stilted gait unique to the breed. The large head with broad, flat skull and short, broad and deep muzzle is proudly carried and accentuated by a ruff. Elegance and substance must be combined into a well balanced whole, never so massive as to outweigh his ability to be active, alert and agile. Clothed in a smooth or an offstanding rough double coat, the Chow is a masterpiece of beauty, dignity and naturalness. Essential to true Chow type are his unique blue-black tongue, scowling expression and stilted gait.
Size, Proportions, Substance—Size—The average height of adult specimens is 17 to 20 inches at the withers but in every case consideration of overall proportions and type should take precedence over size. Proportions—Square in profile and close coupled. Distance from forechest to point of buttocks equals height at the highest points of the withers. Serious Fault—Profile other than square. Distance from tip of elbow to ground is half the height at the withers. Floor of chest level with tips of elbows. Width viewed from the front and rear is the same and must be broad. It is these proportions that are essential to true Chow type. In judging puppies, no allowance should be made for their failure to conform to these proportions.
Substance—Medium in size with strong muscular development and heavy bone. Equally objectionable are snipy, fine boned specimens and overdone, ponderous, cloddy specimens. In comparing specimens of different sex, due allowance must be made in favor of the bitches who may not have as much head or substance as do the males. There is an impression of femininity in bitches as compared to an impression of masculinity in dogs.
Head—Proudly carried, large in proportion to the size of the dog but never so exaggerated as to make the dog seem top-heavy or to result in a low carriage. Expression essentially scowling, dignified, lordly, discerning, sober and snobbish, one of independence. The scowl is achieved by a marked brow with a padded button of skin just above the inner, upper corner of each eye; by sufficient play of skin to form frowning brows and a distinct furrow between the eyes beginning at the base of the muzzle and extending up the forehead; by the correct eye shape and placement and by the correct ear shape, carriage and placement. Excessive loose skin is not desirable. Wrinkles on the muzzle do not contribute to expression and are not required.
Eyes dark brown, deep set and placed wide apart and obliquely, of moderate size, almond in shape. The correct placement and shape should create an Oriental appearance. The eye rims black with lids which neither turn in nor droop and the pupils of the eyes clearly visible. Serious Faults—Entropion or ectropion, or pupils wholly or partially obscured by loose skin.
Ears small, moderately thick, triangular in shape with a slight rounding at the tip, carried stiffly erect but with a slight forward tilt. Placed wide apart with the inner corner on top of the skull. An ear which flops as the dog moves is very undesirable. Disqualifying Fault—Drop ear or ears. A drop ear is one which breaks at any point from its base to its tip or which is not carried stiffly erect but lies parallel to the top of the skull.
Skull—The top skull is broad and flat from side to side and front to back. Coat and loose skin cannot substitute for the correct bone structure. Viewed in profile, the toplines of the muzzle and skull are approximately parallel, joined by a moderate stop. The padding of the brows may make the stop appear steeper than it is. The muzzle is short in comparison to the length of the top skull but never less than one-third of the head length. The muzzle is broad and well filled out under the eyes, its width and depth are equal and both dimensions should appear to be the same from its base to its tip. This square appearance is achieved by correct bone structure plus padding of the muzzle and full cushioned lips. The muzzle should never be so padded or cushioned as to make it appear other than square in shape. The upper lips completely cover the lower lips when the mouth is closed but should not be pendulous.
Nose large, broad and black in color with well opened nostrils. Disqualifying Fault— Nose spotted or distinctly other color than black, except in blue Chows which may have solid blue or slate noses.
Mouth and Tongue—Edges of the lips black, tissues of the mouth mostly black, gums preferably black. A solid black mouth is ideal. The top surface and edges of the tongue a solid blue-black, the darker the better. Disqualifying Fault—The top surface or edges of the tongue red or pink or with one or more spots of red or pink. Teeth strong and even with a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck strong, full, well muscled, nicely arched and of sufficient length to carry the head proudly above the topline when standing at attention. Topline straight, strong and level from the withers to the root of the tail.
Body short, compact, close coupled, strongly muscled, broad, deep and well let down in the flank. The body, back, coupling and croup must all be short to give the required square build. Chest broad, deep and muscular, never narrow or slab-sided. The ribs close together and well sprung, not barrel. The spring of the front ribs is somewhat narrowed at their lower ends to permit the shoulder and upper arm to fit smoothly against the chest wall. The floor of the chest is broad and deep extending down to the tips of the elbows. The point of sternum slightly in front of the shoulder points. SeriousFaults—Labored or abdominal breathing (not to include normal panting), narrow or slab-sided chest. Loin well muscled, strong, short, broad and deep. Croup short and broad with powerful rump and thigh muscles giving a level croup. Tail set high and carried closely to the back at all times, following the line of the spine at the start.
Forequarters—Shoulders strong, well muscled, the tips of the shoulder blades moderately close together; the spine of the shoulder forms an angle approximately 55 degrees with the horizontal and forms an angle with the upper arm approximately 110 degrees. Length of upper arm never less than length of shoulder blade. Elbow joints set well back alongside the chest wall, elbows turning neither in nor out. Forelegs perfectly straight from elbow to foot with heavy bone which must be in proportion to the rest of the dog. Viewed from the front, the forelegs are parallel and widely spaced commensurate with the broad chest. Pasterns short and upright. Wrists shall not knuckle over. The dewclaws may be removed. Feet round, compact, catlike, standing well upon the thick toe pads.
Hindquarters—The rear assembly broad, powerful, and well muscled in the hips and thighs, heavy in bone with rear and front bone approximately equal. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel and widely spaced commensurate with the broad pelvis. Stifle Joint shows little angulation, is well knit and stable, points straight forward and the bones of the joint should be clean and sharp. Hock Joint well let down and appears almost straight. The hock joint must be strong, well knit and firm, never bowing or breaking forward or to either side. The hock joint and metatarsals lie in a straight line below the hip joint. Serious Faults —Unsound stifle or hock joints. Metatarsals short and perpendicular to the ground. The dewclaws may be removed. Feet same as front.
Coat—There are two types of coat; rough and smooth. Both are double coated. Rough—In the rough coat, the outer coat is abundant, dense, straight and offstanding, rather coarse in texture; the undercoat soft, thick and wooly. Puppy coat soft, thick and wooly overall. The coat forms a profuse ruff around the head and neck, framing the head. The coat and ruff generally longer in dogs than in bitches. Tail well feathered. The coat length varies markedly on different Chows and thickness, texture and condition should be given greater emphasis than length. Obvious trimming or shaping is undesirable. Trimming of the whiskers, feet and metatarsals optional. Smooth—The smooth coated Chow is judged by the same standard as the rough coated Chow except that references to the quantity and distribution of the outer coat are not applicable to the smooth coated Chow, which has a hard, dense, smooth outer coat with a definite undercoat. There should be no obvious ruff or feathering on the legs or tail.
Color—Clear colored, solid or solid with lighter shadings in the ruff, tail and featherings. There are five colors in the Chow: red (light golden to deep mahogany), black, blue, cinnamon (light fawn to deep cinnamon) and cream. Acceptable colors to be judged on an equal basis.
Gait—Proper movement is the crucial test of proper conformation and soundness. It must be sound, straight moving, agile, brief, quick, and powerful, never lumbering. The rear gait shorter and stilted because of the straighter rear assembly. It is from the side that the unique stilted action is most easily assessed. The rear leg moves up and forward from the hip in a straight, stilted pendulum-like line with a slight bounce in the rump, the legs extend neither far forward nor far backward. The hind foot has a strong thrust which transfers power to the body in an almost straight line due to the minimal rear leg angulation. To transmit this power efficiently to the front assembly, the coupling must be short and there should be no roll through the midsection. Viewed from the rear, the line of bone from hip joint to pad remains straight as the dog moves. As the speed increases the hind legs incline slightly inward. The stifle joints must point in the line of travel, not outward resulting in a bowlegged appearance nor hitching in under the dog. Viewed from the front, the line of bone from shoulder joint to pad remains straight as the dog moves. As the speed increases, the forelegs do not move in exact parallel planes, rather, incline slightly inward. The front legs must not swing out in semicircles nor mince or show any evidence of hackney action. The front and rear assemblies must be in dynamic equilibrium. Somewhat lacking in speed, the Chow has excellent endurance because the sound, straight rear leg provides direct, usable power efficiently.
Temperament—Keen intelligence, an independent spirit and innate dignity give the Chow an aura of aloofness. It is a Chow’s nature to be reserved and discerning with strangers. Displays of aggression or timidity are unacceptable. Because of its deep set eyes the Chow has limited peripheral vision and is best approached from the front.
Summary—Faults shall be penalized in proportion to their deviation from the standard. In judging the Chow, the overall picture is of primary consideration. Exaggeration of any characteristic at the expense of balance or soundness shall be severely penalized. Type should include general appearance, temperament, the harmony of all parts, and soundness especially as seen when the dog is in motion. There should be proper emphasis on movement, which is the final test of the Chow’s conformation, balance and soundness.
Drop ear or ears. A drop ear is one which breaks at any point from its base to its tip orwhich is not carried stiffly erect but lies parallel to the top of the skull.
Nose spotted or distinctly other color than black, except in blue Chows which may havesolid blue or slate noses.
The top surface or edges of the tongue red or pink or with one or more spots of red or pink.
Approved July 12, 2005
Effective January 1, 2006
NO BREED HAS A MORE INTERESTING BACKGROUND OR A MORE DISPUTED heritage than the Dalmatian. Its beginning is buried so deeply in the past that researchers cannot agree as to the true origin. Investigators are in complete agreement, however, regarding the great age of the breed and that it has come through many centuries unchanged.
Models, engravings, paintings, and writings of antiquity have been used to support the claim that the Dalmatian first appeared in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Lack of certainty as to the original home of the Dalmatian can be accounted for by the fact that the breed was frequently found in bands of nomadic gypsies. Therefore, the Dalmatian has been well known but not located definitely in any single place.
Authoritative writers place him first as a positive entry in Dalmatia, a region in the west of the former Yugoslavia, along the Adriatic Sea, which had from 1815 to 1919 been a province of Austria. Some Dalmatian authorities state that the breed originated in England and went from there to Dalmatia. While the breed has been credited with a dozen nationalities and has as many native names, in England it has had several nicknames. These include the English Coach Dog, the Carriage Dog, the Plum Pudding Dog, the Firehouse Dog, and the Spotted Dick.
The breed takes its correct name, Dalmatian, from its first proved and accepted home of the provincial area of Dalmatia. There are references to the breed as a Dalmatian in the mid-eighteenth century. There is no question whatsoever that from then to the present the breed’s lineage is a straight and correct record.
The Dalmatian’s activities have been extremely varied. It has been a dog of war and a sentinel on the borders of Dalmatia and Croatia. It has been employed as a draft dog and as a shepherd. It is also excellent on rats and vermin. The Dalmatian is well known for its heroic performances as a fire-apparatus follower and as a firehouse mascot. As a sporting dog it has been used on birds, as a trail hound and a retriever, and in packs for boar and stag hunting. The Dalmatian’s retentive memory has made it one of the most dependable performers in circuses and on the stage. Through the years, its intelligence and willingness have qualified it for virtually every role that useful dogs are called upon to perform.
Most important among its talents has been its status as the original one and only coaching dog. There is abundant evidence, some of it centuries old, of the Dalmatian with ears entirely cropped away and wearing a padlocked brass collar, using its innate coaching sense as a follower and guardian of the horse-drawn vehicle. (The imaginative might say that the Dalmatian’s coaching instincts are depicted in an engraving of a spotted dog following an Egyptian chariot.)
The Dalmatian is physically suited for roadwork associated with the coach. In its correct conformation, appropriate road gait and endurance are essential. Its gait has a beautiful fluidity of motion, and it has the strength, vitality, and fortitude to maintain an effortless stride for extended periods.
The instinct for coaching is bred into the Dalmatian, born into him, and trained into him through years of selective breeding. The Dalmatian takes to a horse as the horse takes to him. It may work in the older way, clearing the path before the Tally-ho coach with dignity and determination, or by following the coach, with his unique markings in full view to add distinction to any rig. The Dalmatian may also coach under the rear axle, the front axle or, most difficult of all, under the pole between the leading and wheeling team of horses.
The Dalmatian’s penchant for working is his most renowned characteristic, but it in no way approaches his capacity for friendship. The Dalmatian represents all aspects of loyalty and faithfulness sought for in the companion dog. The breed is exhibited in modern times in conformation and standard performance and companion events. Unique to the breed is the road trial, in which the dog is evaluated upon its ability to perform specific skills and endurance suitable to working with the coach.
The Dalmatian is strong bodied, clean-cut, colorful, and distinctive. There is no dog breed more picturesque than the Dalmatian, with its short white coat highly decorated by clearly defined round spots of jet-black or deep liver brown. The Dalmatian does not look like any other breed, for its markings are uniquely its own. Its flashy appearance is the culmination of centuries of careful breeding.
The Dalmatian’s aristocratic bearing does not give a false impression, for the Dalmatian is, first of all, reserved and dignified. It is a quiet, somewhat aloof breed and an ideal sentinel, able to distinguish between barking for fun or for the purpose of indicating intruders. Its courtesy never fails with approved visitors, but its protective instinct is highly developed, making it a sensible and dependable watchdog. A casual admirer will not break its polite reserve, for it has a fine sense of distinction as to whom it belongs.
Modern breeders have developed the Dalmatian to serve more as a family dog than a guard dog. Having outlived the purpose for which it was bred, except for exhibition, the Dalmatian has little opportunity to coach. Therefore, its function as a perfect house companion has been fine-tuned by responsible breeders, and a friendly, confident dog has been the result.
Fashion has not distorted the Dalmatian. It is born pure white, develops quickly, and requires no cropping, docking, stripping, or artifices of any sort. It is ready for sport or the show ring just as nature made it. The Dalmatian is extremely hardy, an easy keeper, and suited for most climates. It requires the minimum of care, for it is both neat and clean.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE DALMATIAN
General Appearance—The Dalmatian is a distinctively spotted dog; poised and alert; strong, muscular and active; free of shyness; intelligent in expression; symmetrical in outline; and without exaggeration or coarseness. The Dalmatian is capable of great endurance, combined with fair amount of speed.
Deviations from the described ideal should be penalized in direct proportion to the degree of the deviation.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Desirable height at the withers is between 19 and 23 inches. Undersize or oversize is a fault. Any dog or bitch over 24 inches at the withers is disqualified.
The overall length of the body from the forechest to the buttocks is approximately equal to the height at the withers.
The Dalmatian has good substance and is strong and sturdy in bone, but never coarse.
Head—The head is in balance with the overall dog. It is of fair length and is free of loose skin. The Dalmatian’s expression is alert and intelligent, indicating a stable and outgoing temperament.
The eyesare set moderately well apart, are medium sized and somewhat rounded in appearance, and are set well into the skull. Eye color is brown or blue, or any combination thereof; the darker the better and usually darker in black-spotted than in liver-spotted dogs.
Abnormal position of the eyelids or eyelashes (ectropion, entropion, trichiasis) is a major fault.
Incomplete pigmentation of the eye rims is a major fault.
The earsare of moderate size, proportionately wide at the base and gradually tapering to a rounded tip. They are set rather high, and are carried close to the head, and are thin and fine in texture. When the Dalmatian is alert, the top of the ear is level with the top of the skull and the tip of the ear reaches to the bottom line of the cheek.
The top of the skull is flat with a slight vertical furrow and is approximately as wide as it is long. The stopis moderately well defined. The cheeks blend smoothly into a powerful muzzle,the top of which is level and parallel to the top of the skull. The muzzle and the top of the skull are about equal in length.
The noseis completely pigmented on the leather, black in black-spotted dogs and brown in liver-spotted dogs. Incomplete nose pigmentation is a major fault.
The lipsare clean and close fitting. The teeth meet in a scissors bite.Overshot or undershot bites are disqualifications.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis nicely arched, fairly long, free from throatiness, and blends smoothly into the shoulders.
The toplineis smooth.
The chestis deep, capacious and of moderate width, having good spring of rib without being barrel shaped. The brisket reaches to the elbow. The underline of the rib cage curves gradually into a moderate tuck-up.
The backis level and strong. The loinis short, muscular and slightly arched. The flanks narrow through the loin. The croupis nearly level with the back.
The tailis a natural extension of the topline. It is not inserted too low down. It is strong at the insertion and tapers to the tip, which reaches to the hock. It is never docked. The tail is carried with a slight upward curve but should never curl over the back. Ring tails and low-set tails are faults.
Forequarters—The shouldersare smoothly muscled and well laid back. The upperarmis approximately equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an angle sufficient to insure that the foot falls under the shoulder. The elbowsare close to the body. The legsare straight, strong and sturdy in bone. There is a slight angle at the pasterndenoting flexibility.
Hindquarters—The hindquartersare powerful, having smooth, yet well defined muscles. The stifleis well bent. The hocksare well let down. When the Dalmatian is standing, the hind legs, viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other from the point of the hock to the heel of the pad. Cowhocks are a major fault.
Feet—Feet are very important. Both front and rear feet are round and compact with thick, elastic pads and well arched toes. Flat feet are a major fault. Toenails are black and/or white in black-spotted dogs and brown and/or white in liver-spotted dogs. Dewclaws may be removed.
Coat—The coat is short, dense, fine and close fitting. It is neither woolly nor silky. It is sleek, glossy and healthy in appearance.
Color and Markings—Colorandmarkingsand their overall appearance are very important points to be evaluated.
The ground color is pure white. In black-spotted dogs the spots are dense black. In liver-spotted dogs the spots are liver brown. Any color markings other than black or liver are disqualified.
Spots are round and well defined, the more distinct the better. They vary from the size of a dime to the size of a half-dollar. They are pleasingly and evenly distributed. The less the spots intermingle the better. Spots are usually smaller on the head, legs and tail than on the body. Ears are preferably spotted.
Tri-color (which occurs rarely in this breed) is a disqualification. It consists of tan markings found on the head, neck, chest, leg or tail of a black- or liver-spotted dog. Bronzing of black spots, and fading and/or darkening of liver spots due to environmental conditions or normal processes of coat change are not tri-coloration.
Patches are a disqualification. A patch is a solid mass of black or liver hair containing no white hair. It is appreciably larger than a normal sized spot. Patches are a dense, brilliant color with sharply defined, smooth edges. Patches are present at birth. Large color masses formed by intermingled or overlapping spots are not patches. Such masses should indicate individual spots by uneven edges and/or white hairs scattered throughout the mass.
Gait—In keeping with the Dalmatian’s historical use as a coach dog, gait and endurance are of great importance. Movement is steady and effortless. Balanced angulation fore and aft combined with powerful muscles and good condition produce smooth, efficient action. There is a powerful drive from the rear coordinated with extended reach in the front. The topline remains level. Elbows, hocks and feet turn neither in nor out. As the speed of the trot increases, there is a tendency to single track.
Temperament—Temperament is stable and outgoing, yet dignified. Shyness is a major fault.
SCALE OF POINTS
Any dog or bitch over 24 inches at the withers.
Overshot or undershot bite.
Any color markings other than black or liver.
Approved July 11, 1989
Effective September 6, 1989
SUOMENPYSTYKORVA, THE FINNISH COCK-EARED DOG, WAS KNOWN IN earlier times as the Finnish Barking Bird Dog. Now called the Finnish Spitz, it is the national dog of Finland.
The history of spitz-type dogs can be traced back several thousand years, to an era when the Finno-Ugrian peoples inhabited central Russia. As various tribes migrated to different areas, they bred their dogs according to need, thus developing separate strains. One clan made its way to the far northern regions where, isolated among 60,000 lakes, the Finnish Spitz emerged as a pure breed and an invaluable asset to the hunter.
As centuries passed and advanced methods of transportation brought diverse populations and their dogs together, the original Finnish Spitz were mated with other breeds, until by 1880 they were nearly extinct. About that time two sportsmen from Helsinki, hunting in the northern forests, observed the pure native dogs, realized their many virtues, and returned home with superior specimens in an effort to salvage the breed.
One of the pioneers, Hugo Roos, became directly involved with the dogs and bred them for over 30 years; later he retired to devote his talents to judging. Another pioneer, Hugo Sandberg, launched an impressive rescue campaign in 1890, though he never actually bred Finnish Spitz himself. At the first Helsinki dog show, held in 1891, five Finnish Spitz were awarded ribbons.
With the advent of dog shows, it became necessary to draw up a standard. Due to the success of Mr. Sandberg’s promotion, the Finnish Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1892, with a standard based on his observations. In 1897, when the standard was revised in detail, Finnish Spitz became the official breed name.
In 1927 the first Finnish Spitz arrived in England, a pair brought back by Sir Edward Chichester following a hunting trip to Scandinavia. Among the early British devotees was Lady Kitty Ritson, who was instrumental in forming the breed club. It was she who coined the nickname “Finkie” by which the dogs are affectionately known in several countries. By 1935, the breed had sufficient adherents to warrant registration with The Kennel Club (England). Perhaps the most recognizable name among English supporters is that of Mrs. Griselda Price, whose Cullabine prefix is behind many top-winning dogs worldwide.
A native Finn, Ray Rinta, is credited with piloting the breed to Canadian Kennel Club recognition—the CKC admitted the Finnish Spitz to its studbook in 1974. Mrs. Joan Grant’s dogs (Jayenn prefix) have been a major force in the breed’s popularity “north of the border.”
The first known Finnish Spitz imported to the United States was Cullabine Rudolph, from Mrs. Price’s kennel in England, in 1959. It is believed, however, that breeding of the Finnish Spitz in the United States commenced in the mid-1960s from Finnish imports belonging to Henry Davidson, of Minnesota, and Alex Hassel, of Connecticut.
The Finnish Spitz Club of America was founded in 1975 by Richard and Bette Isacoff, with Margaret Koehler. The American standard for the breed was formulated by Mrs. Koehler and Mrs. Isacoff in 1976, based on the standard of the country of origin.
In November 1983, the breed was accepted into the Miscellaneous class. The AKC Board of Directors opened the Stud Book for registration of the Finnish Spitz on August 1, 1987. Assigned to the Non-Sporting Group, the breed became eligible to compete at AKC-licensed shows January 1, 1988.
Except in his native land, the Finnish Spitz is primarily a house dog, a faithful companion with particular fondness for children. In Finland, however, he is still a worker. He has functioned since earliest times as a natural bark pointer, who directs a hunter to the location of tree’d game by a distinctive ringing bark or yodel, and points at the prey with his head and muzzle when the hunter approaches. Ranging far into the forest, he seeks out the capercaillie (akin to our wild turkey) using sight, scent, and sound, all the while keeping audio contact with the hunter. Flushing it from the bush, he follows it until it settles into a tree. Soft at first, then building to a crescendo, the dog’s vocalizing alerts the hunter and draws him to the site. As he approaches, the dog gently sways his tail to and fro—this has a mesmerizing effect on the bird, which has already been distracted by the barking. In Finland the hunting ability of the breed is so prized that no Finnish Spitz can earn a conformation championship without first proving his worth in the field. Of particular importance is the quality of his bark, and contests are held annually to select a King Barker.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE FINNISH SPITZ
General Appearance—The Finnish Spitz presents a fox-like picture. The breed has long been used to hunt small game and birds. The pointed muzzle, erect ears, dense coat and curled tail denote his northern heritage. The Finnish Spitz’s whole being shows liveliness, which is especially evident in the eyes, ears and tail. Males are decidedly masculine without coarseness. Bitches are decidedly feminine without over-refinement.
The Finnish Spitz’s most important characteristics are its square, well-balanced body that is symmetrical with no exaggerated features, a glorious red-gold coat, his bold carriage and brisk movement.
Any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Finnish Spitz as in any other breed, even though such faults may not be mentioned in the standard.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height at the withers in dogs: 171⁄2 to 20 inches; in bitches, 151⁄2 to 18 inches.
Proportion—Square: length from forechest to buttocks equal to height from withers to ground. The coat may distort the square appearance.
Substance—Substance and bone in proportion to overall dog.
Head—Clean cut and fox-like. Longer from occiput to tip of nose than broad at widest part of skull in a ratio of 7:4. More refined with less coat or ruff in females than in males, but still in the same ratio. A muscular or coarse head, or a long or narrow head with snipy muzzle, is to be penalized.
Expression—Fox-like and lively.
Eyes—Almond-shaped with black rims. Obliquely set with moderate spacing between, neither too far apart nor too close. Outer corners tilted upward. Dark in color with a keen and alert expression. Any deviation, runny, weepy, round or light eyes should be faulted.
Ears—Set on high. When alert, upward standing, open to the front with tips directly above the outer corner of the eyes. Small, erect, sharply pointed and very mobile. Ears set too high, too low, or too close together, long or excessive hair inside the ears are faults.
Skull—Flat between ears with some minimal rounding ahead of earset. Forehead a little arched. Skull to muzzle ratio is 4:3.
Muzzle—Narrow as seen from the front, above and from the side; of equal width and depth where it insets to the skull, tapering somewhat, equally from all angles.
Nose—Black. Any deviation is to be penalized. Circumference of the nose to be 80% of the circumference of the muzzle at its origin.
Lips—Black; thin and tight.
Bite—Scissors bite. Wry mouth is to be severely faulted.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Well set; muscular. Clean, with no excess skin below muzzle. Appearing shorter in males due to their heavier ruff.
Topline—Level and strong from withers to croup.
Chest—Deep. Brisket reaches the elbow. Ratio of chest depth to distance from withers to ground is 4:9.
Tuck–up—Slightly drawn up.
Tail—Set on just below level of topline, forming a single curl falling over the loin with tip pointing towards the thigh. Plumed, curving vigorously from its base in an arch forward, downward, and backward, pressing flat against either thigh with tip extending to middle part of thigh. When straightened, the tip of the tail bone reaches the hock joint. Low or high tail-set, too curly a tail, or a short tail is to be faulted.
Forequarters—Shoulders—The layback of the shoulders is thirty degrees to the vertical.
Legs—Viewed from the front, moderately spaced, parallel and straight with elbows close to the body and turned neither out nor in. Bone strong without being heavy, always in proportion to the dog. Fine bone, which limits endurance, or heavy bone, which makes working movement cumbersome, is to be faulted.
Pasterns—Viewed from the side, slope slightly. Weak pasterns are to be penalized.
Dewclaws—May be removed.
Feet—Rounded, compact foot with well-arched toes, tightly bunched or close-cupped, the two center toes being only slightly longer than those on the outside. The toe pads should be deeply cushioned and covered with thick skin. The impression left by such a foot is rounded in contrast to oval.
Hindquarters—Angulation in balance with the forequarters.
Hocks—Moderately let down. Straight and parallel.
Feet—As in front.
Coat—The coat is double with a short, soft, dense undercoat and long, harsh straight guard hairs measuring approximately one to two inches on the body. Hair on the head and legs is short and close; it is longest and most dense on plume of tail and back of thighs. The outer coat is stiffer and longer on the neck and back, and in males considerably more profuse at the shoulder, giving them a more ruffed appearance. Males carry more coat than females. No trimming of the coat except for feet is allowed. Whiskers shall not be trimmed. Any trimming of coat shall be severely faulted. Silky, wavy, long or short coat is to be faulted.
Color—Varying shades of golden-red ranging from pale honey to deep auburn are allowed, with no preference given to shades at either extreme so long as the color is bright and clear. As the undercoat is a paler color, the effect of this shading is a coat which appears to glow. White markings on the tips of the toes and a quarter-sized spot or narrow white strip, ideally no wider than 1⁄2 inch, on the forechest are permitted. Black hairs along lipline and sparse, separate black hairs on tail and back permitted. Puppies may have a good many black hairs which decrease with age, black on tail persisting longer. Muddy or unclear color, any white on the body except as specified, is to be penalized.
Gait—The Finnish Spitz is quick and light on his feet, steps out briskly, trots with lively grace, and tends to single-track as the speed increases. When hunting he moves at a gallop. The angulation called for permits him to break into a working gait quickly. Sound movement is essential for stamina and agility.
Temperament—Active and friendly, lively and eager, faithful; brave, but cautious. Shyness, any tendency toward unprovoked aggression is to be penalized.
Note: Finnish Spitz are to be examined on the ground.
Approved July 12, 1999
Effective August 30, 1999
THERE HAS BEEN A DIFFERENCE OF OPINION AS TO THE ORIGIN OF THE French Bulldog, but it seems pretty well established that one ancestor must have been the English Bulldog—probably one of the toy variety, of which there were a great number in England around 1860. These toy Bulldogs, not finding favor with the English, were sent in large numbers into France. There they were crossed with various other breeds, and finally became popular in fashionable circles, particularly with women. It was then that they were given the name Boule-Dog Français, although later on England scoffed at the idea of applying the word Français to a breed so clearly showing a strong strain of English Bulldog. At that time there was little uniformity of type, and one found dogs with rose ears, while others had bat ears, which have since come to be recognized as an outstanding feature of the French Bulldog.
There are two distinctive features in French Bulldogs: one, the bat ear, as above mentioned; the other, the skull. The correctly formed skull should be level, or flat, between the ears, while directly above the eyes, extending almost across the forehead, it should be slightly curved, giving a domed appearance. Both of these features add much to the unusual appearance of the French Bulldog.
The preservation of the bat ear as a distinct feature has been due to the persistent efforts of American fanciers, since in the early days of breeding these dogs in Europe the tendency was toward the rose ear. Had this movement not been opposed by America, the breed would eventually have lost the feature that so strongly accentuates its individuality, and the result would have been practically a miniature English Bulldog.
This controversy over type was directly responsible for the formation of the French Bulldog Club of America, the first organization in the world devoted to the breed. Fanciers gave a specialty show in the ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria, New York, in 1898, this being the first of its kind to be held in such deluxe quarters. The affair proved a sensation, and it was due, no doubt, to the resulting publicity that the quaint little chaps became the rage in society. Show entries increased until the peak was reached about 1913, when there were exactly 100 French Bulldogs benched at Westminster, while the following specialty shows had even more.
Unquestionably the dog that did the most toward the establishment of the breed in America was Ch. Nellcote Gamin, imported in 1904 by Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Goldenberg. With the addition of Gamin to the splendid stock already in this country, we were made independent of further importation in order to produce the finest Frenchies in the world.
While bred principally as pets and companions, Frenchies are remarkably intelligent and serve as good watchdogs. They are affectionate, sweet-tempered, and dependable. Alert and playful, they are not noisy and, as a rule, bark very little. Their size is another advantage in considering them as indoor pets, and the smooth, short coat is easily kept clean.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE FRENCH BULLDOG
General Appearance—The French Bulldog has the appearance of an active, intelligent, muscular dog of heavy bone, smooth coat, compactly built, and of medium or small structure. Expression alert, curious and interested. Any alteration other than removal of dewclaws is considered mutilation and is a disqualification.
Proportion and Symmetry—All points are well distributed and bear good relation one to the other; no feature being in such prominence from either excess or lack of quality that the animal appears poorly proportioned.
Influence of Sex—In comparing specimens of different sex, due allowance is to be made in favor of bitches, which do not bear the characteristics of the breed to the same marked degree as do the dogs.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Weight not to exceed 28 pounds; over 28 pounds is a disqualification. Proportion—Distance from withers to ground in good relation to distance from withers to onset of tail, so that animal appears compact, well balanced and in good proportion. Substance—Muscular, heavy bone.
Head—Head large and square. Eyesdark in color, wide apart, set low down in the skull, as far from the ears as possible, round in form, of moderate size, neither sunken nor bulging. In lighter colored dogs, lighter colored eyes are acceptable. No haw and no white of the eye showing when looking forward. Ears—Known as the bat ear, broad at the base, elongated, with round top, set high on the head but not too close together, and carried erect with the orifice to the front. The leather of the ear fine and soft. Other than bat ears is a disqualification.
The top of the skullflat between the ears; the forehead is not flat but slightly rounded. The muzzlebroad, deep and well laid back; the muscles of the cheeks well developed. The stop well defined, causing a hollow groove between the eyes with heavy wrinkles forming a soft roll over the extremely short nose; nostrils broad with a well defined line between them. Nose black. Nose other than black is a disqualification, except in the case of the lighter colored dogs, where a lighter colored nose is acceptable but not desirable. Flews black, thick and broad, hanging over the lower jaw at the sides, meeting the under lip in front and covering the teeth, which are not seen when the mouth is closed. The under jaw is deep, square, broad, undershot and well turned up.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is thick and well arched with loose skin at the throat. The backis a roach back with a slight fall close behind the shoulders; strong and short, broad at the shoulders and narrowing at the loins. The bodyis short and well rounded. The chest is broad, deep, and full; well ribbed with the belly tucked up. The tailis either straight or screwed (but not curly), short, hung low, thick root and fine tip; carried low in repose.
Forequarters—Forelegs are short, stout, straight, muscular and set wide apart. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet are moderate in size, compact and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, with high knuckles and short stubby nails.
Hindquarters—Hind legs are strong and muscular, longer than the forelegs, so as to elevate the loins above the shoulders. Hocks well let down. Feet are moderate in size, compact and firmly set. Toes compact, well split up, with high knuckles and short stubby nails; hind feet slightly longer than forefeet.
Coat—Coat is moderately fine, brilliant, short and smooth. Skin is soft and loose, especially at the head and shoulders, forming wrinkles.
Color—Acceptable colors—All brindle, fawn, white, brindle and white, and any color except those which constitute disqualification. All colors are acceptable with the exception of solid black, mouse, liver, black and tan, black and white, and white with black, which are disqualifications. Black means black without a trace of brindle.
Gait—Correct gait is double tracking with reach and drive; the action is unrestrained, free and vigorous.
Temperament—Well behaved, adaptable and comfortable companions with an affectionate nature and even disposition; generally active, alert and playful, but not unduly boisterous.
Any alteration other than removal of dewclaws.
Over 28 pounds in weight.
Other than bat ears.
Nose other than black, except in the case of lighter colored dogs, where a lighter colored noseis acceptable.
Solid black, mouse, liver, black and tan, black and white, and white with black; blackmeans black without a trace of brindle.
Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991
A NATIONAL POLITICAL TURNOVER IN HOLLAND BROUGHT THE KEESHOND (plural, Keeshonden) to wide attention in the latter part of the eighteenth century, but the breed had already been a favorite of the Dutch people for several hundred years. Never used as a hunter, or for any of the specialized work that has characterized so many other breeds, the very force of the Keeshond personality won the breed a high place in the affections of a nation.
Events leading to the Keeshond’s recognition as the national dog of Holland were part of the social unrest that seemed to spread like a prairie fire throughout the world in the years immediately preceding the French Revolution. Holland was divided into two great camps, the Prinsgezinden, or partisans of the Prince of Orange, and the Patriotten, or Patriots.
The Patriots, consisting mainly of the lower and upper-middle class, were led by Kees de Gyselaer, of Dordrecht. Like most of his countrymen, de Gyselaer was a dog lover. At that time he owned a little dog called Kees. This dog gave the breed its name and became the symbol of the Patriots. It appeared in countless pictures and cartoons made during those days of civil strife. Those who belonged to the Patriot party were firmly of the opinion that their own spirit was typified by the dog. Kees was a dog of the people.
History is rather vague as to what name the Keeshond bore before adoption as a symbol of the Patriots, but the breed was mainly known as the “barge dog.” The breed had served for countless years on the rijnaken, vessels that were found in great numbers on the Rhine. When the Keeshond enjoyed its greatest popularity in Holland, these vessels were relatively small and, consequently, could not accommodate a very large dog. There probably were more Keeshonden kept as pets and watchdogs than as barge dogs throughout the Netherlands. But it was only natural that the barge dogs became better known, for they were continually traveling up and down the river, coming into contact with more people than did the pets.
The origin of the Keeshond type of dog is arctic, or possibly subarctic, and of the same strains that produced the Samoyed, Chow Chow, Norwegian Elkhound, Finnish Spitz, and Pomeranian. It seems most closely related to the Pomeranian, and some authorities believe that the Pomeranian was produced by selective breeding of the Keeshond.
The Keeshond has changed little in the past two centuries, and the earliest descriptions represent it as nearly identical with the dog of today. There also numbers of old paintings and drawings that prove how well the Keeshond type has been preserved. A 1794 drawing shows the children and dog of a burgomaster mourning beside his tomb. The dog clearly resembles today’s Keeshonden. Other evidence is found in paintings by the famous Dutch artist Jan Steen.
The close link between the Keeshond and the Patriots was almost the breed’s undoing. When the Prince of Orange’s party established its dominance, few people wanted the dog that symbolized the opposition of the Patriots. Many who owned Keeshonden disposed of them quietly, and only those most loyal to the breed maintained it. At this point, the vessels used on the rivers began to gradually change. Each year they seemed to get larger, until they were eventually quite spacious, with plenty of room for large dogs. This had a considerable negative effect on Keeshond popularity.
The breed languished at very low ebb until 1920, when the Baroness van Hardenbroek became interested in it and undertook an investigation to determine how much of the old stock remained. The results of this search were surprising. Although the breed was gone from public attention, it was still kept in its original form by certain riverboat captains, farmers, and truck men. There were many excellent specimens. Some owners even maintained their own crude studbooks.
The baroness began breeding Keeshonden and spread their story throughout Europe. Within ten years, she brought the breed to such a solid position that the Dutch Keeshond Club was established. In 1933, De Raad van Beheer op Kynologisch Gebeid in Nederland accepted the standard for judging the breed.
As early as 1905, Keeshonden were making a very good impression in England. In 1930, the American Kennel Club accepted the breed for registration. With few exceptions, early development in this country was based on English imports. These, in turn, were the products of British imports from Holland and Germany.
A well-balanced, handsome dog of medium size, with alert carriage and intelligent expression, the Keeshond is a hardy breed, with a coat easily cared for by brushing. One of the most affectionate and lovable of all dogs, for centuries they have been bred as ideal family companions and sensible watchdogs.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE KEESHOND
General Appearance—The Keeshond (pronounced kayz-hawnd) is a natural, handsome dog of well-balanced, short-coupled body, attracting attention not only by his coloration, alert carriage, and intelligent expression, but also by his stand-off coat, his richly plumed tail well curled over his back, his foxlike expression, and his small pointed ears. His coat is very thick around the neck, fore part of the shoulders and chest, forming a lion-like ruff—more profuse in the male. His rump and hind legs, down to the hocks, are also thickly coated, forming the characteristic “trousers.” His head, ears, and lower legs are covered with thick, short hair.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Keeshond is a medium-sized, square-appearing, sturdy dog, neither coarse nor lightly made. The ideal height of fully matured dogs when measured from top of withers to the ground is 18 inches for males and 17 inches for bitches—a one-inch variance either way is acceptable. While correct size is very important, it should not outweigh that of type.
Head—Expression—Expression is largely dependent on the distinctive characteristic called “spectacles”—a combination of markings and shadings in the orbital area which must include a delicate, dark line slanting from the outer corner of each eye toward the lower corner of each ear coupled with expressive eyebrows. Markings (or shadings) on face and head must present a pleasing appearance, imparting to the dog an alert and intelligent expression. Very Serious Fault:Absence of dark lines which form the “spectacles.”
Eyes—Eyes should be dark brown in color, of medium size, almond shaped, set obliquely and neither too wide apart nor too close together. Eye rims are black. Faults: Round and/or protruding eyes or eyes light of color.
Ears—Ears should be small, triangular in shape, mounted high on head and carried erect. Size should be proportionate to the head—length approximating the distance from the outer corner of the eye to the nearest edge of the ear. Fault: Ears not carried erect when at attention.
Skull—The head should be well-proportioned to the body and wedge-shaped when viewed from above—not only the muzzle, but the whole head should give this impression when the ears are drawn back by covering the nape of the neck and the ears with one hand. Head in profile should exhibit a definite stop. Faults: Apple head or absence of stop.
Muzzle—Of medium length, neither coarse nor snipey, and well proportioned to the skull.
Mouth—The mouth should be neither overshot nor undershot. Lips should be black and closely meeting—not thick, coarse or sagging—and with no wrinkle at the corner of the mouth. Faults: Overshot, undershot or wry mouth.
Teeth—The teeth should be white, sound and strong meeting in a scissors bite. Fault: Misaligned teeth.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckshould be moderately long, well-shaped and well set on shoulders. The body should be compact with a short, straight back sloping slightly downward toward the hindquarters—well ribbed, barrel well rounded, short in loin, belly moderately tucked up, deep and strong of chest.
Tail—The tail should be moderately long and well feathered, set on high and tightly curled over the back. It should lie flat and close to the body. The tail must form a part of the “silhouette” of the dog’s body, rather than give the appearance of an appendage. Fault: Tail not lying close to the back.
Forequarters—Forelegs should be straight seen from any angle. Pasterns are strong with a slight slope. Legs must be of good bone in proportion to the overall dog. Shoulder to upper arm angulation is between slight to moderate.
Hindquarters—Angulation in rear should be between slight to moderate to complement the forequarters, creating balance and typical gait. Hindquarters are well muscled with hocks perpendicular to the ground.
Feet—The feet should be compact, well rounded, cat-like. Toes are nicely arched, with black nails.
Coat—The body should be abundantly covered with long, straight, harsh hair standing well out from a thick, downy undercoat. Head, including muzzle, skull and ears, should be covered with smooth, soft, short hair—velvety in texture on the ears. The neck is covered with a mane—more profuse in the male—sweeping from under the jaw and covering the whole of the front part of the shoulders and chest, as well as the top part of the shoulders. The hair on the legs should be smooth and short, except for feathering on the front legs and “trousers” on the hind legs. Hind legs should be profusely feathered down to the hocks—not below. The hair on the tail should form a rich plume. Coat must not part down the back. The Keeshond is to be shown in a natural state with trimming permissible only on feet, pasterns, hocks and—if desired—whiskers. TRIMMING OTHER THAN AS DESCRIBED TO BE SEVERELY PENALIZED. Faults: Silky, wavy, or curly coats. Part in coat down the back.
Color and Markings—A dramatically marked dog, the Keeshond is a mixture of gray, black and cream. This coloration may vary from light to dark. The hair of the outer coat is black tipped, the length of the black tips producing the characteristic shading of color. Puppies are often less intensely marked. The undercoat is very pale gray or cream, never tawny.
Head—The muzzle should be dark in color. “Spectacles” and shadings, as previously described, are characteristic of the breed and must be present to some degree. Ears should be very dark—almost black.
Ruff, Shoulders and “Trousers ”—The color of the ruff and “trousers” is lighter than that of the body. The shoulder line markings of light gray must be well defined.
Tail—The plume of the tail is very light in color when curled on the back, and the tip of the tail should be black.
Legs and Feet—Legs and feet are cream.
Faults: Pronounced white markings. Black markings more than halfway down the foreleg, penciling excepted. White foot or feet.
Very Serious Faults—Entirely black or white or any solid color; any pronounced deviation from the color as described.
Gait—The distinctive gait of the Keeshond is unique to the breed. Dogs should move boldly and keep tails curled over the back. They should move cleanly and briskly; the movement should be straight and sharp with reach and drive between slight to moderate.
Temperament—Temperament is of primary importance. The Keeshond is neither timid nor aggressive but, instead, is outgoing and friendly with both people and other dogs. The Keeshond is a lively, intelligent, alert and affectionate companion.
Approved November 14, 1989
Effective January 1, 1990
ORIGINATING IN THE LONELY, ISOLATED REACHES OF THE HIMALAYAN MOUN-TAINS, Lhasa Apsos reflect their Tibetan heritage in many characteristic ways. Fastidious by nature, these sturdy little mountain dogs have remained relatively unchanged for hundreds of years. In Tibet, the breed is referred to as apso seng kyi, best translated as “bearded lion dog.” The Lhasa’s primary function was as a household sentinel, guarding the homes of Tibetan nobility and Buddhist monasteries, particularly in or near the sacred city of Lhasa. Intelligence, acute hearing, and a natural instinct for distinguishing friend from stranger made Lhasas well suited to that role.
Lhasa Apsos were introduced to the United States in 1933 by C. Suydam Cutting, who received them as gifts from the thirteenth Dalai Lama. In 1935, the breed was registered by the AKC and is now one of three Tibetan breeds shown in the Non-Sporting Group.
A dog of moderation, each part of Lhasa Apso structure reflects the breed’s heritage and origin in mountainous Tibet. The medium-length muzzle contributes to efficient respiration, while the long rib cage allows for increased lung capacity. Sturdy legs provide necessary agility and stamina. Thick, heavily coated pads help protect the Lhasa’s feet from frigid temperatures and rugged surfaces. Although height is an important factor in the breed, consideration must also be given to weight, proportion, and body length, all of which contribute to the breed’s overall balance and soundness. Massive bone and body are not desirable characteristics. Slow to mature, Lhasa Apsos do not reach their prime until the third or fourth year. They age gracefully, keeping a youthful attitude and appearance well into their teens.
Distinguishing features of the breed include the coat, tail, and eyes. The Lhasa Apso’s beautiful cloak of hair, a necessity in Tibet’s harsh climate, is parted in the middle and drapes each side of the body from head to tail. Strong, resilient hair with a moderate amount of undercoat is desirable. When a section of mature Lhasa coat is lifted from the body, it should fall back, immediately blending in with the rest of the coat. When rubbed between the fingers, individual hairs should be felt. The tail, carried over the back, should be well feathered with long hair. A kink in the tail is not uncommon and was once considered a sign of luck. The tail may be carried in a screw or over the back in a curl lying to the side.
Lovely dark brown eyes contribute to the softness of Lhasa expression and are truly mirrors to the soul. Somewhat frontally placed, medium in size, and oval in shape, Lhasa Apso eyes should not protrude. A dark iris fills the eye, with minimal white showing. Black pigment surrounds the eyes.
Not a breed given to being yappy or nervous, the Lhasa Apso is extremely intelligent, often exhibiting a regal attitude, which can be quickly dispelled by a clownish sense of humor and a joy for life. An independent nature ensures that Lhasas seldom need to be entertained. To the contrary, they usually provide the entertainment! However, this same independent (some might call it stubborn) nature requires patient understanding. Rather calm and deliberate, the Lhasa resists harsh or strict discipline, responding best to training with positive reinforcement. Often, being suspicious of strangers is a direct reflection of a long heritage of seclusion in Tibet. They are less protective away from the home environment.
From ancient dwellings in the Himalayas, to homes and apartments in the smallest towns or busiest cities across the United States, Lhasa Apsos continue their service to people as companions and watchdogs. Their joy of life and unwavering devotion to those they love serve only to enhance their physical beauty.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE LHASA APSO
Character—Gay and assertive, but chary of strangers.
Size—Variable, but about 10 inches or 11 inches at shoulder for dogs, bitches slightly smaller.
Color—All colors equally acceptable with or without dark tips to ears and beard.
Body Shape—The length from point of shoulders to point of buttocks longer than height at withers, well ribbed up, strong loin, well-developed quarters and thighs.
Coat—Heavy, straight, hard, not woolly nor silky, of good length, and very dense.
Mouth and Muzzle—The preferred bite is either level or slightly undershot. Muzzle of medium length; a square muzzle is objectionable.
Head—Heavy head furnishings with good fall over eyes, good whiskers and beard; skull narrow, falling away behind the eyes in a marked degree, not quite flat, but not domed or apple-shaped; straight foreface of fair length. Nose black, the length from tip of nose to eye to be roughly about one-third of the total length from nose to back of skull.
Eyes—Dark brown, neither very large and full, nor very small and sunk.
Ears—Pendant, heavily feathered.
Legs—Forelegs straight; both forelegs and hind legs heavily furnished with hair.
Feet—Well feathered, should be round and catlike, with good pads.
Tail and Carriage—Well feathered, should be carried well over back in a screw; there may be a kink at the end. A low carriage of stern is a serious fault.
Approved July 11, 1978
LÖWCHEN ARE AN IDEAL FAMILY PET: THEY ARE HYPOALLERGENIC, “NON-SHEDDING,” easily trained, and make good companion dogs. Show them a squirrel and they’ll bark, but then won’t know what to do with it. Show them a stranger, they’ll bark, and then be the person’s friend. Show them a child, not too young, and they will allow themselves to be picked up and carried gently. If they find an adult who will walk and feed them, and brush them a few times a week, they’ll become that person’s best friend, never leaving their side.
Löwchen are not meant to be kennel dogs and should be indoors on a bed, not in a yard. They are not, however, couch potatoes. The more exercise this breed is given, the better home companions they will be. Löwchen nature is loving, loyal, bright, and trainable. They are a big dog in a little package. Löwchen bark but do not yip, and will stand up to big dogs and probably intimidate them. This is a breed that can be sensitive to noise and will bark when they hear the doorbell or a shrill sound on television. Because of this alert nature, Löwchen excel in conformation, agility, and obedience competition, and as therapy dogs, too.
The origin of the breed is open to debate. One theory claims Mediterranean antecedents. Another says the breed is related to the Bichon family. Still another source traces the Löwchen background to Belgium, Holland, and Germany. What we certainly do know is that our “little lion dogs” were the pampered pets of royalty, and that the breed was almost completely wiped out during the world wars. They survived World War II due to the efforts of Madame Bennert, of Belgium, who rescued the surviving lion dogs and shipped them to a veterinarian, Dr. Hans Rickert, in Germany. The Löwchen that eventually arrived in Great Britain and the United States were from Rickert’s Von Den Drei kennel.
In 1971, the first Löwchen arrived in the United States from England. At that time, the breed name was Little Lion Dog, although there was no connection with any of the lion dogs from Asia. (The Löwchen is referred to as the little lion dog in art and tapestry dating as early as the mid-fifteenth century. This appellation refers to the style in which the breed is trimmed, with close-cut hindquarters and a full, natural mane resembling that of a lion.) The Löwchen Club of America, founded in 1971, eventually changed the name to Löwchen, German for “little lion dog.” Under Fédération Cynologique Internationale registration, the breed is known as the Petite Chien Lion.
The Löwchen was accepted by the American Kennel Club and put into the Non-Sporting Group in 1999. In England and on the Continent, it is shown in the Toy Group.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE LÖWCHEN
General Appearance—A small, bright and lively dog that originated as a companion breed in pre-Renaissance Europe where ladies of the court groomed it in the likeness of a little lion. Breed characteristics are a compact, balanced body; a relatively short, broad topskull and muzzle; and a proud, lively gait that accentuates the lion cut with a long flowing mane. These quintessential features, combined with an outgoing and positive attitude, result in a dog of great style.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Ideally 12’’ to 14’’ at the withers. Dogs or bitches above or below these measurements should be faulted to the degree of the variance. The body is just off-square when properly balanced. The distance from the prosternum to the point of buttocks is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the ground in an 11 to 10 ratio. The Löwchen is strong and sturdy in bone, but never coarse.
Head—The head is a hallmark breed characteristic. The expression is bright, alert, and lively. The eyes are set well into the skull, large, dark and round in shape, set well apart and forward looking. Brown and Champagne coated dogs may have slightly lighter eyes. Full pigmentation is required on the eye rims. The ears are pendant, moderate in length, well fringed, and set on slightly above the level of the eye. Skull—The backskull is broad with a moderate stop. The muzzle is equal in length or slightly shorter than the backskull and is relatively broad with moderate depth of underjaw resulting in a slightly rounded finish to the muzzle. The nose is dark in color. Complete pigmentation is required. Coloration of pigment is black or brown, dependent on the coat color. The lips are tight, with color the same as the nose. The bite is scissors and the teeth are rather large and well spaced with complete dentition.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is of good length, with a slight arch, fitting smoothly into the shoulders and topline. The head is carried high when the dog is moving. The topline is level from withers to tailset. The body is slightly off-square when properly balanced. The loin is short and strong. The ribs are well sprung. The brisket is moderate in width and extends approximately to the elbows. The underline has a slight tuck-up at the loin. The tail is set high and carried in a cup-handle fashion over the back when the dog is moving. A dropped tail while standing is not to be penalized.
Forequarters—The shoulders are strong and well laid back with smooth musculature. The upper arm is of equal length to the shoulder blade and the two meet in a near 90-degree angle. The elbows are held close to the body. Forearms are of good length and the distance from the withers to the elbow is slightly less than the distance from the elbow to the ground. From the front the legs are perfectly parallel from the elbow to the feet. The bone is more round than the oval and of medium size with only a slight decrease in size at the pasterns. The pasterns are short, parallel from the front and very slightly bent when viewed from the side. The dewclaws on the forelegs should be removed. The forefeet point straight ahead, and are well arched with deep pads and the two center toes are slightly in advance of the two outer toes. The nails are relatively short. A tight foot is preferred, and a splayed foot is to be penalized.
Hindquarters—The pelvic bone projects beyond the set of the tail and is at an approximate 45-degree angle from a perfectly horizontal line. The upper and lower thighs are well muscled and of approximately equal length with medium bone. The stifles are well bent. The hocks are well let down and perpendicular to the ground from any angle. The rear dewclaws should be removed. The hindfeet are slightly smaller than the forefeet, and are well arched with deep pads.
Coat—The untrimmed coat is long, rather dense and moderately soft in texture. It has a slight to moderate wavy appearance. Wiry, woolly, curly, and flat coat textures are not correct, and are to be penalized to the degree of severity. No scissoring or shaping of the untrimmed coat is permitted. Puppies typically have a softer coat. Trim— Trimmed in the Lion Trim, the coat is clipped to about 1⁄8″ on the following parts of the body: From the last rib back to and including the hindquarters, leaving a ruff or mane which just covers the last rib. The hindquarters are clipped to the hock joint. The front legs are clipped from the elbow to a point above the knee, which is equal to the same distance as from the ground to the hock joint leaving cuffs of hair on all four legs. The tail is clipped from the base to approximately one-half way to the tip leaving a plume at the end of the tail. The feet are clipped to the point where the dewclaws were removed. The unclipped areas must be completely natural and untrimmed. On no account should the unclipped areas be smoothed, shortened, shaped or otherwise tidied with anything other than a comb or brush. Any trim other than specified or any shaping or scissoring of the long coat are disqualifications.
Color—All colors and color combinations are acceptable, with no preference given to any.
Gait—Movement at a trot is effortless with good reach in front and full extension in the rear. From the front, the forelegs move in almost parallel lines, converging slightly as the speed increases. From the rear, the legs move in almost parallel lines and in the same line of motion as the forelegs, converging slightly as the speed increases. From the side, movement is efficient and ground covering. The forelegs reach well out in front in a long, relatively low stride, and the rear legs come well under the body and extend behind to maximize propulsion. The body should remain nearly square in outline, and the topline is held firm and level, with the tail being carried curved over the back and the head is held above the level of the back.
Temperament—The Löwchen is alert, intelligent, and affectionate with the overall qualities of a loving companion dog. It has a lively, outgoing and inquisitive personality.
Any trim other than specified.
Shaping or scissoring of the long coat.
Approved June 1995
Effective April 1, 1996
POODLE (MINIATURE AND STANDARD)
FEW DOGS HAVE CLIMBED TO SUCH HIGH FAVOR IN SO MANY DIFFERENT countries as has the Poodle, but it appeared so early in various parts of the world that there is some doubt as to the land of its origin.
It is supposed to have originated in Germany, where it is known as the Pudel or canis familiaris aquatius. However, for years it has been regarded as the national dog of France, where it was commonly used as a retriever as well as a traveling-circus trick dog. In France it was, and is known as, the Caniche, which is derived from chien canard or duck dog. Doubtless the English word poodle comes from the German pudel or pudelin, meaning to splash in the water. The expression “French Poodle” was in all probability a somewhat later cognomen, bestowed as a result of the dog’s great popularity in France.
At any rate, the Poodle undoubtedly originated as a water retriever. In fact the unclipped Poodle of today bears strong resemblance in type to the old Rough-haired Water Dog of England as painted by Reinagle at the beginning of the nineteenth century; and except that the Irish Water Spaniel is born with short hair on its face and tail, there is little difference between this ancient Irish dog and the Poodle.
Authorities concede that the large, or Standard, Poodle is the oldest of the three varieties, and that the dog gained special fame as a water worker. So widely was it used as retriever that it was shorn of portions of its coat to further facilitate progress in swimming. Thence came the custom of clipping to pattern which so enhanced the style and general appearance that its sponsors, particularly in France, were captivated by it.
All of the Poodle’s ancestors were acknowledged to be good swimmers, although one member of the family, the truffle dog (it may have been of Toy or Miniature size), it is said, never went near the water. Truffle hunting was widely practiced in England, and later in Spain and Germany, where the edible fungus has always been considered a great delicacy. For scenting and digging up the fungus, the smaller dogs were favored since they did less damage to the truffles with their feet than the larger kinds. So it is rumored that a terrier was crossed with the Poodle to produce the ideal truffle hunter.
Despite the Standard Poodle’s claim to greater age than the other varieties, there is some evidence to show that the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. The smallest, or Toy variety, was known in England in the eighteenth century, when the White Cuban became popular there. This was a sleeve dog attributed to the West Indies from whence it traveled to Spain and then to England. Queen Anne, we are told, admired a troupe of performing dogs that danced to music in almost human fashion. And this penchant, by the way, Poodles of all sizes have carried down the years intact.
But the Continent had known the Poodle long before it came to England. Drawings by Albrecht Dürer establish the breed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. How long the dog had been known in Spain is uncertain, but it was the principal pet dog of the latter eighteenth century, as shown by the paintings of Goya. And France had Toy Poodles as pampered favorites during the reign of Louis XVI, at about the same period.
There is scarcely a purebred dog of this day that can claim so many references in art and literature going back into time. Bas-reliefs dating from the first century, found along the shores of the Mediterranean, portray the Poodle very much as it is in the twentieth century. Clipped to resemble the lion, it is not unlike some of the specimens seen at the earliest dog shows. Possibly long ago there was a link between the dog attributed to the Island of Melita—now known as the Maltese—and the Toy Poodle. Similarly there may have been a relationship between the Poodle and the dog of Spain—the spaniel. If they do not come from the same progenitor, at least the paths of their ancestors must have crossed at some remote time.
The universal esteem in which the Poodle has been held since the beginning of modern history is attested by its interesting variations in size and color. In accordance with present-day show classification, we have three sizes as well as an array of colors to suit almost anyone’s taste. We have white ones, black ones, brown, cream, and blue ones, gray, apricot and so on; any solid color is allowed. Some are pink-skinned, some blue- or silver-skinned, others cream-skinned. Hence he who fancies a Poodle is never at a loss: He may choose a big dog to guard and protect, a medium-sized one to fit into restricted quarters, or a tiny tot to serve only as “comforter.” And he can pick a color to match whatever his decor may happen to be. Surely such an unusual selection may have played at least some part in the Poodle’s continued rise to fame. But even more, the dog’s innate intelligence and his ability to learn are considered exceptional.
It should be kept in mind that the words Standard, Miniature, and Toy are used to denote size only. All are one breed, governed by the same standard of perfection.
In addition to differences in size and color, the Poodle enjoys another unique characteristic, namely, a coat which lends itself to a choice of hair styling. The top coat is very profuse indeed, wiry in texture, and composed of thick, close curls, and the undercoat is woolly and warm. If allowed to grow unhindered the top coat forms thin, cylindrical mats which form a mass of ropelike cords: thus the curly Poodle becomes what used to be known in the old days as the Corded Poodle. This style, though, went out long ago; it was impractical for everyday living and difficult to keep in condition.
The various clips are, of course, a matter of taste insofar as the average owner is concerned. If he plans to exhibit in the show ring, however, he must choose in accordance with the specifications enumerated under “Coat” in the official AKC standard.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE POODLE
General Appearance, Carriage and Condition—That of a very active, intelligent and elegant-appearing dog, squarely built, well proportioned, moving soundly and carrying himself proudly. Properly clipped in the traditional fashion and carefully groomed, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The Standard Poodle is over 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is 15 inches or less in height shall be disqualified from competition as a Standard Poodle.
The Miniature Poodle is 15 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders, with a minimum height in excess of 10 inches. Any Poodle which is over 15 inches or is 10 inches or less at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Miniature Poodle.
The Toy Poodle is 10 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is more than 10 inches at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Toy Poodle.
As long as the Toy Poodle is definitely a Toy Poodle, and the Miniature Poodle a Miniature Poodle, both in balance and proportion for the Variety, diminutiveness shall be the deciding factor when all other points are equal.
Proportion—To insure the desirable squarely built appearance, the length of body measured from the breastbone to the point of the rump approximates the height from the highest point of the shoulders to the ground.
Substance—Bone and muscle of both forelegs and hindlegs are in proportion to size of dog.
Head and Expression
Eyes—Very dark, oval in shape and set far enough apart and positioned to create an alert intelligent expression. Major fault: eyes round, protruding, large or very light.
Ears—Hanging close to the head, set at or slightly below eye level. The ear leather is long, wide and thickly feathered; however, the ear fringe should not be of excessive length.
Skull—Moderately rounded, with a slight but definite stop. Cheekbones and muscles flat. Length from occiput to stop about the same as length of muzzle.
Muzzle—Long, straight and fine, with slight chiseling under the eyes. Strong without lippiness. The chin definite enough to preclude snipiness. Major fault: lack ofchin.
Teeth—White, strong and with a scissors bite. Major fault: undershot, overshot, wrymouth.
Neck, Topline, Body
Neck—well proportioned, strong and long enough to permit the head to be carried high and with dignity. Skin snug at throat. The neck rises from strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. Major fault: ewe neck.
The topline is level, neither sloping nor roached, from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the base of the tail, with the exception of a slight hollow just behind the shoulder.
Body—(a) Chest deep and moderately wide with well sprung ribs. (b) The loin is short, broad and muscular. (c) Tail straight, set on high and carried up, docked of sufficient length to insure a balanced outline. Major fault: set low, curled, or carried over the back.
Strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. The shoulder blade is well laid back and approximately the same length as the upper foreleg. Major fault: steep shoulder.
Forelegs—Straight and parallel when viewed from the front. When viewed from the side the elbow is directly below the highest point of the shoulder. The pasterns are strong. Dewclaws may be removed.
Feet—The feet are rather small, oval in shape with toes well arched and cushioned on thick firm pads. Nails short but not excessively shortened. The feet turn neither in nor out. Major fault: paper or splay foot.
Hindquarters—The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hind legs straight and parallel when viewed from the rear. Muscular with width in the region of the stifles which are well bent; femur and tibia are about equal in length; hock to heel short and perpendicular to the ground. When standing, the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Major fault: cow-hocks.
Quality—(1) Curly: of naturally harsh texture, dense throughout. (2) Corded: hanging in tight even cords of varying length; longer on mane or body coat, head and ears; shorter on puffs, bracelets, and pompons.
Clip—A Poodle under 12 months may be shown in the “Puppy” clip. In all regular classes, Poodles 12 months or over must be shown in the “English Saddle” or “Continental” clip. In the Stud Dog and Brood Bitch classes and in a non-competitive Parade of Champions, Poodles may be shown in the “Sporting” clip. A Poodle shown in any other type of clip shall be disqualified.
(1) “Puppy”—A Poodle under a year old may be shown in the “Puppy” clip with the coat long. The face, throat, feet and base of the tail are shaved. The entire shaven foot is visible. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. In order to give a neat appearance and a smooth unbroken line, shaping of the coat is permissible. (2) “English Saddle”—In the “English Saddle” clip the face, throat, feet, forelegs and base of the tail are shaved, leaving puffs on the forelegs and a pompon on the end of the tail. The hindquarters are covered with a short blanket of hair except for a curved shaved area on each flank and two shaved bands on each hindleg. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven leg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (3) “Continental”—In the “Continental” clip, the face, throat, feet, and base of the tail are shaved. The hindquarters are shaved with pompons (optional) on the hips. The legs are shaved, leaving bracelets on the hindlegs and puffs on the forelegs. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven foreleg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (4) “Sporting ”—In the “Sporting” clip, a Poodle shall be shown with face, feet, throat and base of tail shaved, leaving a scissored cap on the top of the head and a pompon on the end of the tail. The rest of the body and legs are clipped or scissored to follow the outline of the dog leaving a short blanket of coat no longer than one inch in length. The hair on the legs may be slightly longer than that on the body.
English Saddle Clip
Modified Continental Clip
In all clips the hair of the topknot may be left free or held in place by elastic bands. The hair is only of sufficient length to present a smooth outline. “Topknot” refers only to hair on the skull, from stop to occiput. This is the only area where elastic bands may be used.
Color—The coat is an even and solid color at the skin. In blues, grays, silvers, browns, cafe-au-laits, apricots and creams the coat may show varying shades of the same color. This is frequently present in the somewhat darker feathering of the ears and in the tipping of the ruff. While clear colors are definitely preferred, such natural variation in the shading of the coat is not to be considered a fault. Brown and cafe-au-lait Poodles have liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, dark toenails and dark amber eyes. Black, blue, gray, silver, cream and white Poodles have black noses, eye-rims and lips, black or self colored toenails and very dark eyes. In the apricots while the foregoing coloring is preferred, liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, and amber eyes are permitted but are not desirable. Major fault: color of nose, lips and eye-rims incomplete, or of wrong color for color of dog.
Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified. The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but is of two or more colors.
Gait—A straightforward trot with light springy action and strong hindquarters drive. Head and tail carried up. Sound effortless movement is essential.
Temperament—Carrying himself proudly, very active, intelligent, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself. Major fault: shyness orsharpness.
Major Faults—Any distinct deviation from the desired characteristics described in the Breed Standard.
Disqualifications—Size—A dog over or under the height limits specified shall be disqualified. Clip—A dog in any type of clip other than those listed under coat shall be disqualified. Parti-colors—The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but of two or more colors. Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified.
VALUE OF POINTS
Approved August 14, 1984
Reformatted March 27, 1990
THE SCHIPPERKE ORIGINATED IN THE FLEMISH PROVINCES OF BELGIUM AND is sometimes erroneously described as a Dutch dog, due perhaps to a misconception regarding the location of Flanders (a part of which extends into northern France) and to the fact that before 1832 Belgium and Holland were at times united. A Belgian judge says: “The Schipperke is not derived from the spitz or Pomeranian but is really a diminutive of the black sheepdog commonly called the Leauvenaar, which used to follow the wagons along our old highways in the provinces. The proof of this is that those specimens that are born with a tail carry it like the Groenendael.”
In the mid-nineteenth century some of these forty-pound sheepdogs were still herding sheep in the neighborhood of Louvain, and from these both the Schipperke and the Groenendael have descended. The herd dog was gradually bred larger, and the Schipperke bred down to become that “excellent and faithful” little watchdog that we know.
The Schipperke has been known for several hundred years; in fact, it may claim the first known “specialty show” given for any breed. In 1690, a show for Schipperkes of the Guild workmen was held in the Grand Palace of Brussels; the men were invited to bring their dogs and the hammered brass collars which even at that time custom had ordered for the Schipperke.
The breed was called Spits or Spitske then; the name Schipperke was given it only after the forming of the specialty club in 1888. The name is Flemish for “little captain” and is properly pronounced “sheep-er-ker” (the last “r” almost silent). It was chosen as being a more distinctive name, and, as a compliment to one Mr. Renssens, known as “the father of the Schipperke” because of his efforts to gain recognition for the breed. He was the owner of a canal boat line operating between Brussels and Antwerp and had observed that there were many Schipperkes used as guards on these boats. Though called a canal boat dog, the Schipperke was as popular with shoemakers and other workmen as it was on the canals.
The legend of the Schipperke relates that the custom of cutting the tails arose in 1609, and it tells the story of a shoemaker who, angered by the repeated thieving of his neighbor’s dog, cut off its tail—thereby showing the improved appearance soon copied by others and continued to this day. There is no evidence that the breed was ever born tailless; in fact, it seems that more dogs are born without tails now than earlier in their history. The Belgian Schipperkes Club has an amusing etching illustrating the legend “The Tail of the Schipperke.”
The career of the Schipperke as a fashionable pet began in 1885, when Queen Marie Henriette, wife of Leopold II, saw a Schipperke at a Brussels show and acquired it. Before this time it had been the companion of the lower classes.
The first dog in America is believed to have been imported in 1888 by Walter J. Comstock, of Providence. A few years later Frank Dole began showing Schips in the Miscellaneous class. An American specialty club was founded about 1905, but died out during World War I. There was little interest in the breed until, after several years of effort by a few fanciers, the present Schipperke Club of America was founded in 1929.
The general appearance of the Schipperke is very distinctive, resembling no other breed closely. It has a short and thick-set body with foxy head—the whole suggesting a dog with plenty of coat and an outstanding ruff and long culotte. He has an intelligent, keen expression (not at all mean). His close undercoat keeps him warm even in American winters—the latter are far colder than those of his native land—and it sheds water and needs very little attention to keep it in order.
A judge of the breed for fifty years has said that the most important thing in judging is the correct silhouette: “I first look to see if the dog has the correct silhouette. If not, he is nothing and I look no further. If he has, I look into further details beginning with the bone structure.”
This curious and energetic breed is usually long-lived for a small one, many instances of dogs living to 15 and 16 years old being recorded; one dog, bred in Rothesay, Scotland, was reputed to have lived 21 years.
The Schipperke is often called “the best house dog” (le meilleur chien de maison). Schips are very fond of children and in some cases have served as guards; they have taken the place, to some extent, of human nurses, so devoted are they to their small charges.
The dogs have been used to hunt, and one well-known breeder of the past wrote that he used them with great success on racoons and possums in Minnesota. Though usually an excellent ratter, the Schip is not a powerful fighter but can hold his own with most dogs of his weight and will tackle anything in defense of his household or of his master. He is not aware of the limitations of his size. As Julius Caesar wrote: “The bravest of these were the Belgians.”
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SCHIPPERKE
General Appearance—The Schipperke is an agile, active watchdog and hunter of vermin. In appearance he is a small, thickset, cobby, black, tailless dog, with a foxlike face. The dog is square in profile and possesses a distinctive coat, which includes a standout ruff, cape and culottes. All of these create a unique silhouette, appearing to slope from shoulders to croup. Males are decidedly masculine without coarseness. Bitches are decidedly feminine without over-refinement.
Any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Schipperke as in any other breed, even though such faults may not be specifically mentioned in the standard.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The suggested height at the highest point of the withers is 11 to 13 inches for males and 10 to 12 inches for bitches. Quality should always take precedence over size. Proportion—Square in profile. Substance— Thickset.
Head—Expression—The expression is questioning, mischievous, impudent and alert, but never mean or wild. The well proportioned head, accompanied by the correct eyes and ears, will give the dog proper Schipperke expression.
Skull—The skull is of medium width, narrowing toward the muzzle. Seen in profile with the ears laid back, the skull is slightly rounded. The upper jaw is moderately filled in under the eyes, so that, when viewed from above, the head forms a wedge tapering smoothly from the back of the skull to the tip of the nose. The stop is definite but not prominent. The length of the muzzle is slightly less than the length of the skull.
Eyes—The ideal eyes are small, oval rather than round, dark brown and placed forward on the head.
Ears—The ears are small, triangular, placed high on the head, and, when at attention, very erect. A drop ear or ears is a disqualification. Nose—The nose is small and black. Bite—The bite must be scissors or level. Any deviation is to be severely penalized.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—The neck is of moderate length, slightly arched and in balance with the rest of the dog to give the correct silhouette. Topline—The topline is level or sloping slightly from the withers to the croup. The stand-out ruff adds to the slope, making the dog seem slightly higher at the shoulders than at the rump. Body—The chest is broad and deep, and reaches to the elbows. The well sprung ribs (modified oval) are wide behind the shoulders and taper to the sternum. The forechest extends in front of the shoulders between the front legs. The loin is short, muscular and moderately drawn up. The croup is broad and well-rounded with the tail docked. No tail is visually discernible.
Forequarters—The shoulders are well laid back, with the legs extending straight down from the body when viewed from the front. From the side, legs are placed well under the body. Pasterns are short, thick and strong, but still flexible, showing a slight angle when viewed from the side. Dewclaws are generally removed. Feet are small, round and tight. Nails are short, strong and black.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters appear slightly lighter than the forequarters, but are well muscled, and in balance with the front. The hocks are well let down and the stifles are well bent. Extreme angulation is to be penalized. From the rear, the legs extend straight down from the hip through the hock to the feet. Dewclaws must be removed.
Coat—Pattern—The adult coat is highly characteristic and must include several distinct lengths growing naturally in a specific pattern. The coat is short on the face, ears, front of the forelegs and on the hocks; it is medium length on the body, and longer in the ruff, cape, jabot and culottes. The ruff begins in back of the ears and extends completely around the neck; the cape forms an additional distinct layer extending beyond the ruff; the jabot extends across the chest and down between the front legs. The hair down the middle of the back, starting just behind the cape and continuing over the rump, lies flat. It is slightly shorter than the cape but longer than the hair on the sides of the body and sides of the legs. The coat on the rear of the thighs forms culottes, which should be as long as the ruff. Lack of differentiation in coat lengths should be heavily penalized, as it is an essential breed characteristic.
Texture—The coat is abundant, straight and slightly harsh to the touch. The softer undercoat is dense and short on the body and is very dense around the neck, making the ruff stand out. Silky coats, body coats over three inches in length or very short harsh coats are equally incorrect.
Trimming—As the Schipperke is a natural breed, only trimming of the whiskers and the hair between the pads of the feet is optional. Any other trimming must not be done.
Color—The outer coat must be black. Any color other than a natural black is a disqualification. The undercoat, however, may be slightly lighter. During the shedding period, the coat might take on a transitory reddish cast, which is to be penalized to the degree that it detracts from the overall black appearance of the dog. Graying due to age (seven years or older) or occasional white hairs should not be penalized.
Gait—Proper Schipperke movement is a smooth, well coordinated and graceful trot (basically double tracking at a moderate speed), with a tendency to gradually converge toward the center of balance beneath the dog as speed increases. Front and rear must be in perfect balance with good reach in front and drive in the rear. The topline remains level or slightly sloping downward from the shoulders to the rump. Viewed from the front, the elbows remain close to the body. The legs form a straight line from the shoulders through the elbows to the toes, with the feet pointing straight ahead. From the rear, the legs form a straight line from the hip through the hocks to the pads, with the feet pointing straight ahead.
Temperament—The Schipperke is curious, interested in everything around him, and is an excellent and faithful little watchdog. He is reserved with strangers and ready to protect his family and property if necessary. He displays a confident and independent personality, reflecting the breed’s original purpose as watchdog and hunter of vermin.
A drop ear or ears.
Any color other than a natural black.
Approved November 13, 1990
Effective January 1, 1991
THE SHIBA INU HAS BEEN WITH THE JAPANESE PEOPLE FOR CENTURIES. THEY are considered the smallest and oldest of Japan’s dogs. The ability of these dogs to maneuver through steep hills and mountain slopes, together with their keen senses, have repeatedly shown the Shiba to be a superb hunting dog.
The ancestors of today’s Shibas were those hardy survivors of Japan’s mountainous regions. Although originally used to hunt large game, they currently are used on smaller animals. Shibas make excellent watchdogs and have established themselves as the number-one companion dog in Japan. They can be seen throughout Japan in the cities, suburbs, and countrysides.
There have been many stories on how the Shiba came about its name. Some are of the opinion that the name Shiba Inu was given because of its skill in going freely through the brushwood bushes. You will hear people refer to the Shiba as the Little Brushwood Dog. Another story has it that the other meaning of the Japanese word shiba is “small”; therefore this word has also been attached to these dogs. These stories, however, have not been validated. What is valid is that this small dog called Shiba first came to its name in approximately the 1920s. In December of 1936, through the Cultural Properties Act, the Shiba was designated as a precious natural product of the Japanese nation. Thus, the breed was given official recognition.
Today’s Shiba retains many of the characteristics that were essential for its survival as a hunting breed over the centuries: an independent nature coupled with quick reflexes and a strong prey drive. The Shiba often does not regard every stranger as an immediate friend but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect.
Most of the Shibas being shown in the 1930s came from the Yamanashi or San In areas of Japan. These dogs were brought down from the mountains to the more populated areas. As they had been used mostly for hunting, their appearance was somewhat different from the Shiba today. They were large boned and rough looking, unlike the elegant Shibas you now see.
After reaching near extinction during World War II, those Shibas remaining were from three different bloodlines. They were the San In Shiba, the Mino Shiba, and the Shin Shu Shiba—the last being the most popular in Japan past and present. It is from these three lines that the Shiba has evolved into the modern breed.
The first documented Shiba in America was in 1954. It was brought from Japan by an American armed-services family. In the late 1970s, Americans started to import the Shiba for breeding. The first litter born in the United States was in 1979. The sire and dam were imports owned by Julia Cadwell.
The Shiba Inu was admitted to the AKC Stud Book on April 1, 1992, with exhibition in the Miscellaneous class beginning in June of that year, and regular classification in the Non-Sporting Group on June 1, 1993.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SHIBA INU
General Appearance—The Shiba is the smallest of the Japanese native breeds of dog and was originally developed for hunting by sight and scent in the dense undergrowth of Japan’s mountainous areas. Alert and agile with keen senses, he is also an excellent watchdog and companion. His frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males and females are distinctly different in appearance: males are masculine without coarseness; females are feminine without weakness of structure.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Males, 141⁄2 to 161⁄2 inches. Females, 131⁄2 to 15 1⁄2 inches. The preferred size is the middle of the range for each sex. Average weight at preferred size is approximately 23 pounds for males, 17 pounds for females. Males have a height to length ratio of 10 to 11, females slightly longer. Bone is moderate. Disqualification—Males over 161⁄2 and under 141⁄2 inches. Females over 151⁄2 and under 131⁄2 inches.
Head—Expression is good natured with a strong and confident gaze. Eyes are somewhat triangular in shape, deep set, and upward slanting toward the outside base of the ear. Iris is dark brown. Eye rims are black. Ears are triangular in shape, firmly pricked and small, but in proportion to head and body size. Ears are set well apart and tilt directly forward with the slant of the back of the ear following the arch of the neck. Skull size is moderate and in proportion to the body. Forehead is broad and flat with a slight furrow. Stop is moderate. Muzzle is firm, full, and round with a strong lower jaw projecting from full cheeks. The bridge of the muzzle is straight. Muzzle tapers slightly from stop to nose tip. Muzzle length is 40 percent of the total head length from occiput to nose tip. It is preferred that whiskers remain intact. Lips are tight and black. Nose is black. Bite is scissors, with a full complement of strong, substantial, evenly aligned teeth.
Serious Fault—Five or more missing teeth is a very serious fault and must be penalized.
Disqualification—Overshot or undershot bite.
Neck, Topline and Body—Neck is thick, sturdy and of moderate length. Topline is straight and level to the base of the tail. Body is dry and well muscled without the appearance of sluggishness or coarseness. Forechest is well developed. Chest depth measured from the withers to the lowest point of the sternum is one-half or slightly less than the total height from withers to ground. Ribs are moderately sprung. Abdomen is firm and well tucked-up. Back is firm. Loins are strong. Tail is thick and powerful and is carried over the back in a sickle or curled position. A loose single curl or a sickle tail pointing vigorously toward the neck and nearly parallel to the back is preferred. A double curl or sickle tail pointing upward is acceptable. In length the tail reaches nearly to the hock joint when extended. Tail is set high.
Forequarters—Shoulder blade and upper arm are moderately angulated and approximately equal in length. Elbows are set close to the body and turn neither in nor out. Forelegs and feet are moderately spaced, straight, and parallel. Pasterns are slightly inclined. Removal of front dewclaws is optional. Feet are catlike with well-arched toes fitting tightly together. Pads are thick.
Hindquarters—The angulation of the hindquarters is moderate and in balance with the angulation of the forequarters. Hind legs are strong with a wide natural stance. The hock joint is strong, turning neither in nor out. Upper thighs are long and the second thighs short but well developed. No dewclaws. Feet as in forequarters.
Coat—Double coated, with the outer coat being stiff and straight and the undercoat soft and thick. Fur is short and even on face, ears and legs. Guard hairs stand off the body and are about 11⁄2 to 2 inches in length at the withers. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open in a brush. It is preferred that the Shiba be presented in a natural state. Trimming of the coat must be severely penalized. Serious Fault —Long or woolly coat.
Color—Coat color is as specified herein, with the three allowed colors given equal consideration. All colors are clear and intense. The undercoat is cream, buff, or gray.
Urajiro (cream to white ventral color) is required in the following areas on all coat colors: on the sides of the muzzle, on the cheeks, inside the ears, on the underjaw and upper throat, inside of legs, on the abdomen, around the vent and the ventral side of the tail. On reds: commonly on the throat, forechest and chest. On blacks and sesames: commonly as a triangular mark on both sides of the forechest. White spots above the eyes permitted on all colors but not required.
Bright orange-red with urajiro lending a foxlike appearance to dogs of this color. Clear red preferred but a very slight dash of black tipping is permitted on the back and tail.
Black with tan points and urajiro. Black hairs have a brownish cast, not blue. The undercoat is buff or gray. The borderline between black and tan areas is clearly defined. Tan points are located as follows: two oval spots over the eyes; on the sides of the muzzle between the black bridge of the muzzle and the white cheeks; on the outside of the forelegs from the carpus, or a little above, downward to the toes; on the outside of the hind legs down the front of the stifle broadening from hock joint to toes, but not completely eliminating black from rear of pasterns. Black penciling on toes permitted. Tan hairs may also be found on the inside of the ear and on the underside of the tail.
Sesame (black-tipped hairs on a rich red background) with urajiro. Tipping is light and even on the body and head with no concentration of black in any area. Sesame areas appear at least one-half red. Sesame may end in a widow’s peak on the forehead, leaving the bridge and sides of the muzzle red. Eye spots and lower legs are also red.
Clearly delineated white markings are permitted but not required on the tip of the tail and in the form of socks on the forelegs to the elbow joint, hind legs to the knee joint. A patch of blaze is permitted on the throat, forechest, or chest in addition to urajiro.
Serious Fault—Cream, white, pinto or any other color or marking not specified is a very serious fault and must be penalized.
Gait—Movement is nimble, light, and elastic. At the trot, the legs angle in towards a center line while the topline remains level and firm. Forward reach and rear extension are moderate and efficient. In the show ring, the Shiba is gaited on a loose lead at a brisk trot.
Temperament—A spirited boldness, a good nature and an unaffected forthright-ness, which together yield dignity and natural beauty. The Shiba has an independent nature and can be reserved toward strangers but is loyal and affectionate to those who earn his respect. At times aggressive toward other dogs, the Shiba is always under the control of his handler. Any aggression toward handler or judge or any overt shyness must be severely penalized.
Summary—The foregoing is a description of the ideal Shiba. Any deviation from the above standard is to be considered a fault and must be penalized. The severity of the fault is equal to the extent of the deviation. A harmonious balance of form, color, movement and temperament is more critical than any one feature.
Males over 161⁄2 and under 141⁄2 inches. Females over 151⁄2 and under 131⁄2 inches.
Overshot or undershot bite.
Approved February 7, 1997
Effective March 31, 1997
THE HISTORY OF TIBET IS IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE EARLY Tibetan Spaniel. The country has always been isolated and has little contact with the outside world except for neighboring China and India. The seclusion of Tibetan society, its political isolation, the loneliness of the nomadic life of its people, even the remoteness of villages within the country, together with the rise of Buddhism which did not permit the killing of animals, are all factors leading to the importance of dogs in the lives of the Tibetans.
Independent since 217 B.C., except for short periods of Chinese imperialism, Tibet became a Buddhist country in the seventeenth century. The Tibetans were a deeply religious, peace-loving people, with their own Lamaist form of Buddhism, in which the symbolic lion played an even more important role than it had in the Chinese and Indian interpretations. The lion represented the power of the Lord Buddha over violence and aggression, since Buddha had trained the lion to be tame and to “follow at his heels like a faithful dog.” The small monastery dogs, thought to be early representatives of the Tibetan Spaniel, loyally trailed behind their Lama masters and came to be regarded as “little lions,” thus giving them even greater value and prestige.
As the breed became more highly regarded, the practice of sending the dogs as gifts to the palaces of China and other Buddhist countries grew significantly, and in reciprocity more “lion dogs” were presented back to Tibet. This practice is believed to have continued until as late as 1908. Through exchange of Tibetan Spaniels between palaces and monasteries, the breed is likely to have common ancestors with a number of the Asian breeds, including the Japanese Chin and the Pekingese.
The villages were a primary location for breeding and these village-bred Tibetan Spaniels varied greatly in size and type, probably because of little understanding of the value of breeding like to like. Size ranged from four to sixteen pounds and the smaller puppies were usually given as gifts to the monasteries. In turn, these smaller dogs used in the monastery breeding programs were probably combined with the more elegant Tibetan Spaniel–type dogs brought from China, eventually producing a more refined dog of greater quality and elegance than their village relatives. Those bred in the monasteries closer to the Chinese borders were characterized by shorter muzzles, similar to the Chinese breeds from which they were descended. The purest ancient Tibetan type was found west of Lhasa, for fewer Chinese dogs had found their way to this area. The tremendous distances between monasteries and villages must account for the great difference in type in the early dog and it is not surprising to find other Tibetan breeds occasionally producing Tibetan Spaniel–type puppies. The true Tibetan Spaniel is the only one of all Tibetan breeds to have a hare foot instead of the round or cat foot. They closely resemble the Tibetan Mastiff in outline.
There is no doubt Buddhism made an impact on the prominence of this breed in Tibetan society. Not only did the religion forbid the killing of animals, but Buddhists had great faith in the doctrine of reincarnation. They believed that in previous lives they may have been animals and may be so again in the future. This theory, in addition to the belief that no essential spiritual differences exist between man and dog, encouraged kindness to and humane treatment of animals in Tibet. To carry this doctrine even further, the Buddhists placed numerous representations of Tibetan Spaniel–type dogs made from pottery and clay within early Chinese tombs. This practice was believed to result in continued service from the dogs in the lives to come.
Not only was the Tibetan Spaniel prized as a pet and companion, but it was considered a very useful animal by all classes of Tibetans. During the day, the dogs would sit on top of the monastery walls keeping a steady watch over the countryside below. Their keen eye and ability to see great distances, as well as their persistent barking, made them exceptionally good watchdogs. The Tibetan Spaniels were always quick to respond to the approach of wolves to the flocks grazing below them, in addition to the arrival of a stranger or an intruder. In this case, the dogs would let out continuous shrill barking, thus alerting a nearby Tibetan Mastiff. The larger dog would then keep watch over the visitors. Evidently, this habit of sitting on high places and surveying the area below is still enjoyed by the Tibetan Spaniel of today.
Sometime in the late 1800s, the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morris brought the first Tibetan Spaniel to England. In the 1920s, Dr. Agnes R. H. Greig, a medical missionary in the East, sent several of the dogs to her mother, Mrs. A. R. Greig, who exhibited them and started a breeding program. Sadly, the only dog from this line who survived World War II was Skyid, who appears in some of today’s pedigrees.
At the start of the war, Sir Edward and Lady Wakefield, an English couple living in Sikkim, received a gift of a bitch in 1938 from Dr. Khanshi Ram, a trade agent in western Tibet. The Wakefields obtained the use of a male, Tashi, from the Tashi Gong monastery for the purpose of breeding their bitch, Mughiwuli. In 1940, the first of several litters of these two Tibetans was whelped. With the help of the King of Sikkim, the Wakefields obtained another bitch puppy, Dolma, who together with Lama, a son of Mughiwuli, formed the nucleus of the English “dynasty” of Tibetans, commencing from 1947. The Tibetan Spaniel Association was formed in 1958, and by 1960 The Kennel Club (England) awarded Challenge Certificates. By 1980, there were 114 recorded English champions.
Recognition moved a bit slower for American devotees. The first authenticated reference we find to Tibetan Spaniels in this country is a litter bred by a Mr. Harrington, of New York State, in 1965 out of two imported dogs from a Tibetan monastery. The first definite step toward popularizing the breed here could be credited to Leo Kearns, the sexton of the Trinity Lutheran Church in New Haven, Connecticut. He purchased a bitch puppy from an antiques dealer who frequented the United Kingdom, and the puppy was such a hit with the parishioners that Kearns ferreted out some of the English breeders. After considerable correspondence, M. C. Hourihane of the Amcross Kennels in Wilts, England, sent him a male, Eng. Ch. Yakrose Chiala of Amcross. This dog was bred to his bitch, Dog-house Dream Baby, and on April 9, 1968, the first known American-bred litter of Tibetan Spaniels was whelped.
Among those who became interested in the breed was Mrs. Jay Child, who purchased an imported bitch from Kearns named Ciceter Norbu (Pandara). Although Kearns had actively imported stock from England, much credit must go to Child for her singular determination to establish the breed in the United States.
In January 1971, the Tibetan Spaniel Club of America was formed, with Child as president. The Tibetan Spaniel was accepted for AKC registration and became eligible to compete in the Non-Sporting Group effective January 1, 1984.
The Tibetan Spaniel possesses a unique personality, described by many as catlike. The breed is known to be extremely intelligent, sweet-natured, affectionate, family-oriented, and very trusting of other dogs and people.
Litters are small, averaging about three puppies, and the bitches have only one estrus per year. It is a very “natural” breed, presented in the show ring in a completely unaltered condition. Grooming is minimal; they drop their undercoat in late spring and require only occasional brushing and bathing.
General Appearance—Should be small, active and alert. The outline should give a well balanced appearance, slightly longer in body than the height at withers. Fault— Coarseness of type.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height, about 10 inches. Body slightly longer from the point of shoulder to root of tail than the height at withers. Weight 9–15 pounds being ideal.
Head—Small in proportion to body and proudly carried, giving an impression of quality. Masculine in dogs but free from coarseness. Eyes dark brown in color, oval in shape, bright and expressive, of medium size set fairly well apart but forward looking, giving an apelike expression. Eye rims black. Faults—Large, full eyes; light eyes; mean expression. Ears medium size, pendant, well feathered in the adult and set fairly high. They may have a slight lift from the skull, but should not fly. Large, heavy, low set ears are not typical. Skull slightly domed, moderate width and length. Faults—Very domed or flat wide skull. Stop slight, but defined. Medium length of muzzle, blunt with cushioning, free from wrinkle. The chin should show some depth and width. Faults— Accentuated stop; long, plain down face, without stop; broad flat muzzle; pointed, weak or wrinkled muzzle. Black nose preferred. Faults—Liver or putty-colored pigmentation.
Mouth ideally slightly undershot, the upper incisors fitting neatly inside and touching the lower incisors. Teeth should be evenly placed and the lower jaw wide between the canine tusks. Full dentition desired. A level mouth is permissible, providing there is sufficient width and depth of chin to preserve the blunt appearance of the muzzle. Teeth must not show when mouth is closed. Faults—Overshot mouth; protruding tongue.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck moderately short, strong and well set on. Level back. Well ribbed with good depth. Tail set high, richly plumed and carried in a gay curl over the back when moving. Should not be penalized for dropping tail when standing.
Forequarters—Shoulder well placed. The bones of the forelegs slightly bowed but firm at shoulder. Moderate bone. Faults—Very bowed or loose front. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet hare-footed, small and neat. Fault—Cat feet.
Hindquarters—Well made and strong. Stifle well developed, showing moderate angulation. Hocks well let down and straight when viewed from behind. Faults— Straight stifle; cow hocks. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—Double coat, silky in texture, smooth on face and front of legs, of moderate length on body, but lying rather flat. Ears and back of forelegs nicely feathered, tail and buttocks well furnished with longer hair. Neck covered with a mane or “shawl” of longer hair which is more pronounced in dogs than bitches. Feathering between toes often extending beyond the feet. Should not be over-coated and bitches tend to carry less coat and mane than dogs.
Presentation—In the show ring it is essential the Tibetan Spaniel be presented in an unaltered condition with the coat lying naturally with no teasing, parting or stylizing of the hair. Specimens where the coat has been altered by trimming, clipping or by artificial means shall be so severely penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition. Dogs with such a long coat that there is no rectangle of daylight showing beneath, or so profuse that it obstructs the natural outline, are to be severely penalized. Whiskers are not to be removed. Hair growing between the pads on the underside of the feet may be trimmed for safety and cleanliness.
Color—All colors, and mixtures of colors allowed. Feet—White markings allowed.
Gait—Quick moving, straight, free, positive.
Temperament—Gay and assertive, highly intelligent, aloof with strangers. Fault—Nervousness.
Approved May 10, 1983
Reformatted February 7, 1989
AS THE NAME INDICATES, TIBETAN TERRIERS CAME FROM TIBET WHERE, SO it is said, they were bred and raised in the monasteries by the Lamas almost 2,000 years ago. Originating in the Lost Valley (“lost” when the access road was destroyed in the fourteenth century by a major earthquake) they were prized as companions and “luck bringers” for those fortunate enough to own them.
So inaccessible was the Lost Valley, so hazardous the journey to and from it, that the occasional visitor was often given a dog to safeguard him on the return trip to the outside world. No dog of this kind was ever sold, as no family would tempt fate by selling part of their “luck,” but they were presented as a mark of esteem or a measure of gratitude for favors or services rendered.
Thus it came about that the late Dr. A.R.H. Greig, a practicing physician in India in the 1920s, was given a dog by a grateful Tibetan whose ailing wife she had treated. Greig subsequently bred and raised a number of Tibetan Terriers in India, many of them descended from puppies sent to her by the Dalai Lama in appreciation of her interest in their cherished breed. When Dr. Greig returned to England, she established the famous Lamleh Kennel. Recognized in India in the 1920s and in England in 1937, the breed is now exhibited at shows the world over.
Dr. and Mrs. Henry S. Murphy, of Great Falls, Virginia, brought the first “official” Tibetan Terrier to the United States in 1956, an import from the Lamleh Kennel in England with a Kennel Club pedigree. Since then the breed has attracted fanciers from Canada to Florida, and from coast to coast.
The Tibetan Terrier is not actually a terrier. He does not have the terrier disposition, nor does he burrow into the earth as terriers were originally expected to do. This breed was called “terrier” because it was of a size widely associated with terriers. The Tibetan people called them Luck Bringers or Holy Dogs, neither of which seemed suitable as a breed name in the Western world.
Tibetan Terriers were neither guard dogs nor herding dogs in Tibet. They were valued as companions and were treated like children of the family. Like children, they eagerly assisted in taking care of the family’s property, their flocks, and their herds, but these dogs were not raised for utilitarian purposes. The breed was kept purebred, as any mismating might bring bad luck to the family and might even be blamed for any village misfortune.
This is an exceptionally healthy breed, probably as a result of the rigorous natural selection process in their recent homeland. Tibet has one of the most difficult populated terrains in the world, and one of the most dramatic climates. Lhasa, for example, is exceedingly cold in the winter but often reaches eighty-five degrees in the summer. The Tibetan Terrier is prepared to enjoy a blizzard, thanks to his profuse double coat, facial fur to protect his eyes from snow, and “snowshoe” feet, well furnished and suited for walking on the crust. Surprisingly, they do not seem to be at all upset by a hot, humid summer, simply stopping for a nap during the worst part of such days.
The people of Tibet made no effort to eliminate any of the many colors found in this breed, believing that good health and a delightful temperament were far more important than coat color. It is hoped that Western breeders are continuing this sensible breeding program, and that the Tibetan Terrier will continue to be an exceptional companion and friend of man—healthy, happy, intelligent, and affectionate.
The Tibetan Terrier was admitted to registration in the AKC Stud Book on May 1, 1973, and to the Non-Sporting Group at AKC shows on October 3, 1973.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE TIBETAN TERRIER
The Tibetan Terrier evolved over many centuries, surviving in Tibet’s extreme climate and difficult terrain. The breed developed a protective double coat, compact size, unique foot construction, and great agility. The Tibetan Terrier served as a steadfast, devoted companion in all of his owner’s endeavors.
General Appearance—The Tibetan Terrier is a medium-size dog, profusely coated, of powerful build, and square in proportion. A fall of hair covers the eyes and foreface. The well-feathered tail curls up and falls forward over the back. The feet are large, flat and round in shape producing a snowshoe effect that provides traction. The Tibetan Terrier is well balanced and capable of both strong and efficient movement. The Tibetan Terrier is shown as naturally as possible.
Head—Skull—Medium length neither broad nor coarse. The length from the eye to the tip of the nose is equal to the length from eye to the occiput. The skull narrows slightly from ear to eye. It is not domed but not absolutely flat between the ears. The head is well furnished with long hair, falling forward over the eyes and foreface. The cheekbones are curved but not so overdeveloped as to bulge. Muzzle—The lower jaw has a small amount of beard. Stop—There is marked stop but not exaggerated. Nose— Black. Teeth—White, strong and evenly placed. There is a distinct curve in the jaws between the canines. A tight scissors bite, a tight reverse scissors bite or a level bite are equally acceptable. A slightly undershot bite is acceptable.
Eyes—Large, set fairly wide apart, dark brown and may appear black in color, neither prominent nor sunken. Eye rims are dark in color. Ears—Pendant, falling not too close to the head, heavily feathered with a “V” shaped leather proportionate to the head.
Faults—Weak pointed muzzle. Any color other than a black nose. Overshot bite or a very undershot bite or a wry mouth. Long narrow head. Lack of fall over the eyes and foreface.
Neck And Body—Neck—Length proportionate to the body and head. Body— Compact, square and strong, capable of both speed and endurance. Topline—The back is level in motion. Chest—Heavily furnished. The brisket extends downward to the top of the elbow in the mature Tibetan Terrier. Ribs—The body is well ribbed up and never cloddy or coarse. The rib cage is not too wide across the chest and narrows slightly to permit the forelegs to work free at the sides. Loin—Slightly arched. Tail— Medium length, heavily furnished, set on fairly high and falls forward over the back, may curl to either side. There may be a kink near the tip.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Sloping, well muscled and well laid back. Legs— Straight and strong when viewed from the front. Heavily furnished. The vertical distance from the withers to the elbow equals the distance from the elbows to the ground. Feet— The feet of the Tibetan Terrier are unique in form among dogs. They are large, flat, and round in shape producing a snowshoe effect that provides traction. The pads are thick and strong. They are heavily furnished with hair between the toes and pads. Hair between the toes and pads may be trimmed level with the underside of the pads for health reasons. The dog should stand well down on its pads. Dewclaws—May be removed.
Hindquarters—Legs—Well furnished, with well bent stifles and the hind legs are slightly longer than the forelegs. Thighs—Relatively broad and well muscled. Hocks— Low set and turn neither in nor out. Feet—Same as forefeet. Dewclaws—May be removed.
Coat—Double coat. Undercoat is soft and woolly. Outer coat is profuse and fine but never silky or woolly. May be wavy or straight. Coat is long but should not hang to the ground. When standing on a hard surface an area of light should be seen under the dog. The coat of puppies is shorter, single and often has a softer texture than that of adults. A natural part is often present over the neck and back. Fault—Lack of double coat in adults. Sculpturing, scissoring, stripping or shaving are totally contrary to breed type and are serious faults.
Color—Any color or combination of colors including white are acceptable to the breed. There are no preferred colors or combinations of colors.
Gait—The Tibetan Terrier has a free, effortless stride with good reach in front and flexibility in the rear allowing full extension. When gaiting the hind legs should go neither inside nor outside the front legs but should move on the same track approaching single tracking when the dog is moved at a fast trot. The dog with the correct foot and leg construction moves with elasticity and drive indicating that the dog is capable of great agility as well as endurance.
Size—Average weight is 20 to 24 pounds, but the weight range may be 18 to 30 pounds. Proportion of weight to height is far more important than specific weight and should reflect a well-balanced square dog. The average height in dogs is 15 to 16 inches, bitches slightly smaller. The length, measured from the point of shoulder to the root of tail, is equal to the height measured from the highest point of the withers to the ground. Faults—Any height above 17 inches or below 14 inches.
Temperament—The Tibetan Terrier is highly intelligent, sensitive, loyal, devoted and affectionate. The breed may be cautious or reserved. Fault—Extreme shyness.