Intelligent Choice of the Right Pet Dog (A Case Study)
GROUP V: TOY BREEDS
ONE OF THE MOST ANCIENT OF TOY DOGS, THE AFFENPINSCHER (TRANSLATED from German as “Monkey-Terrier”) originated in Central Europe. During the seventeenth century, small terriers frequently were kept around stables on farms or in shops where they served as ratters. Bred down to size, these small terriers became companions in the home and kept mice from overrunning their mistresses’ boudoirs.
A game, alert, intelligent, and sturdy little terrier type, the Affenpinscher is characterized by his “monkeyish” expression, derived from a prominent chin with hair-tuft and mustache. This expression is further accentuated by his bushy eyebrows, shadowing black-bordered eyelids and medium, round, piercing dark eyes. The coat is dense, rough, and harsh on the shoulders and body. He is every inch a real dog despite his small size.
The Affenpinscher is believed to have been a major influence in the development of many of the smaller rough-coated breeds of continental Europe, including the Brussels Griffon and the Miniature Schnauzer.
The area around Munich eventually became the heart of Affenpinscher breeding in Europe. The Pinscher Klub was founded in 1895 at Cologne, and the Bayerischer Schnauzer Klub was formed in 1907. In 1923 these two clubs joined forces as the Pinscher-Schnauzer Klub, which attracted many new breeders.
The breed was admitted to the American Kennel Club Stud Book in 1936. This quaint little dog’s popularity has been overshadowed by that of his descendant, the Brussels Griffon, but more recently he is enjoying a return to favor.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AFFENPINSCHER
General Appearance—The Affenpinscher is a balanced, wiry-haired terrier-like toy dog whose intelligence and demeanor make it a good house pet. Originating in Germany, the name Affenpinscher means “monkey-like terrier.” The breed was developed to rid the kitchens, granaries, and stables of rodents. In France the breed is described as the “Diablotin Moustachu” or mustached little devil. Both describe the appearance and attitude of this delightful breed. The total overall appearance of the Affenpinscher is more important than any individual characteristic. He is described as having a neat but shaggy appearance.
Size, Proportion, Substance—A sturdy, compact dog with medium bone, not delicate in any way. Preferred height at the withers is 91⁄2 to 111⁄2 inches. Withers height is approximately the same as the length of the body from the point of the shoulder to point of the buttocks, giving a square appearance. The female may be slightly longer.
Head—The head is in proportion to the body, carried confidently with monkey-like facial expression. Eyes—Round, dark, brilliant, and of medium size in proportion to the head but not bulging or protruding. Eye rims are black. Ears—Cropped to a point, set high and standing erect; or natural, standing erect, semi-erect or dropped. All of the above types of ears, if symmetrical, are acceptable as long as the monkey-like expression is maintained. Skull—Round and domed, but not coarse. Stop—Well-defined. Muzzle—Short and narrowing slightly to a blunt nose. The length of the muzzle is approximately the same as the distance between the eyes. Nose—Black, turned neither up nor down. Lips—Black, with prominent lower lip. Bite—Slightly undershot. A level bite is acceptable if the monkey-like expression is maintained. An overshot bite is to be severely penalized. A wry mouth is a serious fault. The teeth and tongue do not show when the mouth is closed. The lower jaw is broad enough for the lower teeth to be straight and even.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Short and straight. Topline—straight and level. Body—The chestis moderately broad and deep; ribs are moderately sprung. Tuckup is slight. The backis short and level with a strong loin. The crouphas just a perceptible curve. Tailmay be docked or natural. A docked tail is generally between 1 and 2 inches long, set high and carried erect. The natural tail is set high and carried curved gently up over the back while moving. The type of tail is not a major consideration.
Forequarters—Front angulation is moderate. Shoulders—with moderate layback. The length of the shoulder blade and the upper arm are about equal. Elbows—close to the body. Frontlegsstraight when viewed from any direction. Pasternsshort and straight. Dewclawsgenerally removed. Feetsmall, round, and compact with black pads and nails.
Hindquarters—Rear angulation is moderate to match the front. Hindlegs— straight when viewed from behind. From the side, hindlegs are set under the body to maintain a square appearance. The length of the upper thigh and the second thigh are about equal with moderate bend to the stifle. Hocks—Moderately angulated.
Coat—Dense hair, rough, harsh, and about 1 inch in length on the shoulders and body. May be shorter on the rear and tail. Head, neck, chest, stomach and legs have longer, less harsh coat. The mature Affenpinscher has a mane or cape of strong hair which blends into the back coat at the withers area. The longer hair on the head, eyebrows and beard stands off and frames the face to emphasize the monkey-like expression. Hair on the ears is cut very short. A correct coat needs little grooming to blend the various lengths of hair to maintain a neat but shaggy appearance.
Color—Black, gray, silver, red, black and tan, or belge are all acceptable. Blacks may have a rusty cast or a few white or silver hairs mixed with the black. Reds may vary from a brownish red to an orangey tan. Belge has black, brown, and/or white hairs mixed with the red. With various colors, the furnishings may be a bit lighter. Some dogs may have black masks. A small white spot on the chest is not penalized, but large white patches are undesirable. Color is not a major consideration.
Gait—Light, free, sound, balanced, confident, the Affenpinscher carries itself with comic seriousness. Viewed from the front or rear while walking, the legs move parallel to each other. Trotting, the feet will converge toward a midline as speed increases. Unsound gait is to be heavily penalized.
Temperament—General demeanor is game, alert, and inquisitive with great loyalty and affection toward its master and friends. The breed is generally quiet, but can become vehemently excited when threatened or attacked, and is fearless toward any aggressor.
Approved June 12, 2000
Effective July 27, 2000
THE BRUSSELS GRIFFON, NAMED FOR THE BELGIAN CITY OF ITS ORIGIN, IS A lively, sturdy little fellow, classified as a member of the Toy Group due to his small size. Adults usually range in weight from six to twelve pounds. During the early 1800s, it was the custom for coachmen to keep small terrier types as ratters in stables, and those of that period in Belgium were Affenpinscher-like, known as griffonsd’ecurie (wire-coated stable dogs).
Just when or why other breeds were introduced can only be conjecture, as the Brussels stablemen who initiated these crosses apparently kept no records. The Pug, a Victorian favorite from across the Channel, was bred to the native Belgian dog in the mid-1800s. From this cross came a smooth-coated Griffon designated Brabançon after the Belgian national anthem, “La Brabançonne.” At about the same time the King Charles (black-and-tan), and Ruby varieties of the English Toy Spaniel were also crossed with the Belgian dogs. From these two crossings not only did two distinct types of coat emerge—the harsh-coated, bewhiskered rough and the smooth-coated Brabançon—but also the rich red color. The English Toy Spaniel ancestry can also be seen to this day in an occasional (and completely acceptable) web-footed, kink-tailed, or tailless Griffon puppy, often the one with the most desirable head properties. These two short-faced, big-headed, large-eyed breeds forever changed the serviceable little ratter into a delightful small companion dog with a strong, broad, upswept underjaw and a very short, uptilted nose placed high between very dark, lustrous eyes, with the high-domed skull of the English Toy Spaniel. All of this together conjures that wonderful “pout” which gives the Griffon that almost-human expression. No longer serving his original function (in itself obsolete), the Brussels Griffon has evolved into a most intriguing-looking, alert, and active companion.
In intelligence, Griffons are second to none. They are unusually sensitive, and demand much attention and love. The Brussels Griffon is strictly a house dog. Be he small or oversized, if relegated to garage or kennel, no matter how well his creature comforts are met, he will pine without love and personal attention, and should always be made to socialize with people lest he withdraw into his shell. The Griffon is peaceable and enjoys the company of other dogs and also cats. A good hiking companion, he loves to romp and play. Playtime over, he relaxes quietly as close to his owner as possible. His intelligence and desire to please make the Griffon fairly easy to train. Leash training must be started early for short periods and made to seem fun, for in this department our little Belgian friend can dig in his heels and show a stubborn streak.
The Griffon is a sturdy dog with a relatively long life span, with ten to fifteen years being usual. Like all short-faced breeds he is sensitive to temperature extremes, making him an indoor dog. Despite his pushed-in nose, he is not a snorer, nor is he prone to eye ailments. In matters of feeding and general health care, the instructions of the breeder from whom the puppy was obtained should be followed. Coat care in the smooth is simple. Regular brushing and occasional baths suffice. The roughs should be hand plucked, about twice yearly, by pulling out the long, dead hairs by their tips a few hairs at a time. This should be enough to keep the dog neat and comfortable, unless he is being kept in show coat, which requires more frequent grooming. Never bathe a rough before stripping or shortly before showing.
Because of his small size and sensitive nature, the Griffon is not recommended as a pet for young children. The Griffon does make an excellent house dog and devoted, lifelong companion.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BRUSSELS GRIFFON
General Appearance—A toy dog, intelligent, alert, sturdy, with a thickset, short body, a smart carriage and set-up, attracting attention by an almost human expression. There are two distinct types of coat: rough and smooth. Except for coat, there is no difference between the two.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Weight usually 8 to 10 pounds, and should not exceed 12 pounds. Type and quality are of greater importance than weight, and a smaller dog that is sturdy and well proportioned should not be penalized. Proportion—Square, as measured from point of shoulder to rearmost projection of upper thigh and from withers to ground. Substance—Thickset, compact with good balance. Well boned.
Head—A very important feature. An almost human expression. Eyesset well apart, very large, black, prominent, and well open. The eyelashes long and black. Eyelids edged with black. Earssmall and set rather high on the head. May be shown cropped or natural. If natural they are carried semi-erect. Skulllarge and round, with a domed forehead. The stop deep. Nose very black, extremely short, its tip being set back deeply between the eyes so as to form a lay-back. The nostrils large. Disqualifications— Dudley or butterfly nose. Lipsedged with black, not pendulous but well brought together, giving a clean finish to the mouth. Jawsmust be undershot. The incisors of the lower jaw should protrude over the upper incisors. The lower jaw is prominent, rather broad with an upward sweep. Neither teeth nor tongue should show when the mouth is closed. A wry mouth is a serious fault. Disqualifications—Bite overshot. Hanging tongue.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckmedium length, gracefully arched. Topline—Back level and short. Body—A thickset, short body. Brisket should be broad and deep, ribs well sprung. Short-coupled. Tail—Set and held high, docked to about one-third.
Forequarters—Forelegs medium length, straight in bone, well muscled, set moderately wide apart and straight from the point of the shoulders as viewed from the front. Pasterns short and strong. Feet round, small, and compact, turned neither in nor out. Toes well arched. Black pads and toenails preferred.
Hindquarters—Hind legs set true, thighs strong and well muscled, stifles bent, hocks well let down, turning neither in nor out.
Coat—The roughcoatis wiry and dense, the harder and more wiry the better. On no account should the dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no silky hair anywhere. The coat should not be so long as to give a shaggy appearance, but should be distinctly different all over from the smooth coat. The head should be covered with wiry hair, slightly longer around the eyes, nose, cheeks, and chin, thus forming a fringe. The rough coat is hand-stripped and should never appear unkempt. Body coat of sufficient length to determine texture. The coat may be tidied for neatness of appearance, but coats prepared with scissors and/or clippers should be severely penalized. The smoothcoatis straight, short, tight and glossy, with no trace of wiry hair.
Color—Either 1) Red: reddish brown with a little black at the whiskers and chin allowable; 2) Belge: black and reddish brown mixed, usually with black mask and whiskers; 3) Blackand Tan: black with uniform reddish brown markings, appearing under the chin, on the legs, above each eye, around the edges of the ears and around the vent; or 4) Black: solid black. Any white hairs are a serious fault, except for “frost” on the muzzle of a mature dog, which is natural. Disqualification—White spot or blaze anywhere on coat.
Gait—Movement is a straightforward, purposeful trot, showing moderate reach and drive, and maintaining a steady topline.
Temperament—Intelligent, alert and sensitive. Full of self-importance.
SCALE OF POINTS
Dudley or butterfly nose.
White spot or blaze anywhere on coat.
Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990
CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL
THERE HAS BEEN MUCH DEBATE ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE CAVALIER KING Charles Spaniel, but there is no question that dogs of the small spaniel-type existed for many centuries. These dogs have been recorded in paintings and tapestries depicting the aristocracy, and today’s modern Cavalier is directly modeled on its royal ancestors. Paintings from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries nearly always show representative small spaniels with the children of the court families. Cavaliers were obviously a luxury item, for the average person could not afford to keep and feed a dog that did no work.
The Cavalier or Toy Spaniel became a great favorite of Charles I of Britain, and it is from this source that the name King Charles came into use. Charles II continued this interest in the breed, and their popularity increased until the fall of the house of Stuart. Because the favorite breed of William and Mary was the Pug, it soon became a political liability to be associated with the dogs of King Charles. The Cavalier became quite rare as a consequence.
Even though as a young child Queen Victoria owned a Cavalier named Dash, her lifetime interest in developing and breeding dogs, and the advent of formalized dog shows, helped to change the breed radically from its original form. The breed that we know today as the English Toy Spaniel, with its domed head, short upturned muzzle, and slightly undershot bite, was the result of this activity. This breed became so popular that the original version of the Cavalier all but disappeared.
In the early 1920s, an American named Roswell Eldridge came to England to find a pair of spaniels of the type he had seen in the paintings of Gainsborough and Copley. He was unsuccessful in his search, so in 1926 he offered prizes of twenty-five pounds each for the best dog and best bitch of the “Old Type” at the Cruft’s dog show for the next five years. On one hand, the prize generated much ridicule, as any dog entered as a Toy Spaniel which had an old-fashioned head certainly did not possess the correct head for its breed. But on the other hand, the large sum of prize money also generated interest in reviving the original spaniel form. In 1928, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club was founded in England and the breed was given recognition by The Kennel Club (England) in 1944. The first Challenge Certificates in the breed were awarded in 1946. Since that time, the Cavalier has become one of the most popular breeds in Great Britain.
The Cavalier has always had a loyal following in the United States, and the breed was in the Miscellaneous class for many years. The American Kennel Club has recognized the American Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club as the parent club for the breed, and the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was given Toy Group designation and became eligible for full recognition on January 1, 1996.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL
General Appearance—The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is an active, graceful, well-balanced toy spaniel, very gay and free in action; fearless and sporting in character, yet at the same time gentle and affectionate. It is this typical gay temperament, combined with true elegance and royal appearance, which are of paramount importance in the breed. Natural appearance with no trimming, sculpting or artificial alteration is essential to breed type.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height 12 to 13 inches at the withers; weight proportionate to height, between 13 and 18 lbs. A small, well balanced dog within these weights is desirable, but these are ideal heights and weights and slight variations are permissible. Proportion—The body approaches squareness, yet if measured from point of shoulder to point of buttock, is slightly longer than the height at the withers. The height from the withers to the elbow is approximately equal to the height from the elbow to the ground. Substance—Bone moderate in proportion to size. Weedy and coarse specimens are to be equally penalized.
Head—Proportionate to size of dog, appearing neither too large nor too small for the body. Expression—The sweet, gentle, melting expression is an important breed characteristic. Eyes—Large, round, but not prominent and set well apart; color a warm, very dark brown; giving a lustrous, limpid look. Rims dark. There should be cushioning under the eyes, which contributes to the soft expression. Faults—Small, almondshaped, prominent, or light eyes; white surrounding ring. Ears—Set high, but not close, on top of the head. Leather long with plenty of feathering and wide enough so that when the dog is alert, the ears fan slightly forward to frame the face. Skull—Slightly rounded, but without dome or peak; it should appear flat because of the high placement of the ears. Stop is moderate, neither filled nor deep. Muzzle —Full muzzle slightly tapered. Length from base of stop to tip of nose about 11⁄2 inches. Face well filled below eyes. Any tendency towards snipiness undesirable. Nose pigment uniformly black without flesh marks and nostrils well developed. Lips well developed but not pendulous, giving a clean finish. Faults—Sharp or pointed muzzles. Bite—A perfect, regular and complete scissors bite is preferred, i.e., the upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square into the jaws. Faults—Undershot bite, weak or crooked teeth, crooked jaws.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Fairly long, without throatiness, well enough muscled to form a slight arch at the crest. Set smoothly into nicely sloping shoulders to give an elegant look. Topline —Level both when moving and standing. Body—Short-coupled with ribs well sprung but not barrelled. Chest moderately deep, extending to elbows, allowing ample heart room. Slightly less body at the flank than at the last rib, but with no tucked-up appearance. Tail—Well set on, carried happily but never much above the level of the back, and in constant characteristic motion when the dog is in action. Docking is optional. If docked, no more than one third to be removed.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back. Forelegs straight and well under the dog with elbows close to the sides. Pasterns strong and feet compact with well-cushioned pads. Dewclaws may be removed.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters construction should come down from a good broad pelvis, moderately muscled; stifles well turned and hocks well let down. The hindlegs when viewed from the rear should parallel each other from hock to heel. Faults—Cow or sickle hocks.
Coat—Of moderate length, silky, free from curl. Slight wave permissible. Feathering on ears, chest, legs and tail should be long, and the feathering on the feet is a feature of the breed. No trimming of the dog is permitted. Specimens where the coat has beenaltered by trimming, clipping, or by artificial means shall be so severely penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition. Hair growing between the pads on the underside of the feet may be trimmed.
Color—Blenheim—Rich chestnut markings well broken up on a clear, pearly white ground. The ears must be chestnut and the color evenly spaced on the head and surrounding both eyes, with a white blaze between the eyes and ears, in the center of which may be the lozenge or “Blenheim spot.” The lozenge is a unique and desirable, though not essential, characteristic of the Blenheim. Tricolor—Jet black markings well broken up on a clear, pearly white ground. The ears must be black and the color evenly spaced on the head and surrounding both eyes, with a white blaze between the eyes. Rich tan markings over the eyes, on cheeks, inside ears and on underside of tail. Ruby— Whole-colored rich red. Black and Tan—Jet black with rich, bright tan markings over eyes, on cheeks, inside ears, on chest, legs, and on underside of tail. Faults—Heavy ticking on Blenheims or Tricolors, white marks on Rubies or Black and Tans.
Gait—Free moving and elegant in action, with good reach in front and sound, driving rear action. When viewed from the side, the movement exhibits a good length of stride, and viewed from front and rear it is straight and true, resulting from straight-boned fronts and properly made and muscled hindquarters.
Temperament—Gay, friendly, non-aggressive with no tendency towards nervousness or shyness. Bad temper, shyness and meanness are not to be tolerated and are to be soseverely penalized as to effectively remove the specimen from competition.
Approved January 10, 1995
Effective April 30, 1995
PUREBRED DOGS IN ART
A special feature of the milestone twentieth edition of The Complete Dog Book is this portfolio selected from the American Kennel Club and AKC Museum of the Dog collections.Taken together, the collections form the world’s most comprehensive gathering of dog-related art and artifacts.
A popular topic among dog breeders is the delicate balance between art and science. Some study art for clues to their breed’s original form and function. Others use the painted or sculpted contours of a great champion to help visualize the ideal specimen described in the written breed standard.
And yet, the dog you live with might look different from his ancestors immortalized on canvas. Dog breeds, along with the civilizations that spawn them, evolve. Vast shifts of human populations, technological advances, changing notions of beauty, dog kind’s long march from worker to companion— these are just a few factors contributing to a breed’s physical development.
Also, the nature of art itself should be considered. Since time immemorial the artist has had license to not just depict a subject, but to interpret it. They say that in any good portrait there is a dash of caricature, and this likely holds true in the following pages.
I Hear a Voice Saint Bernard Maud Earl (English, 1863–1943) AKC COLLECTION
Mike, an Imported Irish Water Spaniel Alexander Pope (American, 1849–1924) AKC COLLECTION, GIFT OF MRS. RICHARD DERBY
Ch. Merridip Ethel Ann and Ch. Downberry Volunteer Old English Sheepdogs Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) COURTESY OF WILLIAM SECORD GALLERY, NEW YORK
Ch. Kay’s Don Feleciano-L Chihuahua Roy Andersen (American, contemporary) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF THE JANET A. HOOKER CHARITABLE TRUST AND GILBERT S. KAHN
Kerry Blue Terriers Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) AKC COLLECTION
Scottish Deerhounds in an Interior Conradijn Cunaeus (Dutch, 1828–1895) AKC COLLECTION
Wan Lung Chow Chow Gustav Muss-Arnolt (American, 1858–1927) AKC COLLECTION, GIFT OF HARRY T. PETERS JR.
Bullmastiff Christine Truesdale Shreve (American, contemporary) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF JOE MILLER/ ART SHOW AT THE DOG SHOW
Greyhound Near Stonehenge Edmund Bristow (English, 1787–1876) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF J. P. MORGAN & CO.
Int. Ch. Seedly Sterling Collie F. Sinet (English, circa 1916) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MR. AND MRS. ROYAL PETERSON II
The Beat Of Wings Cocker Spaniels Roy Andersen (American, contemporary) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF THE ARTIST
Bichon Frise Louis-Eugéne Lambert (French, 1825–1900) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MR. AND MRS. ALVIN E. MAURER JR.
The Totteridge XI Smooth Fox Terriers Arthur Wardle (English, 1864–1949) AKC COLLECTION
Ch. Lancelot of Rowanoaks and Ch.Tynside Taraleeds Bedlington Terriers Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF ELSIE MCMILLIN, FREDERICK ROCKEFELLER, AND WILLIAM ROCKEFELLER
On the Scent Bloodhounds John Sargent Noble (English, 1848–1896) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MR. AND MRS. ROBERT V. LINDSAY
Briard Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF BRIARD CLUB OF AMERICA THROUGH MARC DELANIER
Horse, Mastiff, and Newfoundland Arthur Batt (English, 1846–1911) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MARIE A. MOORE
Dog with a Ball Papillon Malcom S. Tucker (English, circa 1890) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF CATHERINE D. GAUSS
Ch. Windholme’s Market Rose Dalmatian Gustav Muss-Arnolt (American, 1858–1927) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF THE WESTMINSTER KENNEL CLUB FOUNDATION
Pug and Terrier John Sargent Noble (English, 1848–1896) AKC COLLECTION
Maltese Arthur Wardle (English, 1864–1949) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF TOM AND ANN STEVENSON
Reynal’s Monarch Harrier Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) AKC COLLECTION, GIFT OF BERNARD V. BURNS JR., FROM THE ESTATE OF ALICE HESS
Ch. Argus von Schloss-Kesselweiher of Giralda German Shepherd Dog Reuben Ward Binks (English, 1880–1940) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MRS. EVELYN N. BOYER
Zillah Saluki Charles Hamilton (English, circa 1830) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF CYNTHIA S. WOOD
Ch. Bang Away Of Sirrah Crest Boxer T.Tashira (American, contemporary) AKC COLLECTION, GIFT OF DR. AND MRS. R. C. HARRIS AND THE AMERICAN BOXER CLUB
Golden Retriever Reuben Ward Binks (English, 1880–1940) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF JAY AND MARY REMER
The Intruder Wire Fox Terriers, Irish Terrier Arthur Wardle (English, 1864–1949) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MR. AND MRS. RONALD MENAKER
Ch. Estat d’Argeles Of Basquaerieand Ch. Estagel d’Argeles Of Basquaerie Great Pyrenees Edwin Megargee (American, 1883–1958) AKC MUSEUM COLLECTION, GIFT OF MARY CRANE
English Setter, Gordon Setter, and Pointer Gustav Muss-Arnolt (American, 1858–1927) AKC COLLECTION
Head Study White Terrier Carl Reichert (American, circa 1872) COLLECTION OF MR. AND MRS. DENNIS B. SPRUNG
French Bulldog S. Raphael (American, mid-twentieth century) AKC COLLECTION
THOUGH LITTLE IS KNOWN OF THE CHIHUAHUA’S ORIGIN, RESEARCH HAS uncovered Chihuahua-like images from many times and in many places in the world, including China, Egypt, Malta, Mexico, South America, and parts of Europe. Beginning in the ninth century, historians documented similar little dogs in artifacts, written descriptions, and artwork, including Botticelli’s 1482 Sistine Chapel fresco, Scenes from the Life of Moses.
A breed called the Techichi was common to the Toltecs, who occupied Mexico for several centuries. Evidence firmly establishing the Techichi in the Toltec period is shown in stone carvings in the monastery of Huejotzingo, found on the highway from Mexico City to Puebla. The carvings give a full head view and picture of an entire dog that closely resembles the modern Chihuahua. The Techichi was silent, small but not tiny, heavy boned, and had a long coat.
When the Aztecs conquered the Toltecs in the twelfth century, they brought with them a small, hairless breed similar to dogs found in China. One theory is that the present-day Chihuahua originated with the crossing of those two early breeds. It is believed the hairless dog was responsible for the reduction in size. Aztec culture flourished for several centuries. Dogs of the rich were highly regarded, and those blue in color were held as sacred. Paradoxical as it seems, the common people found little use for this breed. There are even tales of these dogs being eaten.
Upon the conquest and destruction of Aztec civilization by Cortez beginning in 1519, the treasures of Montezuma II, including his dogs, were lost for centuries. The earlier Toltec civilization was centered close to present-day Mexico City, but evidence of the modern breed’s first specimens was discovered in the State of Chihuahua in the mid-1800s. The canine remains were found in ruins close to Casas Grandes, said to be the remains of a palace built by the emperor.
While the Techichi’s principal home was Mexico, there is a historic letter written by Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand of Spain that adds a curious note to knowledge of the breed. Reporting on what is today Cuba, Columbus wrote that he had found a small, domesticated dog that was mute.
Legend and history are rich in tales of a Chihuahua ancestor described as a popular pet and a religious necessity. Archaeologists have discovered the breed’s remains in human graves both in Mexico and parts of the United States. It is believed this was because of the dog’s role in the religious and mythological life of the Aztecs. Upon the cremation of both dog and human the sins of the human were supposedly transferred to the dog, and the indignation of the deity was thereby averted. The dog was also credited with guiding the human soul through the dark underworld, fighting off evil spirits and leading the soul of the deceased to its ultimate destination.
The breed’s history in the United States began about 1850, when Americans acquired these little dogs from Mexico. Many were from the State of Chihuahua, hence the breed name. Both varieties, long coat and smooth coat, were popular. The presence of a molera (open fontanel) was a breed characteristic. Modern Chihuahuas are quite different from their early ancestors. American breeders have produced a diminutive dog, one with few peers in size, symmetry, conformation, alertness, or intelligence. Chihuahuas are clannish, recognizing and often preferring their own breed. The two varieties are identical except for coat.
In This Is the Chihuahua, Maxwell Riddle wrote, “Whatever its origin, the modern Chihuahua is a purely American dog. The American standard is worldwide and probably every Chihuahua in the world traces to purely American blood.” The American Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1904, and the first three registered Chihuahuas were long-coats. The first Chihuahua champion, Beppie, was listed in the 1908 AKC Stud Book. The two coat varieties were recognized in 1952.
Today the Chihuahua is a treasured companion. The terrier-like attitude of this small breed is not only entertaining but also serves as an alarm system for the family. Along with quickness and a self-assured attitude comes the occasional adoring look of love, all of which make the Chihuahua an endearing family member.
The breed has consistently ranked among the top ten in popularity and leads the Toy Group in championships attained each year. The popularity and diminutive size of the Chihuahua require uncompromising adherence by judges and breeders to the descriptions set forth in the breed standard.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CHIHUAHUA
General Appearance—A graceful, alert, swift-moving little dog with saucy expression, compact, and with terrier-like qualities of temperament.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Weight—A well balanced little dog not to exceed 6 pounds. Proportion—The body is off-square; hence, slightly longer when measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, than height at the withers. Somewhat shorter bodies are preferred in males. Disqualification—Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.
Head—A well rounded “apple dome” skull, with or without molera. Expression—Saucy. Eyes—Full, but not protruding, balanced, set well apart—luminous dark or luminous ruby. (Light eyes in blond or white-colored dogs permissible.) Ears— Large, erect-type ears, held more upright when alert, but flaring to the sides at a 45-degree angle when in repose, giving breadth between the ears. Muzzle—Moderately short, slightly pointed. Cheeks and jaws lean. Nose—Self-colored in blond types, or black. In moles, blues, and chocolates, they are self-colored. In blond types, pink nose permissible. Bite—Level or scissors. Overshot or undershot bite, or any distortion of the bite or jaw, should be penalized as a serious fault. Disqualifications—Broken down or cropped ears.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Slightly arched, gracefully sloping into lean shoulders. Topline—Level. Body—Ribs rounded and well sprung (but not too much “barrel-shaped”). Tail—Moderately long, carried sickle either up or out, or in a loop over the back, with tip just touching the back. (Never tucked between legs.) Disqualifications—Cropped tail, bobtail.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Lean, sloping into a slightly broadening support above straight forelegs that set well under, giving a free play at the elbows. Shoulders should be well up, giving balance and soundness, sloping into a level back. (Never down or low.) This gives a chestiness, and strength of forequarters, yet not of the “Bulldog” chest. Feet—A small, dainty foot with toes well split up but not spread, pads cushioned. (Neither the hare nor the cat foot.) Pasterns—Fine.
Hindquarters—Muscular, with hocks well apart, neither out nor in, well let down, firm and sturdy. The feet are as in front.
Coat—In the SmoothCoats, the coat should be of soft texture, close and glossy. (Heavier coats with undercoats permissible.) Coat placed well over body with ruff on neck preferred, and more scanty on head and ears. Hair on tail preferred furry. In Long Coats, the coat should be of a soft texture, either flat or slightly curly, with undercoat preferred. Ears—Fringed. (Heavily fringed ears may be tipped slightly if due to the fringes and not to weak ear leather, never down.) Tail—Full and long (as a plume). Feathering on feet and legs, pants on hind legs and large ruff on the neck desired and preferred. Disqualification—In Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness.
Color—Any color—Solid, marked or splashed.
Gait—The Chihuahua should move swiftly with a firm, sturdy action, with good reach in front equal to the drive from the rear. From the rear, the hocks remain parallel to each other, and the foot fall of the rear legs follows directly behind that of the forelegs. The legs, both front and rear, will tend to converge slightly toward a central line of gravity as speed increases. The side view shows good, strong drive in the rear and plenty of reach in the front, with head carried high. The topline should remain firm and the backline level as the dog moves.
Temperament—Alert, with terrier-like qualities.
Any dog over 6 pounds in weight.
Broken down or cropped ears.
Cropped tail, bobtail.
In Long Coats, too thin coat that resembles bareness.
Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990
ALTHOUGH THE EXACT ORIGIN OF THE CHINESE CRESTED IS UNKNOWN, IT is believed to have evolved from African hairless dogs which were reduced in size by the Chinese, who seemed to favor smaller toy breeds. The breed in earlier times was known by several different names, including the Chinese Hairless, the Chinese Edible Dog, the Chinese Ship Dog, and the Chinese Royal Hairless. It also took on local nicknames, depending on where it was found. Thus, in Egypt it was called a Pyramid or Giza Hairless, in southern Africa it was the South African Hairless, and in Turkey a larger version was known as the Turkish Hairless.
It is believed that for centuries Chinese mariners sailed the high seas with the breed on board, and that puppies were frequently traded with local merchants at port cities. It is known that during the time of the plagues that originated in China, hairless dogs were stowed aboard ships to hunt vermin which were heavily infested with fleas carrying disease. Today the breed can still be found in ancient port cities around the world.
Spanish explorers found Chinese Crested dogs in Mexico and other parts of Central and South America as early as the 1500s. British, French, and Portuguese explorers likewise found the breed in various parts of Africa and Asia during the 1700s and 1800s. The diaries of early missionaries, who frequently traveled with the explorers, describe finding the breed in many of these countries.
By the mid-nineteenth century, Cresteds began to appear in numerous European paintings and prints. During the 1850s and 1860s, some dogs of the breed were exhibited at a local zoological show in England, and photos of them were published, but no breeding program was established.
Entries of the breed at American dog shows began in the late 1800s. In the 1800s, Ida Garrett, a young New York newspaper reporter, became interested in Cresteds and other hairless breeds. Over the course of sixty years Garrett bred, exhibited, and wrote extensively about dogs—hairless breeds in particular. She traveled widely and imported several prized Cresteds. In the 1920s she assisted Debra Woods, of Homestead, Florida, in obtaining Chinese Cresteds and other hairless breeds, and the two women became close associates. For nearly forty years they jointly promoted the Chinese Crested—Garrett through her prolific writing, speaking, and dog club activities, and Woods through her extensive breeding, advertising, and registration service.
Mrs. Woods began keeping a log of all of her dogs in the 1930s and by the 1950s it had become a registration service for all hairless breeds and eventually the American Hairless Dog Club. She took great pride in maintaining these studbooks and closely guarded them until her death in 1969. They were maintained for nearly twelve years by Jo Ann Orlik and then became the property of the American Chinese Crested Club, founded in 1979.
Gypsy Rose Lee, the famous exotic dancer, acquired a Crested from her sister, actress June Havoc, in the early 1950s and became an ardent breeder and helped considerably in publicizing the breed.
The Chinese Crested was admitted to the AKC Miscellaneous class in September 1985. It became eligible for AKC registration effective February 1, 1991, and eligible to show at AKC-licensed events on April 1, 1991.
At first sight the two types of Chinese Crested—hairless and powderpuff—may appear to be different breeds. However, as one becomes more familiar with the breed it is easy to see that they are almost exactly the same, except that the coated have more hair. The hairless should have hair on its head, feet, and tail—the powderpuff is born fully coated. Breeding a hairless to a hairless, or a hairless to a powderpuff, can produce either type. But breeding a powderpuff to a powderpuff will always produce the powderpuff type.
A unique feature of hairless dogs is that they have sweat glands. Rather than panting to release body heat as coated dogs do, they simply sweat. Properly cared for, the skin of the hairless remains soft to the touch, yet it is thicker and tougher than that of a coated dog, and it heals very quickly if scratched or cut.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CHINESE CRESTED
General Appearance—A toy dog, fine-boned, elegant and graceful. The distinct varieties are born in the same litter. The Hairless with hair only on the head, tail and feet and the Powderpuff, completely covered with hair. The breed serves as a loving companion, playful and entertaining.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Ideally 11 to 13 inches. However, dogs that are slightly larger or smaller may be given full consideration. Proportion— Rectangular—proportioned to allow for freedom of movement. Body length from withers to base of tail is slightly longer than the height at the withers. Substance—Fine-boned and slender but not so refined as to appear breakable or alternatively, not a robust, heavy structure.
Head—Expression—Alert and intense. Eyes—Almond-shaped, set wide apart. Dark-colored dogs have dark-colored eyes, and lighter-colored dogs may have lighter-colored eyes. Eye rims match the coloring of the dog. Ears—Uncropped large and erect, placed so that the base of the ear is level with the outside corner of the eye. Skull—The skull is arched gently over the occiput from ear to ear. Distance from occiput to stop equal to distance from stop to tip of nose. The head is wedge-shaped viewed from above and the side. Stop—Slight but distinct. Muzzle—Cheeks taper cleanly into the muzzle. Nose—Dark in dark-colored dogs; may be lighter in lighter-colored dogs. Pigment is solid. Lips—Lips are clean and tight. Bite—Scissors or level in both varieties. Missing teeth in the Powderpuff are to be faulted. The Hairless variety is not to be penalized for absence of full dentition.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Neck is lean and clean, slightly arched from the withers to the base of the skull and carried high. Topline—Level to slightly sloping croup. Body—Brisket extends to the elbow. Breastbone is not prominent. Ribs are well developed. The depth of the chest tapers to a moderate tuck-up at the flanks. Light in loin. Tail—Tail is slender and tapers to a curve. It is long enough to reach the hock. When dog is in motion, the tail is carried gaily and may be carried slightly forward over the back. At rest the tail is down with a slight curve upward at the end resembling a sickle. In the Hairless variety, two-thirds of the end of the tail is covered by long, flowing feathering referred to as a plume. The Powderpuff variety’s tail is completely covered with hair.
Forequarters—Angulation—Layback of shoulders is 45 degrees to point of shoulder allowing for good reach. Shoulders—Clean and narrow. Elbows—Close to body. Legs—Long, slender and straight. Pasterns—Upright, fine and strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet—Hare foot, narrow with elongated toes. Nails are trimmed to moderate length.
Hindquarters—Angulation—Stifle moderately angulated. From hock joint to ground perpendicular. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet—Same as forequarters.
Coat—The Hairless variety has hair on certain portions of the body: the head (called a crest), the tail (called a plume) and the feet from the toes to the front pasterns and rear hock joints (called socks). The texture of all hair is soft and silky, flowing to any length. Placement of hair is not as important as overall type. Areas that have hair usually taper off slightly. Wherever the body is hairless, the skin is soft and smooth. Head Crest begins at the stop and tapers off between the base of the skull and the back of the neck. Hair on the ears and face is permitted on the Hairless and may be trimmed for neatness in both varieties. Tail Plume is described under Tail.
The Powderpuff variety is completely covered with a double soft and silky coat. Close examination reveals long thin guard hairs over the short silky undercoat. The coat is straight, of moderate density and length. Excessively heavy, kinky or curly coat is to be penalized. Grooming is minimal, consisting of presenting a clean and neat appearance.
Color—Any color or combination of colors.
Gait—Lively, agile and smooth without being stilted or hackneyed. Comes and goes at a trot moving in a straight line.
Temperament—Gay and alert.
Approved June 12, 1990
Effective April 1, 1991
ENGLISH TOY SPANIEL
SINCE THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION HAS BEEN FROM EAST TO WEST, IT IS ONLY natural that most of our oldest breeds of dog should trace their origin to the eastern countries. Such is the case of the English Toy Spaniel, an affectionate, intelligent little dog that captivated royalty, aristocrats, and the wealthy for at least three centuries.
It has been a widespread fallacy that the toy spaniel made its first appearance in England during the reign of Charles II in the seventeenth century, for it was in honor of this sovereign that the black-and-tan variety took its name. Yet the toy spaniel had been known in England and in Scotland more than a hundred years before.
Just how long the toy spaniel had been known in Europe, particularly the south of Europe, before it was carried to England, must remain a matter of doubt. Yet most authorities are agreed that it goes back to Japan, and possibly China, of very ancient times.
According to Leighton, the English Toy Spaniel had its origin in Japan, was taken from there to Spain, and thence to England. Yet the extremely short nose of the breed might constitute evidence that it went from Spain to Japan, where it developed its present characteristics. There is a story, also, that specimens of this toy breed were brought from Japan by Captain Saris, a British naval officer, in 1613. They were presents from the Emperor of Japan—Japanese royal gifts always included dogs—to King James I.
The tale of Captain Saris seems a logical one, but it cannot be accepted as marking the debut of the toy spaniel into England and Scotland. The breed was known in England long before that, for Dr. John Caius, celebrated professor and the physician to Queen Elizabeth I, included it in his work Of Englishe Dogges. He refers to it as the “Spaniell Gentle, otherwise called the Comforter.” His other references stamp it as almost the identical dog of today.
It is difficult to associate the toy spaniel with the austere Elizabeth; evidence that the breed was the favorite of the warmer-hearted Mary Queen of Scots, in the same century, is much more acceptable. The early years of Mary, during the first third of the sixteenth century, were spent in France. When she returned to Scotland as queen, she brought specimens of the breed with her, and these dogs remained her favorites up to the time of her execution. In fact, her especial pet refused to leave her, even on the scaffold.
All toy spaniels up to the time of King Charles II (b. 1630) appear to have been of the black-and-tan variety, later called the King Charles. This king’s favorites were brought over from France by Henrietta of Orleans, and one is described as a black-and-white.
The development of the other varieties—the Prince Charles, which is a tricolor of white, black, and tan; the Ruby, which is mahogany red; and the Blenheim, which is white and chestnut red—occurred at later times. All are identical in their characteristics, with the exception of color. For a long time they were bred without any reference to color. Often the same litter would produce dogs of several varieties. It is only in modern times that the science of color breeding set the different varieties apart.
The history of the Blenheim variety seems more definite than that of the King Charles, although in some ways incompatible with other data. The development of the Blenheim, or red and white, is credited to John Churchill, the first Duke of Marlborough. Churchill, famous soldier and diplomat, was made an earl in 1689 and became a duke in 1702. At that time he acquired Blenheim, which has been the family seat of the Marlboroughs ever since.
It was written by Edward C. Ash that the first duke received as a present from China a pair of red-and-white Cocker Spaniels, and that these dogs were the basis of his subsequent breeding. The Chinese origin of the breed is mentioned also by Lady de Gex, who claims that during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries there were carried from China to Italy numerous specimens of both red-and-white and black-and-white spaniels. These dogs subsequently were crossed with Cockers and Springers, intensifying the sporting instincts which the English Toy Spaniel still retains.
The dukes of Marlborough bred the Blenheim variety for many generations, and apparently they did so without the infusion of much outside blood—unless it were that of the Cocker and other varieties of spaniel. It was said by Sir Walter Scott in 1800 that the duke of Marlborough’s Blenheims were the smallest and best Cockers in England. They were used very successfully for woodcock shooting. And writers of a still later period describe the dogs found at Blenheim as larger than other specimens of the red-and-white. Also, the Marlborough strain did not have such exaggerated short noses.
Regardless of the early history of the English Toy Spaniel, it seems certain that many specimens of modern times trace their origin back to various small spaniels of England. Selective breeding has reduced them down to the limits of nine to twelve pounds, but it has not altogether erased their natural hunting instincts.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE ENGLISH TOY SPANIEL
General Appearance—The English Toy Spaniel is a compact, cobby and essentially square toy dog possessed of a short-nosed, domed head, a merry and affectionate demeanor and a silky, flowing coat. His compact, sturdy body and charming temperament, together with his rounded head, lustrous dark eye, and well cushioned face, proclaim him a dog of distinction and character. The important characteristics of the breed areexemplified by the head.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The most desirable weight of an adult is eight to fourteen pounds. General symmetry and substance are more important than the actual weight; however, all other things being equal, the smaller sized dog is to be preferred. Proportion—Compact and essentially square in shape, built on cobby lines. Substance—Sturdy of frame, solidly constructed.
Head—Head large in comparison to size, with a plush, chubby look, albeit with a degree of refinement which prevents it from being coarse.
Expression—Soft and appealing, indicating an intelligent nature.
Eyes—Large and very dark brown or black, set squarely on line with the nose, with little or no white showing. The eye rims should be black.
Ears—Very long and set low and close to the head, fringed with heavy feathering.
Skull—High and well domed; from the side, curves as far out over the eyes as possible.
Stop—Deep and well-defined.
Muzzle—Very short, with the nose well laid back and with well developed cushioning under the eyes.
Jaw—Square, broad, and deep, and well turned up, with lips properly meeting to give a finished appearance.
Nose—Large and jet black in color, with large, wide open nostrils.
Bite—Slightly undershot; teeth not to show. A wry mouth should be penalized; a hanging tongue is extremely objectionable.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Moderate in length; nicely arched. Topline—Level. Body—Short, compact, square and deep, on cobby lines, with a broad back. Sturdy of frame, with good rib and deep brisket.
Tail—The tail is docked to two to four inches in length and carried at or just slightly above the level of the back. The set of the tail is at the back’s level. Many are born with a shorter or screw tail which is acceptable. The feather on the tail should be silky and from three to four inches in length, constituting a marked “flag” of a square shape. The tail and its carriage is an index of the breed’s attitude and character.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back; legs well boned and strong, dropping straight down from the elbow; strong in pastern. Feet, front and rear, are neat and compact; fused toes are often seen and are acceptable.
Hindquarters—Rear legs are well muscled and nicely angulated to indicate strength, and parallel of hock.
Coat—Profusely coated, heavy fringing on the ears, body, and on the chest, and with flowing feathering on both the front and hind legs, and feathering on the feet. The coat is straight or only slightly wavy, with a silken, glossy texture. Although the Blenheim and the Ruby rarely gain the length of coat and ears of the Prince Charles and King Charles, good coats and long ear fringes are a desired and prized attribute. Over-trimming of the body, feet or tail fringings should be penalized.
Color—The Blenheim (red and white) consists of a pearly white ground with deep red or chestnut markings evenly distributed in large patches. The ears and the cheeks are red, with a blaze of white extending from the nose up the forehead and ending between the ears in a crescentic curve. It is preferable that there be red markings around both eyes. The Blenheim often carries a thumb mark or “Blenheim Spot” placed on the top and the center of the skull.
The Prince Charles (tricolor) consists of a pearly white ground, with evenly distributed black patches, solid black ears and black face markings. It is preferable that there be black markings around both eyes. The tan markings are of a rich color, and on the face, over the eyes, in the lining of the ears and under the tail.
The King Charles (black and tan) is a rich, glossy black with bright mahogany tan markings appearing on the cheeks, lining of the ears, over the eyes, on the legs and underneath the tail. The presence of a small white chest patch about the size of a quarter, or a few white hairs on the chest of a King Charles Spaniel are not to be penalized; other white markings are an extremely serious fault.
The Ruby is a self-colored, rich mahogany red. The presence of a small white chest patch about the size of a quarter, or a few white hairs on the chest of a Ruby Spaniel are not to be penalized. Other white markings are an extremely serious fault.
Gait—Elegant with good reach in the front, and sound, driving rear action. The gait as a whole is free and lively, evidencing stable character and correct construction. In profile, the movement exhibits a good length of stride, and viewed from front and rear it is straight and true, resulting from straight-boned fronts and properly made and muscled hindquarters.
Temperament—The English Toy Spaniel is a bright and interested little dog, affectionate and willing to please.
Approved June 13, 1989
Effective August 1, 1989
THE HAVANESE IS AN OLD BREED OF THE BICHON FAMILY. THE EARLIEST references to the ancestors of the modern Havanese go back to Pliny the Elder, who studied the natural history of the Mediterranean region in the first century A.D. The breed may have originated on the island of Malta. Dogs in both Spain and Italy played an integral part in bringing the Havanese to the New World. Also known as the Havana Silk Dog, today’s Havanese descended from the dogs that found a permanent home in Cuba, where they were popular among the wealthy Cubans. After the Cuban revolution in 1959, many of these dogs ended up in the United States.
Today the Havanese is a happy, outgoing, sturdy, short-legged small dog. Combining an outgoing temperament with their trainability, Havanese are excellent candidates for obedience training.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE HAVANESE
General Appearance—The Havanese is a small sturdy dog of immense charm. He is slightly longer than tall, and covered with a profuse mantle of untrimmed long, silky, wavy hair. His plumed tail is carried loosely curled over his rump. A native of Cuba, he has evolved over the centuries from the pampered lapdog of the aristocracy into what he is today—the quintessential family pet of a people living on a small tropical island. His duties traditionally have been those of companion, watchdog, child’s playmate and herder of the family poultry flock. His presentation in the show ring should reflect his function—always in excellent condition but never so elaborately coifed as to preclude an impromptu romp in the leaves, as his character is essentially playful rather than decorative.
While historically always a toy dog and therefore never overly large or coarse, he does not appear so fragile as to make him unsuitable as a child’s pet. His unique coat reflects centuries in the tropics, and protects against heat. It is remarkably soft and light in texture, profuse without being harsh or woolly. Likewise, the furnishings of the head are believed to protect the eyes from the harsh tropical sun, and have traditionally never been gathered in a topknot for this reason.
In both structure and gait, the Havanese is not easily mistaken for any other breed. His characteristic topline, rising slightly from withers to rump is a result of moderate angulation both fore and aft combined with a typically short upper arm. The resulting springy gait is flashy rather than far-reaching and unique to the breed. The overall impression of the dog on the move is one of agility rather than excessive ability to cover ground. These characteristics of temperament, structure and gait contribute in large part to the character of the breed, and are essential to type.
Size, Proportion and Substance—The height range is from 81⁄2 to 111⁄2 inches, with the ideal being between 9 and 101⁄2 inches, measured at the withers, and is slightly less than the length from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, creating a rectangular outline rather than a square one. The Havanese is a sturdy little dog, and should never appear fragile. A coarse dog with excessive bone is likewise contrary to type and therefore equally undesirable. The minimum height ranges set forth in the description above shall not apply to dogs and bitches under twelve months of age. Disqualification: Height at withers under 81⁄2 inches or over 111⁄2 inches, except that the minimum height ranges set forth in the description above shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.
Head—The expression is soft and intelligent, mischievous rather than cute. The eyes are dark brown, large, almond-shaped, and set rather widely apart. Dark eyes are preferred irrespective of coat color, although the chocolate colored dog may have somewhat lighter eyes. The pigment on the eye-rims is complete, solid black for all colors except for the chocolate dog, which has complete solid, dark chocolate pigment. No other dilution of pigment is acceptable. Ears are of medium length; the leather, when extended, reaches halfway to the nose. They are set high on the skull, slightly above the endpoint of the zygomatic arch, and are broad at the base, showing a distinct fold. When the dog is alert, the ears lift at the base, producing an unbroken shallow arc from the outer edge of each ear across the backskull. The backskull is broad and slightly rounded. The stop is moderate. Length of muzzle is slightly less than length of backskull measured from stop to point of occiput and the planes are level. The nose is broad and squarish, fitting a full and rectangular muzzle, with no indication of snipiness. The pigment on the nose and lips is complete, solid black for all colors except for the chocolate dog which has complete solid, dark chocolate brown pigment. No other dilution of pigment is acceptable. A scissors bite is ideal. Full complement of incisors preferred. Disqualification: Complete absence of black (or chocolate in the chocolate dog) pigmentation on the eye-rims, nose or lips.
Neck, Topline, and Body—The neck is of moderate length, in balance with the height and length of the dog. It carries a slight arch and blends smoothly into the shoulders. The topline is straight but not level, rising slightly from withers to rump. There is no indication of a roach back. The body, measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, is slightly longer than the height at the withers. This length comes from the ribcage and not from the short, well-muscled loin. The chest is deep, rather broad in front, and reaches the elbow. The ribs are well sprung. There is a moderate tuck-up. The tail is high-set and plumed with long, silky hair. It arcs forward over the back, but neither lies flat on the back nor is tightly curled. On the move the tail is carried loosely curled over the rump. The long plume of the hair may fall straight forward or to either side of the body. The tail may not be docked.
Forequarters—Shoulder layback is moderate, lying not more than 40 degrees off vertical. Extreme shoulder layback will negatively affect proper gait, and should be faulted. The tops of the shoulder blades lie in at the withers, allowing the neck to merge smoothly into the back. The upper arm is relatively short, but there is sufficient angle between the shoulder and upper arm to set the legs well under the body with a pronounced forechest. The elbows turn neither in nor out, and are tight to the body. Forelegs are well-boned and straight when viewed from any angle. The distance from the foot to the elbow is equal to the distance from elbow to withers. The pasterns are short, strong and flexible, very slightly sloping. Dewclaws may be removed. The feet are round, with well arched toes, and turn neither in nor out. Pads and nails may be black, white, pink, or a combination of these colors. Chocolate dogs may also have brown pads and nails.
Hindquarters—The hind legs are well-boned and muscular through the thigh, with moderate angulation. The hocks are short and turn neither in nor out. In normal stance, the hind legs are parallel to each other from hock to heel and all the joints are in line when viewed from the rear. The rear assembly, in which the rump is slightly higher than the withers, contributes to the breed’s unique, springy gait. Dewclaws should be removed. The hind feet fall slightly behind a perpendicular line from point of buttock when viewed from the side. Hind feet have well arched toes and turn neither in nor out. Pads and nails may be black, white, pink or a combination of these colors. Chocolate dogs may also have brown pads and nails.
Coat—The coat is double, but without the harsh standoff guard hair and woolly undercoat usually associated with double coats. Rather, it is soft and light in texture throughout, though the outer coat carries slightly more weight. The long hair is abundant and, ideally, wavy. An ideal coat will not be so profuse nor overly long as to obscure the natural lines of the dog. Puppies may have a shorter coat. A single, flat coat or an excessively curly coat are equally contrary to type and should be faulted. Disqualification: A coarse, wiry coat. An atypical short coat on an adult dog (atypical would be smooth, flat coat with, or without furnishings).
Color—All colors are acceptable, singly or in any combination. No preference is given to one color over another. The skin may be freckled or parti-colored.
Gait—The Havanese gait is lively, elegant, resilient, and unique, contributing greatly to the breed’s overall essential typiness. The characteristic “spring” is caused by the strong rear drive combined with a “flashy” front action effected by the short upper arm. While a truly typey dog is incapable of exaggerated reach and drive, the action does not appear stilted or hackneyed. The slightly higher rear may cause a correctly built specimen to show a flash of pad coming and going. The front legs reach forward freely. There is good extension in the rear and no tendency toward sickle hocks. The topline holds under movement, neither flattening nor roaching. Head carriage is typically high, even on the move.
Temperament—Playful and alert. The Havanese is both trainable and intelligent with a sweet, non-quarrelsome disposition.
Presentation—The dog should be shown as naturally as is consistent with good grooming. He may be shown either brushed or corded. His coat should be clean and well conditioned. In mature specimens, the length of the coat may cause it to fall to either side down the back but it should not appear to be artificially parted. The long, untrimmed head furnishings may fall forward over the eyes, naturally and gracefully to either side of the skull, or be held in two small braids beginning above the outer corner of the eyes, secured with plain elastic bands. (No ribbons or bows are permitted.) Corded coats will naturally separate into wavy sections in young dogs and will in time develop into cords. Adult corded dogs will be completely covered with a full coat of tassle-like cords. In either coat, minimal trimming of the hair at the inside corner of the eye is allowed for hygienic purposes only, not an attempt to resculpt the planes of the head. Minimal trimming around the anal and genital areas, for hygienic purposes only, is permissible but should not be noticeable on presentation. The hair on the feet and between the pads should be neatly trimmed for the express purpose of a tidy presentation. Any other trimming or sculpting of the coat is to be severely penalized as to preclude placement. Because correct gait is essential to breed type, the Havanese is presented at natural speed on a loose lead.
Faults—The foregoing description is that of the ideal Havanese. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the “original purpose of the breed.”
Height at withers under 81⁄2 or over 111⁄2 inches except that the minimum height range shall not apply to dogs or bitches under twelve months of age.
Complete absence of black (or chocolate in the chocolate dog) pigmentation on the eye-rims,nose or lips.
Coarse, wiry coat.
An atypical short coat on an adult. (Atypical refers to a smooth, flat coat with, or withoutfurnishings.)
Approved May 7, 2001
Effective June 27, 2001
THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND IS THE SMALLEST OF THE FAMILY OF GAZEHOUNDS (dogs that hunt by sight). The breed is believed to have originated more than 2,000 years ago in the Mediterranean basin, possibly in the countries now known as Greece and Turkey. This belief is based on the depiction of miniature Greyhounds in the early decorative arts of these countries and on the archaeological discoveries of small Greyhound skeletons. Though never excessively popular, by the Middle Ages the breed had become distributed throughout southern Europe and was a favorite of the Italians of the sixteenth century, with whom miniature dogs were much in demand. Thus they became known as Italian Greyhounds. As a breed it has survived many centuries, prized for its beauty, small size, and sweet disposition. It appears frequently in the work of such Renaissance artists as Giotto, Carpaccio, Memling, Van de Weyden, Gerard David, and Hieronymus Bosch.
The breed was a favorite of various royal families of Europe, including the consort of England’s James I, Anne of Denmark; Mary Beatrice d’Este of Modena, the Italian consort of James II; Frederick the Great of Prussia; Catherine the Great of Russia; and Queen Victoria.
The first volume of The Kennel Club (England) studbook listed forty of the breed. Volume III of the AKC Stud Book (1886) contains the first Italian Greyhound registration in this country. However, it was not until 1950 that as many as fifty were registered in the United States in a single year, and 1957 before an equal number were registered in Great Britain.
Following the world wars, when the breed was in danger of extinction, fresh stock was imported into England from the United States, giving evidence of the high quality to be found in America. Italian Greyhounds have competed successfully in all parts of the country in dog shows, obedience trials, and lure coursing events with a number of Best in Show awards to its credit.
The Italian Greyhound is a true Greyhound in miniature. There is some difference of opinion as to whether he was originally bred for hunting small game or was meant to be simply a pet and companion. It seems most likely that he filled both roles, and for this reason he is very adaptable to both city and country living. He is rather luxury loving and enjoys the comforts of an apartment; at the same time being a true hound, he likes exercise and outdoor activities.
The Italian Greyhound can weigh as little as five pounds or as much as fourteen or fifteen pounds, but the average weight is about eight pounds. His coat is short and smooth and requires little grooming. He is odorless and sheds little. Though he gives the impression of fragility, the breed is hardy, seldom ill, and thrives in such northern countries as Sweden and Scotland. The bitches are easy whelpers and good mothers.
Perhaps the most outstanding characteristic of the Italian Greyhound is his affectionate disposition. He thrives best when this affection is returned, and is happiest with his owner and immediate family, though he may sometimes seem a trifle aloof with strangers. He is sensitive, alert, and intelligent, and remains playful until long past puppyhood. He adapts to most households and gets along well with children and with other pets.
While very similar in appearance to the Greyhound, the Italian Greyhound is considerably smaller and more slender in all proportions. He differs also from his larger relative in his characteristic and elegant gait, high-stepping and free. His coat should be fine, smooth, and glossy, and any color and markings are acceptable, except that a dog with brindle markings or a dog with the tan markings normally found on black-and-tan dogs of other breeds will be disqualified in the show rings.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND
Description—The Italian Greyhound is very similar to the Greyhound, but much smaller and more slender in all proportions and of ideal elegance and grace.
Head—Narrow and long, tapering to nose, with a slight suggestion of stop.
Skull—Rather long, almost flat.
Muzzle—Long and fine.
Nose—Dark. It may be black or brown or in keeping with the color of the dog. A light or partly pigmented nose is a fault.
Teeth—Scissors bite. A badly undershot or overshot mouth is a fault.
Eyes—Dark, bright, intelligent, medium in size. Very light eyes are a fault.
Ears—Small, fine in texture; thrown back and folded except when alerted, then carried folded at right angles to the head. Erect or button ears severely penalized.
Neck—Long, slender and gracefully arched.
Body—Of medium length, short coupled; high at withers, back curved and drooping at hindquarters, the highest point of curve at start of loin, creating a definite tuckup at flanks.
Shoulders—Long and sloping.
Chest—Deep and narrow.
Forelegs—Long, straight, set well under shoulder; strong pasterns, fine bone.
Hindquarters—Long, well-muscled thigh; hind legs parallel when viewed from behind, hocks well let down, well-bent stifle.
Feet—Harefoot with well-arched toes. Removal of dewclaws optional.
Tail—Slender and tapering to a curved end, long enough to reach the hock; set low, carried low. Ring tail a serious fault, gay tail a fault.
Coat—Skin fine and supple, hair short, glossy like satin and soft to the touch.
Color—Any color and markings are acceptable except that a dog with brindle markings and a dog with the tan markings normally found on black-and-tan dogs of other breeds must be disqualified.
Action—High stepping and free, front and hind legs to move forward in a straight line.
Size—Height at withers, ideally 13 inches to 15 inches.
A dog with brindle markings. A dog with the tan markings normally found on black-and-tandogs of other breeds.
Approved December 14, 1976
IN JAPAN, THERE ARE INU (“DOGS”) AND THERE ARE CHIN. TO THE JAPANESE, the distinction needs no clarification. Chin are royalty. They are descendants of dogs that warmed the laps of Chinese aristocracy and kept court with the ladies of the Imperial Palace.
The Japanese Chin is a very old toy breed, as witnessed by the fact that renderings of dogs closely resembling them decorate old Chinese temples as well as ancient pottery and embroideries. While the breed origin is basically obscured by time, it is thought that these dogs originated in China centuries ago. Different stories abound concerning when the Chin came to Japan. It is said that Zen Buddhist teachers may have brought the dogs in A.D. 520. Others say that a Korean prince may have taken a pair to Japan as a gift for the Emperor in 732, or that a Chinese emperor may have presented a pair to the Japanese royal family at least 1,000 years ago.
Regardless of their exact origin, the Chin became known as the Japanese Chin to differentiate these parti-colored dogs from their cousin or, as some report, brother, the Pekingese. The Chin were closely kept in the hands of the nobility and frequently given to diplomats and foreigners as gifts of esteem to those who had rendered outstanding service to Japan.
Japan chose to isolate itself from Westerners in the 1600s, when the Tokugawa shogunate took control of the country. Thus, with the exception of a Dutch trading post, Japan was closed to the Western world. This 200-year isolation ended in 1854, with the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa. Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who led the American expeditionary forces that opened the country, was presented with some of these prized little dogs as a gift. Those that survived the long voyage home reintroduced the breed to the rest of the world. The Chin quickly became a favorite with England’s Queen Alexandra, her Marlborough House set, and various other European royals. These dogs were at the feet and in the lap of some of that time’s most prominent leaders. Ships heading home from Japan included the Chin among their treasures, and the breed soon found itself in households large and small in Europe and in America. Breeders from around the world helped to establish and maintain the breed for the enjoyment of the dedicated fancier in future generations through world wars, diseases, and natural disasters.
In 1888, the first Chin registered by the American Kennel Club was simply known as Jap, and the breed was registered in America as a Japanese Spaniel. In 1977, however, the breed’s parent club successfully convinced the AKC to officially change the breed’s name to Japanese Chin.
The Chin is a small breed whose ideal height is eight to eleven inches at the withers. The dogs are aristocratic in appearance and stylish in carriage. They have few health problems, and their biggest drawback is that they tend to shed. Being single coated, their hair seldom mats if they are brushed once a week and bathed once a month. Males tend to have more coat than females.
The Chin can be black and white; white with lemon or red markings, including all shades from pale lemon to deep red as well as sable; and black and white with tan points. In all cases, the nose color must match the markings, and the eyes must be dark. Different colors may appear in the same litter when either the sire or dam is of other than pure black and white inheritance.
Japanese Chin are good companions, bright, alert, smart, and determined. Naturally clean and playful, they make ideal pets for young and old alike, and are happiest when with their owners. The breed is known for being a bit stubborn but is quick to learn, as long as the dogs think it is their idea. The Chin is a sensitive breed with definite likes and dislikes and rarely, if ever, forgets a friend or foe. The dogs love to be on top of things and are often described as being part cat and part dog, ruling their household and all who reside in it.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE JAPANESE CHIN
General Appearance—The Japanese Chin is a small, well balanced, lively, aristocratic toy dog with a distinctive Oriental expression. It is light and stylish in action. The plumed tail is carried over the back, curving to either side. The coat is profuse, silky, soft and straight. The dog’s outline presents a square appearance.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Ideal size is 8 inches to 11 inches at the highest point of the withers. Proportion —Length between the sternum and the buttock is equal to the height at the withers. Substance—Solidly built, compact, yet refined. Carrying good weight in proportion to height and body build.
Head—Expression—Bright, inquisitive, alert and intelligent. The distinctive Oriental expression is characterized by the large broad head, large wide-set eyes, short broad muzzle, ear feathering, and the evenly patterned facial markings. Eyes—Set wide apart, large, round, dark in color, and lustrous. A small amount of white showing in the inner corners of the eyes is a breed characteristic that gives the dog a look of astonishment. Ears—Hanging, small, V-shaped, wide apart, set slightly below the crown of the skull. When alert, the ears are carried forward and downward. The ears are well feathered and fit into the rounded contour of the head. Skull—Large, broad, slightly rounded between the ears but not domed. Forehead is prominent, rounding toward the nose. Wide across the level of the eyes. In profile, the forehead and muzzle touch on the same vertical plane of a right angle whose horizontal plane is the top of the skull. Stop— Deep. Muzzle—Short and broad with well-cushioned cheeks and rounded upper lips that cover the teeth. Nose—Very short with wide, open nostrils. Set on a level with the middle of the eyes and upturned. Nose leather is black in the black and white and the black and white with tan points, and is self-colored or black in the red and white. Bite— The jaw is wide and slightly undershot. A dog with one or two missing or slightly misaligned teeth should not be severely penalized. The Japanese Chin is very sensitive to oral examination. If the dog displays any hesitancy, judges are asked to defer to the handler for presentation of the bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Moderate in length and thickness. Well set on the shoulders enabling the dog to carry its head up proudly. Topline—Level. Body—Square, moderately wide in the chest with rounded ribs. Depth of rib extends to the elbow. Tail—Set on high, carried arched up over the back and flowing to either side of the body.
Forequarters—Legs—Straight, and fine boned, with the elbows set close to the body. Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet—Hare-shaped with feathering on the ends of the toes in the mature dog. Point straight ahead or very slightly outward.
Hindquarters—Legs—Straight as viewed from the rear and fine boned. Moderate bend of stifle. Removal of dewclaws is optional. Feet—Hare-shaped with feathering on the ends of the toes in the mature dog. Point straight ahead.
Coat—Abundant, straight, single, and silky. Has a resilient texture and a tendency to stand out from the body, especially on neck, shoulders, and chest areas where the hair forms a thick mane or ruff. The tail is profusely coated and forms a plume. The rump area is heavily coated and forms culottes or pants. The head and muzzle are covered with short hair except for the heavily feathered ears. The forelegs have short hair blending into profuse feathering on the backs of the legs. The rear legs have the previously described culottes, and in mature dogs, light feathering from hock joint to the foot.
Color—Either black and white, red and white, or black and white with tan points. The term tan points shall include tan or red spots over each eye, inside the ears, on both cheeks, and at the anal vent area if displaying any black. The term red shall include all shades of red, orange, and lemon, and sable, which includes any aforementioned shade intermingled or overlaid with black. Among the allowed colors there shall be no preference when judging. A clearly defined white muzzle and blaze are preferable to a solidly marked head. Symmetry of facial markings is preferable. The size, shape, placement or number of body patches is not of great importance. The white is clear of excessive ticking.
Gait—Stylish and lively in movement. Moves straight with front and rear legs following in the same plane.
Temperament—A sensitive and intelligent dog whose only purpose is to serve man as a companion. Responsive and affectionate with those it knows and loves but reserved with strangers or in new situations.
Approved December 8, 1992
Effective January 27, 1993
THE MALTESE, ONCE KNOWN AS “YE ANCIENT DOGGE OF MALTA,” HAS FOR more than twenty-eight centuries been an aristocrat of the canine world.
Malta has been prominent in history from earliest times. Though settled by the Phoenicians about 1500 B.C., we know that other Mediterranean races lived there as far back as 3500 B.C. Many writers of old have spoken in glowing terms of the fame and opulence of Malta, justly celebrated for proficiency in the arts and crafts of peace and war as well as for the high state of civilization of its people. Amid these surroundings, among these people, the tiny Maltese lived.
In the first century A.D., Publius, the Roman governor of Malta, had a beloved Maltese named Issa. The poet Martial made this attachment famous in one of his celebrated epigrams:
Issa is more frolicsome than Catulla’s sparrow. Issa is purer than a dove’s kiss. Issa is gentler than a maiden. Issa is more precious than Indian gems . . . Lest the last days that she sees light should snatch her from him forever, Publius has had her picture painted.
This last referred to a painting of Issa said to have been so lifelike that it was difficult to tell the picture from the living dog.
Other classical authors discoursed on the beauty, intelligence, and lovable qualities of Maltese dogs, among them Callimachus the Elder, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Saint Clement of Alexandria, and others equally celebrated.
The Greeks erected tombs to their Maltese, and from the fifth century on, Greek ceramic art shows innumerable paintings of these dogs. A fine model of one was dug up in the Fayum in Egypt—it is not unlikely that this was the kind of dog worshipped by the Egyptians. And it is said that queens of old served the choicest foods out of golden vases to their Maltese.
In 1570, Dr. John Caius, physician to Elizabeth I, wrote:
There is among us another kind of highbred dogs, but outside the common run those which Callimachus called Melitei from the Island of Melita . . . That kind is very small indeed and chiefly sought after for the pleasure and amusement of women. The smaller the kind, the more pleasing it is; so that they may carry them in their bosoms, in their beds and in their arms while in their carriages.
The Italian scientist Ulysses Aldrovanus (1522–1605) claimed to have seen one of these dogs sold for the equivalent of $2,000. Considering the value of the dollar in the time of Queen Elizabeth, the price paid would be equal to a five-figure sum in this day. Since the time of Good Queen Bess, the Maltese has often been mentioned—writers invariably drawing attention to its small size. In 1607, E. Topsell said they were “not bigger than common ferrets.” Almost 200 years later, in 1792, Linnaeus referred to them as being “about the size of squirrels,” while Danberton in his History Naturelle wrote that “ladies carried them in their sleeves.”
The first Maltese exhibited in the United States was white and listed as a Maltese Lion Dog at Westminster’s first show in 1877. At the 1879 Westminster show, a colored Maltese was exhibited as a Maltese Skye Terrier. The American Kennel Club accepted the Maltese for registration in 1888.
The fact that for so many centuries Maltese have been the household pets of people of culture, wealth, and fastidious taste may account for their refinement, fidelity, and cleanliness. It should be remembered that they are spaniels, not terriers, and that, as history has long recorded them, they are healthy and spirited even though tiny.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MALTESE
General Appearance—The Maltese is a toy dog covered from head to foot with a mantle of long, silky, white hair. He is gentle-mannered and affectionate, eager and sprightly in action, and, despite his size, possessed of the vigor needed for the satisfactory companion.
Head—Of medium length and in proportion to the size of the dog. Theskullis slightly rounded on top, the stop moderate. Thedropearsare rather low set and heavily feathered with long hair that hangs close to the head. Eyesare set not too far apart; they are very dark and round, their black rims enhancing the gentle yet alert expression. Themuzzleis of medium length, fine and tapered but not snipy. Thenoseis black. Theteeth meet in an even, edge-to-edge bite, or in a scissors bite.
Neck—Sufficient length of neck is desirable as promoting a high carriage of the head.
Body—Compact, the height from the withers to the ground equaling the length from the withers to the root of the tail. Shoulder blades are sloping, the elbows well knit and held close to the body. The back is level in topline, the ribs well sprung. The chest is fairly deep, the loins taut, strong, and just slightly tucked up underneath.
Tail—A long-haired plume carried gracefully over the back, its tip lying to the side over the quarter.
Legs and Feet—Legs are fine-boned and nicely feathered. Forelegs are straight, their pastern joints well knit and devoid of appreciable bend. Hind legs are strong and moderately angulated at stifles and hocks. The feet are small and round, with toe pads black. Scraggly hairs on the feet may be trimmed to give a neater appearance.
Coat and Color—The coat is single, that is, without undercoat. It hangs long, flat, and silky over the sides of the body almost, if not quite, to the ground. The long head-hair may be tied up in a topknot or it may be left hanging. Any suggestion of kinkiness, curliness, or woolly texture is objectionable. Color, pure white. Light tan or lemon on the ears is permissible, but not desirable.
Size—Weight under 7 pounds, with from 4 to 6 pounds preferred. Overall quality is to be favored over size.
Gait—The Maltese moves with a jaunty, smooth, flowing gait. Viewed from the side, he gives an impression of rapid movement, size considered. In the stride, the forelegs reach straight and free from the shoulders, with elbows close. Hind legs to move in a straight line. Cowhocks or any suggestion of hind leg toeing in or out are faults.
Temperament—For all his diminutive size, the Maltese seems to be without fear. His trust and affectionate responsiveness are very appealing. He is among the gentlest mannered of all little dogs, yet he is lively and playful as well as vigorous.
Approved March 10, 1964
MANCHESTER TERRIER (TOY)
UNTIL 1959, MANCHESTER TERRIERS AND TOY MANCHESTER TERRIERS were registered as separate breeds, although interbreeding was permitted. But since then, they have been registered as a single breed, the Manchester Terrier, with two varieties: Toy and Standard. For more information on the early development of the Manchester Terrier, refer to the Standard Manchester breed history in the Terrier Group.
Development of the Toy from the larger dog was first a matter of chance and later the business of selective breeding. It began when litters produced by larger dogs would include puppies of small stature. People liked them and wanted more, so naturally breeders tried to produce more small puppies. Some say the Toy was so highly prized that surreptitious matings with Italian Greyhounds were done to keep size to a minimum. Fortunately, these crosses were not perpetuated.
Few Toy-size dogs were available for breeding, however, and fanciers apparently resorted to excessive inbreeding. During the Victorian era, weight dropped to an alarming two-and-a-half pounds, and dogs were admittedly delicate. Realizing their mistake, breeders endeavored to correct their technique and succeeded in producing dogs of more normal Toy weight and renewed vigor.
When ear cropping was prohibited in Britain, many older fanciers tried to produce an attractive-looking dog with small, button ears. They became discouraged, however, and consequently many ceased to breed. A few staunch devotees were left to keep the breed alive, and their efforts were rewarded.
The Toy variety of the Manchester Terrier today no longer exhibits extremes of any sort. It has true Manchester type, with a flat skull, triangular eyes, accented kiss marks, and a sleek, ebony coat with clearly delineated markings. The sole difference between the Standard and the Toy (besides size, of course) is ear type. Both varieties have moderately small, thin ears that are narrow at the base and pointed at the tips. The ears are set high on the skull and quite close together. The Standard Manchester Terrier has either erect or button ears; if cropped, the ears are long and carried straight up. Cropping the Toy’s ears is cause for disqualification from the show ring. The Toy ear is carried naturally erect without any sideways flare.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MANCHESTER TERRIER
General Appearance—A small, black, short-coated dog with distinctive rich mahogany markings and a taper style tail. In structure the Manchester presents a sleek, sturdy, yet elegant look, and has a wedge-shaped, long and clean head with a keen, bright, alert expression. The smooth, compact, muscular body expresses great power and agility, enabling the Manchester to kill vermin and course small game.
Except for size and ear options, there are no differences between the Standard and Toy varieties of the Manchester Terrier. The Toy is a diminutive version of the Standard variety.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Toy variety shall not exceed 12 pounds. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: 7 pounds and under, over 7 pounds and not exceeding 12 pounds.
The Standard variety shall be over 12 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds. Dogs weighing over 22 pounds shall be disqualified. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: over 12 pounds and not exceeding 16 pounds, over 16 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds.
The Manchester Terrier, overall, is slightly longer than tall. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, is slightly less than the length, measured horizontally from the point of the shoulders to the rear projection of the upper thigh.
The bone and muscle of the Manchester Terrier is of sufficient mass to ensure agility and endurance.
Head—The Manchester Terrier has a keen and alert expression. The nearly black, almond-shaped eyesare small, bright, and sparkling. They are set moderately close together, slanting upwards on the outside. The eyes neither protrude nor sink in the skull. Pigmentation must be black.
Correct ears for the Standard variety are either the naturally erect ear, the cropped ear, or the button ear. No preference is given to any of the ear types. The naturally erect ear, and the button ear, should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or “bell” ears are a serious fault. Cropped ears should be long, pointed and carried erect.
The only correct ear for the Toy variety is the naturally erect ear. They should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or “bell” ears are a serious fault. Cropped, or cut ears are a disqualification in the Toy variety.
The head is long, narrow, tight skinned, and almost flat with a slight indentation up the forehead. It resembles a blunted wedge in frontal and profile views. There is a visual effect of a slight stop as viewed in profile.
The muzzleand skullare equal in length. The muzzle is well filled under the eyes with no visible cheek muscles. The underjaw is full and well defined and the nose is black.
Tight black lips lie close to the jaw. The jaws should be full and powerful with full and proper dentition. The teeth are white and strongly developed with a true scissors bite. Level bite is acceptable.
Neck, Topline, Body—The slightly arched neckshould be slim and graceful, and of moderate length. It gradually becomes larger as it approaches, and blends smoothly with the sloping shoulders. Throatiness is undesirable.
The topline shows a slight arch over the robust loins falling slightly to the tail set. A flat back or roached back is to be severely penalized.
The chest is narrow between the legs and deep in the brisket. The forechest is moderately defined.
The ribs are well sprung, but flattened in the lower end to permit clearance of the forelegs.
The abdomen should be tucked up extending in an arched line from the deep brisket.
The taper style tailis moderately short reaching no further than the hock joint. It is set on at the end of the croup. Being thicker where it joins the body, the tail tapers to a point. The tail is carried in a slight upward curve, but never over the back.
Forequarters—The shoulder blades and the upper arm should be relatively the same length. The distance from the elbow to the withers should be approximately the same as the distance from the elbow to the ground. The elbows should lie close to the brisket. The shoulders are well laid back.
The forelegs are straight, of proportionate length, and placed well under the brisket. The pasterns should be almost perpendicular.
The frontfeetare compact and well arched. The two middle toes should be slightly longer than the others. The pads should be thick and the toenails should be jet black.
Hindquarters—The thigh should be muscular with the length of the upper and lower thighs being approximately equal. The stifle is well turned.
The well let down hocks should not turn in nor out as viewed from the rear. The hindlegsare carried well back.
The hind feet are shaped like those of a cat, with thick pads and jet black nails.
Coat—The coat should be smooth, short, dense, tight and glossy; not soft.
Color—The coat color should be jet black and rich mahogany tan, which should not run or blend into each other, but abruptly form clear, well defined lines of color. There shall be a very small tan spot over each eye, and a very small tan spot on each cheek. On the head, the muzzle is tanned to the nose. The nose and nasal bone are jet black. The tan extends under the throat, ending in the shape of the letter V. The inside of the ears are partly tan. There shall be tan spots, called “rosettes,” on each side of the chest above the front legs. These are more pronounced in puppies than in adults. There should be a black “thumbprint” patch on the front of each foreleg at the pastern. The remainder of the foreleg shall be tan to the carpus joint. There should be a distinct black “pencil mark” line running lengthwise on the top of each toe on all four feet. Tan on the hind leg should continue from the pencilling on the toes up the inside of the legs to a little below the stifle joint. The outside of the hind legs should be black. There should be tan under the tail, and on the vent, but only of such size as to be covered by the tail.
White on any part of the coat is a serious fault, and shall disqualify whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan shall be disqualified.
Color and/or markings should never take precedence over soundness and type.
Gait—The gait should be free and effortless with good reach of the forequarters, showing no indication of hackney gait. Rear quarters should have strong, driving power to match the front reach. Hocks should fully extend. Each rear leg should move in line with the foreleg of the same side, neither thrown in nor out. When moving at a trot, the legs tend to converge towards the center of gravity line beneath the dog.
Temperament—The Manchester Terrier is neither aggressive nor shy. He is keenly observant, devoted, but discerning. Not being a sparring breed, the Manchester is generally friendly with other dogs. Excessive shyness or aggressiveness should be considered a serious fault.
Standard variety—Weight over 22 pounds.
Toy variety—Cropped or cut ears.
Both varieties—White on any part of the coat whenever the white shall form a patch orstripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan.
Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991
THE MINIATURE PINSCHER HAS EXISTED FOR SEVERAL CENTURIES. GERMANY, of course, is its native land, but it has been bred as well in the Scandinavian countries for a long time. Real development of the breed abroad began in 1895, when Germany’s Pinscher Klub was formed. This club, now called the Pinscher-Schnauzer Klub, gave the breed its initial standard.
From the time of the Pinscher Klub’s formation, the breed improved both in type and popularity, but more rapid headway was evident from 1905 up until World War I. That war, of course, handicapped progress in almost everything. Following the Armistice, or in about 1919, fanciers abroad once more started to advance the Miniature Pinscher, and as a result of importations to the United States breeding was undertaken here to a limited extent.
There were few Miniature Pinschers seen at American dog shows before 1928, the impetus to breed advancement dating from 1929 when the Miniature Pinscher Club of America was formed. Previously, the breed had been shown in the Miscellaneous class. The little dog’s popularity has increased steadily.
Although the Miniature Pinscher, nicknamed the “Minpin,” is similar to a Doberman on a smaller scale, it has a nature and way about it suggestive of a much larger dog. It is especially valuable as a watchdog, sometimes keener even than a dog twice its size. It is a born show dog, too, noted for its lively temperament and intelligence, and it is often used on the stage because of its style, smartness, and energy. The close, slick coat requires scant attention, hence always looks neat and clean. And last but not least, the Minpin’s fondness for home and master is exceptional.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MINIATURE PINSCHER
General Appearance—The Miniature Pinscher is structurally a well balanced, sturdy, compact, short-coupled, smooth-coated dog. He naturally is well groomed, proud, vigorous and alert. Characteristic traits are his hackney-like action, fearless animation, complete self-possession, and his spirited presence.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—10 inches to 12 1⁄2 inches in height allowed, with desired height 11 inches to 111⁄2 inches measured at highest point of the shoulder blades. Disqualification—Under 10 inches or over 121⁄2 inches in height. Length of males equals height at withers. Females may be slightly longer.
Head—In correct proportion to the body. Tapering, narrow with well fitted but not too prominent foreface which balances with the skull. No indication of coarseness. Eyes full, slightly oval, clear, bright and dark even to a true black, including eye rims, with the exception of chocolates, whose eye rims should be self-colored. Ears set high, standing erect from base to tip. May be cropped or uncropped.
Skull appears flat, tapering forward toward the muzzle. Muzzle strong rather than fine and delicate, and in proportion to the head as a whole. Head well balanced with only a slight drop to the muzzle, which is parallel to the top of the skull. Nose black only, with the exception of chocolates which should have a self-colored nose. Lips and Cheeks small, taut and closely adherent to each other. Teeth meet in a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck proportioned to head and body, slightly arched, gracefully curved, blending into shoulders, muscular and free from suggestion of dewlap or throatiness. Topline—Back level or slightly sloping toward the rear both when standing and gaiting. Body compact, slightly wedge-shaped, muscular. Forechest well developed. Well-sprung ribs. Depth of brisket, the base line of which is level with points of the elbows. Belly moderately tucked up to denote grace of structural form. Short and strong in loin. Croup level with topline. Tail set high, held erect, docked in proportion to size of dog.
Forequarters—Shoulders clean and sloping with moderate angulation coordinated to permit the hackney-like action. Elbows close to the body. Legs—Strong bone development and small clean joints. As viewed from the front, straight and upstanding. Pasterns strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.
Hindquarters—Well muscled quarters set wide enough apart to fit into a properly balanced body. As viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. From the side, well angulated. Thighs well muscled. Stifles well defined. Hocks short, set well apart. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet small, catlike, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads. Nails thick, blunt.
Coat—Smooth, hard and short, straight and lustrous, closely adhering to and uniformly covering the body.
Color—Solid clear red. Stag red (red with intermingling of black hairs). Black with sharply defined rust-red markings on cheeks, lips, lower jaw, throat, twin spots above eyes and chest, lower half of forelegs, inside of hind legs and vent region, lower portion of hocks and feet. Black pencil stripes on toes. Chocolate with rust-red markings the same as specified for blacks, except brown pencil stripes on toes. In the solid red and stag red a rich vibrant medium to dark shade is preferred. Disqualifications —Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on the front of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair). White on any part of dog which exceeds one-half inch in its longest dimension.
Gait—The forelegs and hind legs move parallel, with feet turning neither in nor out. The hackney-like action is a high-stepping, reaching, free and easy gait in which the front leg moves straight forward and in front of the body and the foot bends at the wrist. The dog drives smoothly and strongly from the rear. The head and tail are carried high.
Temperament—Fearless animation, complete self-possession, and spirited presence.
Under 10 inches or over 121⁄2 inches in height.
Any color other than listed. Thumb mark (patch of black hair surrounded by rust on thefront of the foreleg between the foot and the wrist; on chocolates, the patch is chocolate hair).
White on any part of dog which exceeds one half (1⁄2) inch in its longest dimension.
Approved July 8, 1980
Reformatted February 21, 1990
THE PAPILLON, KNOWN IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AS THE DWARF SPANIEL, is the modern development of those little dogs often seen pictured in rare old paintings and tapestries. Rubens, Watteau, Fragonard, and Boucher all depicted them, and their popularity was so great that noble ladies of the day did not consider their portraits complete unless one of these elegant little dogs was pictured with them. Madame de Pompadour was the proud possessor of two, Inez and Mimi by name. Marie Antoinette was another ardent admirer, and as early as 1545 there is record of one having been sold to a lady who later ascended the throne of Poland.
It is Spain that we have to thank for the Papillon’s primary rise to fame, though Italy, particularly Bologna, probably developed the largest trade. Many were sold to the court of Louis XIV, who had his choice among those brought into France. Prices ran high, and the chief trader, a Bolognese named Filipponi, developed a large business with the court of France and elsewhere. Most of the dogs were transferred from one country to the other upon the backs of mules.
As time went on, a change developed in the Dwarf Spaniel which gave rise to the name Papillon. During the days of Louis the Great, the Dwarf Spaniel possessed large, drooping ears, but gradually there came into being an erect-eared type, the ears being set obliquely on the head and so fringed as to resemble the wings of a butterfly. (Papillon is French for butterfly.) The causes of this change remain largely theoretical, but whatever they may be, we now have a toy dog whose type of body and coat is about the same as that of the original Dwarf Spaniel of Spain and Italy, but whose ears may be either erect or drooping. Both types may, and often do, appear in the same litter. On the Continent, as well as in Great Britain, the drop-eared variety is called Phalene, although the breed as a whole carries the name Papillon, as it does in this country. Here both types are judged together and with equality. Another change concerns color. Originally, almost all were of solid color. Today, white predominates as a ground color, with patches of other colors, and solid-colored dogs are disqualified. In conformation judging, there is no preference between correct ears or correct drop ears.
Papillons are hardy dogs. It is unnecessary to coddle them in winter, and they do not suffer particularly in severe hot weather. They delight in country activities and are equally contented in apartments. As ratters, they are extremely useful. Too small to kill a rat outright, they will worry it until it is exhausted, then dispatch it quickly. As a rule, the bitches whelp easily and give little trouble when raising puppies.
Although they have been exhibited for many years in the United States, it was not until 1935 that Papillons were represented in the American Kennel Club by their own breed club, the Papillon Club of America.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PAPILLON
General Appearance—The Papillon is a small, friendly, elegant toy dog of fine-boned structure, light, dainty and of lively action; distinguished from other breeds by its beautiful butterfly-like ears.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height at withers, 8 to 11 inches. Fault— Over 11 inches. Disqualification—Over 12 inches. Proportion—Body must be slightly longer than the height at withers. It is not a cobby dog. Weight is in proportion to height. Substance—Of fine-boned structure.
Head—Eyesdark, round, not bulging, of medium size and alert in expression. The inner corners of the eyes are on line with the stop. Eye rims black. Ears—The ears of either the erect or drop type should be large with rounded tips, and set on the sides and toward the back of the head. (1) Ears of the erect type are carried obliquely and move like the spread wings of a butterfly. When alert, each ear forms an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the head. The leather should be of sufficient strength to maintain the erect position. (2) Ears of the drop type, known as the Phalene, are similar to the erect type, but are carried drooping and must be completely down. Faults—Ears small, pointed, set too high; one ear up, or ears partly down.
Skull—The head is small. The skull is of medium width and slightly rounded between the ears. A well-defined stop is formed where the muzzle joins the skull. Muzzle—The muzzle is fine, abruptly thinner than the head, tapering to the nose. The length of the muzzle from the tip of the nose to stop is approximately one-third the length of the head from tip of nose to occiput. Nose black, small, rounded and slightly flat on top. The following fault shall be severely penalized—Nose not black. Lips tight, thin and black. Tongue must not be visible when jaws are closed. Bite—Teeth must meet in a scissors bite. Faults—Overshot or undershot.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckof medium length. Topline—The backline is straight and level. Body—The chest is of medium depth with ribs well sprung. The belly is tucked up. Taillong, set high and carried well arched over the body. The tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. The plume may hang to either side of the body. Faults—Low-set tail; one not arched over the back, or too short.
Forequarters—Shoulders well developed and laid back to allow freedom of movement. Forelegs slender, fine-boned and must be straight. Removal of dewclaws on forelegs optional. Front feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out.
Hindquarters—Well developed and well angulated. The hind legs are slender, fine-boned, and parallel when viewed from behind. Hocks inclined neither in nor out. Dewclaws, if any, must be removed from hind legs. Hind feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out.
Coat—Abundant, long, fine, silky, flowing, straight with resilient quality, flat on back and sides of body. A profuse frill on chest. There is no undercoat. Hair short and close on skull, muzzle, front of forelegs, and from hind feet to hocks. Ears well fringed, with the inside covered with silken hair of medium length. Backs of the forelegs are covered with feathers diminishing to the pasterns. Hind legs are covered to the hocks with abundant breeches (culottes). Tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. Hair on feet is short, but fine tufts may appear over toes and grow beyond them, forming a point.
Color—Always parti-color or white with patches of any color(s). On the head, color(s) other than white must cover both ears, back and front, and extend without interruption from the ears over both eyes. A clearly defined white blaze and nose band are preferred to a solidly marked head. Symmetry of facial markings is desirable. The size, shape, placement and presence or absence of patches of color on the body are without importance. Among the colors there is no preference, provided nose, eye rims and lips are well pigmented black.
The following faults shall be severely penalized—Color other than white not covering both ears, back and front, or not extending from the ears over both eyes. A slight extension of the white collar onto the base of the ears, or a few white hairs interspersed among the color, shall not be penalized, provided the butterfly appearance is not sacrificed. Disqualifications—An all-white dog or a dog with no white.
Gait—Free, quick, easy, graceful, not paddlefooted, or stiff in hip movements.
Temperament—Happy, alert and friendly. Neither shy nor aggressive.
Height over 12 inches.
An all-white dog or a dog with no white.
Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991
FASCINATING BY REASON OF ITS EXOTIC BACKGROUND AND DISTINCTIVE personality, the Pekingese holds an honored place in the dog world. In ancient times it was held sacred in China, the land of its origin, and intricately carved Foo Dog idols of varying sizes, ranging in materials from ivory to bronze and jewel-studded wood, have been handed down.
The exact date of origin is debatable, the earliest known record of its existence being traceable to the Tang Dynasty of the eighth century. However, the very oldest strains (held only by the imperial family) were kept pure, and the theft of one of the sacred dogs was punishable by death.
The characteristics we seek to retain and perfect today were in evidence in the earliest Pekingese, as shown by three of the names by which they were designated in ancient China. Some were called Lion Dogs, evidently because of their massive fronts, heavy manes, and tapering hindquarters. We find a second group called Sun Dogs because of their strikingly beautiful golden red coats. Since those early days, many other darker red shades have become identified with certain strains, but even today we see numerous “Sun Dogs” at our shows. A third name was Sleeve Dog, this being given only to those diminutive specimens which were carried about in the voluminous sleeves of the members of the imperial household.
Introduction of Pekingese into the Western world occurred as a result of the looting of the Imperial Palace at Peking by the British in 1860. It is a matter of history that five were found behind some draperies in the apartments of the aunt of the emperor. Apparently they were her particular pets—she committed suicide on the approach of the British troops. It is said that throughout the palace the bodies of many of these dogs were found, the Chinese having killed them rather than have them fall into the hands of the Europeans. The five Pekingese found by the English were of different colors; a fawn and white parti-color was the one presented to Queen Victoria on the troops’ return to Great Britain.
Pekingese were not exhibited in England until 1893, when Mrs. Loftus Allen exhibited one at Chester. But the undeniable beauty and interesting history of the breed placed it in the foreground, where it has since remained. The three dogs which were outstanding in the breed’s earliest development in the Occident were Ah Cum and Mimosa, called the “pillars of the studbook” in England, followed by a large black-and-tan specimen named Boxer, so-called because he was obtained by a Major Gwayne during the Boxer uprising in 1900. Curiously enough, Boxer had a docked tail and so was never exhibited. He undoubtedly did more for the breed in the early part of the twentieth century than any other Pekingese.
The Pekingese was first registered by the AKC in 1906. That it took quick hold of the American fancy is evidenced by the age of the Pekingese Club of America, which became a member of the American Kennel Club in 1909.
The transplanting of the Pekingese into Western soil has in no way changed his personality. He combines marked dignity with an exasperating stubbornness that serves only to endear him the more to his owners. He is independent and regal in every gesture; it would be a great indignity to attempt to make a lapdog out of him. Calm and good-tempered, the Pekingese employs a condescending cordiality toward the world in general, but in the privacy of his family enjoys nothing better than a good romp. Although never aggressive, he fears not the devil himself and has never been known to turn tail and run. He has plenty of stamina, much more in fact than have a number of the larger breeds, and he is very easy to care for.
Since he has been brought down from his pedestal in Chinese temples, the Pekingese has but one purpose in life, to give understanding companionship and loyalty to his owners. It may be truly said that the Pekingese fulfills his mission to perfection.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PEKINGESE
General Appearance—The Pekingese is a well-balanced, compact dog of Chinese origin with a heavy front and lighter hindquarters. Its temperament is one of directness, independence and individuality. Its image is lionlike, implying courage, dignity, boldness and self-esteem rather than daintiness or delicacy.
Size, Substance, Proportion—Size/Substance—The Pekingese, when lifted, is surprisingly heavy for its size. It has a stocky, muscular body. All weights are correct within the limit of 14 pounds. Disqualification: Weight over 14 pounds. Proportion— Overall balance is of utmost importance. The head is large in proportion to the body. The Pekingese is slightly longer than tall when measured from the forechest to the buttocks. The overall outline is an approximate ratio of 3 high to 5 long.
Head—Face—The topskull is massive, broad and flat and, when combined with the wide set eyes, cheekbones and broad lower jaw, forms the correctly shaped face. When viewed from the front, the skull is wider than deep, which contributes to the desired rectangular, envelope-shaped appearance of the head. In profile, the face is flat. When viewed from the side, the chin, nose leather and brow all lie in one plane, which slants very slightly backward from chin to forehead. Ears—They are heart-shaped, set on the front corners of the topskull, and lie flat against the head. The leather does not extend below the jaw. Correctly placed ears, with their heavy feathering and long fringing, frame the sides of the face and add to the appearance of a wide, rectangular head. Eyes—They are large, very dark, round, lustrous and set wide apart. The look is bold, not bulging. The eye rims are black and the white of the eye does not show when the dog is looking straight ahead. Nose—It is broad, short and black. Nostrils are wide and open rather than pinched. A line drawn horizontally over the top of the nose intersects slightly above the center of the eyes. Wrinkle—It effectively separates the upper and lower areas of the face. It is a hair-covered fold of skin extending from one cheek over the bridge of the nose in a wide inverted “V” to the other cheek. It is never so prominent or heavy as to crowd the facial features, obscure more than a small portion of the eyes, or fall forward over any portion of the nose leather. Stop—It is obscured from view by the over-nose wrinkle. Muzzle—It is very flat, broad, and well filled-in below the eyes. The skin is black on all colors. Whiskers add to the desired expression. Mouth—The lower jaw is undershot and broad. The black lips meet neatly and neither teeth nor tongue show when the mouth is closed.
Neck, Body, Tail—Neck—It is very short and thick. Body—It is pear-shaped, compact and low to the ground. It is heavy in front with well-sprung ribs slung between the forelegs. The forechest is broad and full without a protruding breastbone. The underline rises from the deep chest to the lighter loin, thus forming a narrow waist. The topline is straight and the loin is short. Tail—The high-set tail is slightly arched and carried well over the back, free of kinks or curls. Long, profuse, straight fringing may fall to either side.
Forequarters—They are short, thick and heavy-boned. The bones of the forelegs are moderately bowed between the pastern and elbow. The broad chest, wide set forelegs and the closer rear legs all contribute to the correct rolling gait. The distance from the point of the shoulder to the tip of the withers is approximately equal to the distance from the point of the shoulder to the elbow. Shoulders are well laid back and fit smoothly onto the body. The elbows are always close to the body. Front feet are turned out slightly when standing or moving. The pasterns slope gently.
Hindquarters—They are lighter in bone than the forequarters. There is moderate angulation of stifle and hock. When viewed from behind, the rear legs are reasonably close and parallel, and the feet point straight ahead when standing or moving.
Coat & Presentation—Coat—It is a long, coarse-textured, straight, stand-off outer coat, with thick, soft undercoat. The coat forms a noticeable mane on the neck and shoulder area with the coat on the remainder of the body somewhat shorter in length. A long and profuse coat is desirable providing it does not obscure the shape of the body. Long feathering is found on toes, backs of the thighs and forelegs, with longer fringing on the ears and tail. Presentation—Presentation should accentuate the natural outline of the Pekingese. Any obvious trimming or sculpting of the coat, detracting from its natural appearance, should be severely penalized.
Color—All coat colors and markings are allowable and of equal merit. A black mask or a self-colored face is equally acceptable. Regardless of coat color the exposed skin of the muzzle, nose, lips and eye rims is black.
Gait—It is unhurried, dignified, free and strong, with a slight roll over the shoulders. This motion is smooth and effortless and is as free as possible from bouncing, prancing or jarring. The rolling gait results from a combination of the bowed forelegs, well laid back shoulders, full broad chest and narrow light rear, all of which produce adequate reach and moderate drive.
Temperament—A combination of regal dignity, intelligence and self-importance make for a good natured, opinionated and affectionate companion to those who have earned its respect.
Weight over 14 pounds.
The foregoing is a description of the ideal Pekingese. Any deviation should be penalized in direct proportion to the extent of that deviation.
Approved January 13, 2004
Effective March 2, 2004
A MEMBER OF THE FAMILY OF DOGS KNOWN UNOFFICIALLY AS THE SPITZ group, the Pomeranian has descended from the sled dogs of Iceland and Lapland. This heritage is responsible for their breed type. The breed name, of course, traces to Pomerania, not necessarily as a point of origin but possibly because it is there that the breed may have been bred down to size. At any rate, in larger form the breed served as an able sheep-herder. In fact, at about the middle of the nineteenth century, when they first came into notice in Britain, some specimens are said to have weighed as much as thirty pounds and resembled the German Wolfspitz in size, coat, and color.
The Pomeranian was not well known until 1870, when The Kennel Club (England) recognized this so-called spitz dog. In 1888, while visiting Florence, Queen Victoria fell in love with a Pomeranian and brought the dog, Marco, back to England. Since the beloved queen’s activities were well chronicled and copied, the breed’s popularity grew. Victoria is credited with advocating for and publicizing the trend toward smaller Pomeranians. On her dying day in 1901, the queen requested that her favorite pet, a Pomeranian named Turi, be brought to her bedside. Turi was lying beside Victoria when she died.
Specimens of the breed were shown in the United States in the AKC Miscellaneous class as far back as 1892, but regular classification was not provided until 1900 in New York. In 1911, the American Pomeranian Club held its first specialty show.
The majority of early American Pomeranian winners had heavier bone, larger ears, and usually weighed less than six pounds. Generally speaking, they had good type and coat texture but lacked the profuse coat we see today. Modern American-bred dogs show marked improvement over those early winners, as the patient efforts of fanciers have brought their dogs closer to the standard. Indeed, American-bred Pomeranians have held their own with the best from anywhere and today compete for the highest honors in the show ring.
The glamorous little Pomeranian is now well established as one of the most favored of all breeds in the Toy Group. While small in stature, they are hardy, sturdy, generally healthy, and not at all weak or fragile.
The Pomeranian’s magnificent double coat—a soft, dense undercoat topped by a harsh, longer outer coat—is an example of a “stand-off ” coat, rather than a flat coat.
Cocky and animated little dogs, they are aptly described as being unaware of their diminutive size. Indeed, the Pomeranian is a very big dog in a very small package. Admired for beauty and temperament, they are attention-getters wherever they go.
While not loud or yappy dogs, Pomeranians are often considered to be excellent guard dogs, instinctively alerting an owner to any intrusion or danger. Although tiny and not able to do much damage to an intruder, they will stand their ground with an amazingly protective demeanor. It is believed that in times past, guarding castles, estates, or other property was actually a desired function of the breed.
The Pomeranian is suitable for most any home or environment. It is the ideal family pet, especially endearing to the elderly and bonding well with children over the age of six. Most are highly energetic, vivacious, and untiring, yet they can be gentle, quiet, soft, and loving, and completely content in someone’s lap, thus making them the ideal pet and companion.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE POMERANIAN
General Appearance—The Pomeranian is a compact, short-backed, active toy dog. He has a soft, dense undercoat with a profuse harsh-textured outer coat. His heavily plumed tail is set high and lies flat on his back. He is alert in character, exhibits intelligence in expression, is buoyant in deportment, and is inquisitive by nature. The Pomeranian is cocky, commanding and animated as he gaits. He is sound in composition and action.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The average weight of the Pomeranian is from 3 to 7 pounds, with the ideal weight for the show specimen being 4 to 6 pounds. Any dog over or under the limits is objectionable. However, overall quality is to be favored over size. The distance from the point of shoulder to the point of buttocks is slightly shorter than from the highest point of the withers to the ground. The distance from the brisket to the ground is half the height at the withers. He is medium-boned, and the length of his legs is in proportion to a well-balanced frame. When examined, he feels sturdy.
Head—The head is in balance with the body. The muzzle is rather short, straight, fine, free of lippiness and never snipey. His expression is alert and may be referred to as fox-like. The skull is closed. The top of the skull is slightly rounded, but not domed. When viewed from the front and side, one sees small ears which are mounted high and carried erect. To form a wedge, visualize a line from the tip of the nose ascending through the center of the eyes and the tip of the ears. The eyes are dark, bright, medium in size and almond-shaped. They are set well into the skull on either side of a well-pronounced stop. The pigmentation is black on the nose and eye rims except self-colored in brown, beaver, and blue dogs. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. One tooth out of alignment is acceptable. Major Faults—Round, domed skull; undershot mouth; overshot mouth.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is short with its base set well into the shoulders to allow the head to be carried high. The back is short with a level topline. The body is compact and well-ribbed with brisket reaching the elbow. The plumed tail is one of the characteristics of the breed, and lies flat and straight on the back.
Forequarters—The Pomeranian has sufficient layback of shoulders to carry the neck and head proud and high. The shoulders and legs are moderately muscled. The length of the shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. The forelegs are straight and parallel to each other. Height from elbows to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. The pasterns are straight and strong. The feet are well-arched, compact, and turn neither in nor out. He stands well up on his toes. Dewclaws may be removed. Major Fault—Down in pasterns.
Gait—The Pomeranian’s gait is smooth, free, balanced and vigorous. He has good reach in his forequarters and strong drive with his hindquarters. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. To achieve balance, his legs converge slightly inward toward a center line beneath his body. The rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. The topline remains level, and his overall balance and outline are maintained.
Hindquarters—The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. The buttocks are well behind the set of the tail. The thighs are moderately muscled with stifles that are moderately bent and clearly defined. The hocks are perpendicular to the ground and the legs are straight and parallel to each other. The feet are well-arched, compact, and turn neither in nor out. He stands well up on his toes. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs may be removed. Major Faults—Cowhocks or lack of soundness in hind legs or stifles.
Coat—A Pomeranian is noted for its double coat. The undercoat is soft and dense. The outer coat is long, straight, glistening and harsh in texture. A thick undercoat will hold up and permit the guard hair to stand off from the Pomeranian’s body. The coat is abundant from the neck and fore part of shoulders and chest, forming a frill which extends over the shoulders and chest. The head and leg coat is tightly packed and shorter in length than that of the body. The forequarters are well-feathered and thighs and hind legs well-feathered to the hock. The tail is profusely covered with long, harsh, spreading straight hair. Trimming for neatness and a clean outline is permissible. MajorFaults—Soft, flat or open coat.
Color—All colors, patterns, and variations thereof are allowed and must be judged on an equal basis. Patterns: Black and Tan—Tan or rust sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat, and forechest, on all legs and feet and below the tail. The richer the tan the more desirable; Brindle—The base color is gold, red, or orange-brindled with strong black cross stripes; Parti-color —Is white with any other color distributed in patches with a white blaze preferred on the head. Classifications: The Open Classes at specialty shows may be divided by color as follows: Open Red, Orange, Cream, and Sable; Open Black, Brown, and Blue; Open Any Other Color, Pattern, or Variation.
Temperament—The Pomeranian is an extrovert, exhibiting great intelligence and a vivacious spirit, making him a great companion dog as well as a competitive show dog.
Even though a Toy dog, the Pomeranian must be subject to the same requirements of soundness and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Approved December 9, 1996
Effective January 31, 1997
IN POODLES, THE DENOMINATIONS STANDARD, MINIATURE AND TOY ARE used to describe size only. All are one breed, governed by the same breed standard. All are also known for their innate intelligence and exceptional ability to learn.
For information about the history of this smallest of the three Poodle varieties, refer to the Poodle in the Non-Sporting Group.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE POODLE
The Standard for the Poodle (Toy Variety) is the same as for the Standard and the Miniature varieties, except as regards height.
General Appearance, Carriage and Condition—That of a very active, intelligent and elegant-appearing dog, squarely built, well proportioned, moving soundly and carrying himself proudly. Properly clipped in the traditional fashion and carefully groomed, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—TheStandardPoodleis over 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is 15 inches or less in height shall be disqualified from competition as a Standard Poodle.
TheMiniaturePoodleis 15 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders, with a minimum height in excess of 10 inches. Any Poodle which is over 15 inches or is 10 inches or less at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Miniature Poodle.
TheToyPoodleis 10 inches or under at the highest point of the shoulders. Any Poodle which is more than 10 inches at the highest point of the shoulders shall be disqualified from competition as a Toy Poodle.
As long as the Toy Poodle is definitely a Toy Poodle, and the Miniature Poodle a Miniature Poodle, both in balance and proportion for the Variety, diminutiveness shall be the deciding factor when all other points are equal.
Proportion—To ensure the desirable squarely built appearance, the length of body measured from the breastbone to the point of the rump approximates the height from the highest point of the shoulders to the ground.
Substance—Bone and muscle of both forelegs and hindlegs are in proportion to size of dog.
Head and Expression—(a) Eyes—Very dark, oval in shape and set far enough apart and positioned to create an alert intelligent expression. Major fault: eyes round, protruding, large or very light.
Ears—Hanging close to the head, set at or slightly below eye level. The ear leather is long, wide and thickly feathered; however, the ear fringe should not be of excessive length.
Skull—Moderately rounded, with a slight but definite stop. Cheekbones and muscles flat. Length from occiput to stop about the same as length of muzzle.
Muzzle—Long, straight and fine, with slight chiseling under the eyes. Strong without lippiness. The chin definite enough to preclude snipiness. Major fault: lack ofchin. Teeth—White, strong and with a scissors bite. Major fault: undershot, overshot, wrymouth.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—well proportioned, strong and long enough to permit the head to be carried high and with dignity. Skin snug at throat. The neck rises from strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. Major fault: ewe neck.
The toplineis level, neither sloping nor roached, from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the base of the tail, with the exception of a slight hollow just behind the shoulder.
Body—(a) Chest deep and moderately wide with well sprung ribs. (b) The loin is short, broad and muscular. (c) Tail straight, set on high and carried up, docked of sufficient length to insure a balanced outline. Major fault: set low, curled, or carried over the back.
Forequarters—Strong, smoothly muscled shoulders. The shoulder blade is well laid back and approximately the same length as the upper foreleg. Major fault: steep shoulder.
Forelegs—Straight and parallel when viewed from the front. When viewed from the side the elbow is directly below the highest point of the shoulder. The pasterns are strong. Dewclaws may be removed.
Feet—The feet are rather small, oval in shape with toes well arched and cushioned on thick firm pads. Nails short but not excessively shortened. The feet turn neither in nor out. Major fault: paper or splay foot.
Hindquarters—The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters.
Hind legs straight and parallel when viewed from the rear. Muscular with width in the region of the stifles which are well bent; femur and tibia are about equal in length; hock to heel short and perpendicular to the ground. When standing, the rear toes are only slightly behind the point of the rump. Major fault: cow-hocks.
Coat—(a) Quality—(1) Curly: of naturally harsh texture, dense throughout. (2) Corded: hanging in tight even cords of varying length; longer on mane or body coat, head and ears; shorter on puffs, bracelets and pompons.
(b) Clip—A Poodle under 12 months may be shown in the “Puppy” clip. In all regular classes, Poodles 12 months or over must be shown in the “English Saddle” or “Continental” clip. In the Stud Dog and Brood Bitch classes and in a non-competitive Parade of Champions, Poodles may be shown in the “Sporting” clip. A Poodle shown in any other type of clip shall be disqualified.
(1) “Puppy”—A Poodle under a year old may be shown in the “Puppy” clip with the coat long. The face, throat, feet and base of the tail are shaved. The entire shaven foot is visible. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. In order to give a neat appearance and a smooth unbroken line, shaping of the coat is permissible. (2) “English Saddle”—In the “English Saddle” clip the face, throat, feet, forelegs and base of the tail are shaved, leaving puffs on the forelegs and a pompon on the end of the tail. The hindquarters are covered with a short blanket of hair except for a curved shaved area on each flank and two shaved bands on each hindleg. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven leg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (3) “Continental”—In the “Continental” clip, the face, throat, feet, and base of the tail are shaved. The hindquarters are shaved with pompons (optional) on the hips. The legs are shaved, leaving bracelets on the hindlegs and puffs on the forelegs. There is a pompon on the end of the tail. The entire shaven foot and a portion of the shaven foreleg above the puff are visible. The rest of the body is left in full coat but may be shaped in order to insure overall balance. (4)“Sporting” —In the “Sporting” clip, a Poodle shall be shown with face, feet, throat, and base of tail shaved, leaving a scissored cap on the top of the head and a pompon on the end of the tail. The rest of the body and legs are clipped or scissored to follow the outline of the dog leaving a short blanket of coat no longer than one inch in length. The hair on the legs may be slightly longer than that on the body.
In all clips the hair of the topknot may be left free or held in place by elastic bands. The hair is only of sufficient length to present a smooth outline. “Topknot” refers only to hair on the skull, from stop to occiput. This is the only area where elastic bands may be used.
Color—The coat is an even and solid color at the skin. In blues, grays, silvers, browns, cafe-au-laits, apricots and creams the coat may show varying shades of the same color. This is frequently present in the somewhat darker feathering of the ears and in the tipping of the ruff. While clear colors are definitely preferred, such natural variation in the shading of the coat is not to be considered a fault. Brown and cafe-au-lait Poodles have liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, dark toenails and dark amber eyes. Black, blue, gray, silver, cream and white Poodles have black noses, eye-rims and lips, black or self colored toenails and very dark eyes. In the apricots while the foregoing coloring is preferred, liver-colored noses, eye-rims and lips, and amber eyes are permitted but are not desirable. Major faults: color of nose, lips and eye-rims incomplete, or of wrong colorfor color of dog.
Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified. The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but is of two or more colors.
Gait—A straightforward trot with light springy action and strong hindquarters drive. Head and tail carried up. Sound effortless movement is essential.
Temperament—Carrying himself proudly, very active, intelligent, the Poodle has about him an air of distinction and dignity peculiar to himself. Major fault: shyness orsharpness.
Major Faults—Any distinct deviation from the desired characteristics described in the Breed Standard.
Size—A dog over or under the height limits specified shall be disqualified.
Clip—A dog in any type of clip other than those listed under coat shall be disqualified.Parti–colors— The coat of a parti-colored dog is not an even solid color at the skin but oftwo or more colors. Parti-colored dogs shall be disqualified.
VALUE OF POINTS
Approved August 14, 1984
Reformatted March 27, 1990
THE PUG, OR MORE ACCURATELY THE PUG DOG, IS ARGUABLY THE LARGEST of the toy breeds and one of the many companion dog breeds. The Pug originated in the Far East and can be traced to the first century B.C. It was a royal dog in China, owned only by aristocrats and given as treasured gifts to rulers abroad. The oldest surviving breeding records date back to China. They speak of Puglike dogs predominantly with fawn coats, both long and short, as well as of black coats and even parti-colored coats. The fact that records exist telling of dogs with both straight and bowed front legs, suggests some interbreeding with Pekingese, Japanese Chin, and possibly Shih Tzu.
Holland was perhaps the first European country to see Pugs. The Dutch East India Company thrived on commercial ventures in the Orient and Europe. It is highly likely that the company’s sailors first brought the Pug to Europe. William III and Mary II came from Holland to Great Britain in 1688 to ascend the throne of England. They brought with them their Pugs, who wore orange ribbons signifying the House of Orange.
Accounts of the Pug’s place in history abound. In 1572, a Pug saved the life of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, by barking to warn him of an attack on his camp by Spanish troops. Another refers to a Pug named Fortune who was the beloved companion of Napoleon’s Josephine, and who is said to have taken a nip at the general on the couple’s wedding night.
The breed suffered rises and falls in popularity, but we are indebted to a few devoted British fanciers for rescuing them from obscurity and carefully breeding to the type recognized today as proper. Notably among these breeders were a Lady Willoughby d’ Eresby and a Charles Morrison. At that time, most Pugs were of the fawn variety. Black Pugs were virtually unknown and had been mongrelized. This changed in 1886, when Britain’s Lady Brassey entered a number of her black Pugs in a show at Maidstone, Kent.
Where did the name Pug Dog originate? In France, they are known as carlin, in Italy as carlini, in Germanic countries as Mops, and in the Netherlands as mophond. The name Pug seems peculiarly English, but its origin is obscure. Some say the dog’s head in profile resembles a clenched fist (pugnus in Latin). Others say the Pug’s face resembled that of marmoset monkeys, which were a favorite of nineteenth-century ladies and were fondly referred to as mops. These ladies also were known to refer fondly to their husbands as “my mops.” Hence, the designation Pug Dog would have distinguished the canine from either husbands or monkeys.
The Pug standard contains the Latin phrase multum in parvo (“a lot in a little”). In other words, this is a lot of dog in a little package.
Today’s Pugs are a clownish, mischievous, loving, lovable, and devoted breed. They are easy to care for and to groom. Pugs are happy in a city environment or on a country farm, are easily trainable and clean, and love all members of the family, most especially children. They do, however, show partiality toward the hand that feeds them. Pugs demand only one thing: some return of the affection they lavish on their humans.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PUG
General Appearance—Symmetry and general appearance are decidedly square and cobby. A lean, leggy Pug and a dog with short legs and a long body are equally objectionable.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Pug should be multum in parvo, and this condensation (if the word may be used) is shown by compactness of form, well knit proportions, and hardness of developed muscle. Weight from 14 to 18 pounds (dog or bitch) desirable. Proportion square.
Head—The head is large, massive, round—not apple-headed, with no indentation of the skull. The eyes are dark in color, very large, bold and prominent, globular in shape, soft and solicitous in expression, very lustrous, and, when excited, full of fire. The ears are thin, small, soft, like black velvet. There are two kinds—the “rose” and the “button.” Preference is given to the latter. The wrinkles are large and deep. The muzzle is short, blunt, square, but not upfaced. Bite—A Pug’s bite should be very slightly undershot.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is slightly arched. It is strong, thick and with enough length to carry the head proudly. The short back is level from the withers to the high tail set. The body is short and cobby, wide in chest and well ribbed up. The tail is curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The double curl is perfection.
Forequarters—The legs are very strong, straight, of moderate length, and are set well under. The elbows should be directly under the withers when viewed from the side. The shoulders are moderately laid back. The pasterns are strong, neither steep nor down. The feet are neither so long as the foot of the hare, nor so round as that of the cat; well split-up toes, and the nails black. Dewclaws are generally removed.
Hindquarters—The strong, powerful hindquarters have moderate bend of stifle and short hocks perpendicular to the ground. The legs are parallel when viewed from behind. The hindquarters are in balance with the forequarters. The thighs and buttocks are full and muscular. Feet as in front.
Coat—The coat is fine, smooth, soft, short and glossy, neither hard nor woolly.
Color—The colors are silver, apricot-fawn, or black. The silver or apricot-fawn colors should be decided so as to make the contrast complete between the color and the trace and the mask.
Markings—The markings are clearly defined. The muzzle or mask, ears, moles on cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on forehead, and the back trace should be as black as possible. The mask should be black. The more intense and well defined it is, the better. The trace is a black line extending from the occiput to the tail.
Gait—Viewed from the front, the forelegs should be carried well forward, showing no weakness in the pasterns, the paws landing squarely with the central toes straight ahead. The rear action should be strong and free through hocks and stifles, with no twisting or turning in or out at the joints. The hind legs should follow in line with the front. There is a slight natural convergence of the limbs both fore and aft. A slight roll of the hindquarters typifies the gait which should be free, self-assured, and jaunty.
Temperament—This is an even-tempered breed, exhibiting stability, playfulness, great charm, dignity, and an outgoing, loving disposition.
Approved October 8, 1991
Effective November 28, 1991
THE LEGEND OF THE SHIH TZU HAS COME TO US FROM DOCUMENTS, PAINTINGS, and objets d’art dating from A.D. 624. During the Tang Dynasty, K’iu T’ai, king of Viqur, gave the Chinese court a pair of dogs, said to have come from the Fu Lin (assumed to be the Byzantine Empire). Mention of these dogs was again made in 990–994, when people of the Ho Chou sent dogs as tribute.
Another theory of their introduction to China was recorded in the mid-seventeenth century, when dogs were brought from Tibet to the Chinese court. These dogs were bred in the Forbidden City of Peking. Many pictures of them were kept in The Imperial Dog Book. The smallest of these dogs resembled a lion, as represented in Asian art. In Buddhist belief there is an association between the lion and their Deity. Shih Tzu means lion. The dogs for court breeding were selected with great care. From these the Shih Tzu known today developed. They were often called the “chrysanthemum-faced dog” because the hair grows about the face in all directions.
These dogs were small, intelligent, and extremely docile. It is known that the breeding of the Shih Tzu was delegated to certain court eunuchs, who vied with one another to produce specimens which would take the emperor’s fancy. Those selected had their pictures painted on hangings or tapestries, and the eunuchs responsible for the dogs were given gifts by the emperor.
It is known that the Shih Tzu was a house pet during most of the Ming Dynasty and that they were highly favored by the royal family. At the time of the Revolution, many dogs were destroyed and only a few escaped the invaders’ knives.
In 1934, the Peking Kennel Club was formed. By 1938 a standard for the Shih Tzu was developed with the help of Madame de Breuil, a Russian refugee.
Breeding of the Shih Tzu began in England after Madelaine Hutchins brought one pair of her own and another of General and Mrs. Douglas Brownrigg’s from China in 1930. The breed was first classified as “Apsos,” but after a ruling by The Kennel Club (England) that Lhasa Apsos and Shih Tzu were separate breeds, the Shih Tzu Club of England was formed in 1935.
From England, dogs of this breed were sent throughout Europe and to Australia. During World War II, members of the American armed forces stationed in England became acquainted with the breed and on their return brought some back to the United States, thus introducing them to this country. Since then many have been imported.
The Shih Tzu was admitted to registration in the AKC Stud Book in March 1969 and began competing in the Toy Group at AKC shows beginning September of that year.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SHIH TZU
General Appearance—The Shih Tzu is a sturdy, lively, alert toy dog with long flowing double coat. Befitting his noble Chinese ancestry as a highly valued, prized companion and palace pet, the Shih Tzu is proud of bearing, has a distinctively arrogant carriage with head well up and tail curved over the back. Although there has always been considerable size variation, the Shih Tzu must be compact, solid, carrying good weight and substance.
Even though a toy dog, the Shih Tzu must be subject to the same requirements of soundness and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Shih Tzu as in any other breed, regardless of whether or not such faults are specifically mentioned in the standard.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Ideally, height at withers is 9 to 101⁄2 inches; but, not less than 8 inches nor more than 11 inches. Ideally, weight of mature dogs, 9 to 16 pounds. Proportion—Length between withers and root of tail is slightly longer than height at withers. The Shih Tzu must never be so high stationed as to appearleggy, nor so low stationed as to appear dumpy or squatty. Substance—Regardless of size, the Shih Tzu is always compact, solid and carries good weight and substance.
Head—Head—Round, broad, wide between eyes, its size in balance with the overall size of dog being neither too large nor too small. Fault: Narrow head, close-set eyes. Expression—Warm, sweet, wide-eyed, friendly and trusting. An overall well-balanced and pleasant expression supersedes the importance of individual parts. Careshould be taken to look and examine well beyond the hair to determine if what is seen is the actual head and expression rather than an image created by grooming technique. Eyes—Large, round, not prominent, placed well apart, looking straight ahead. Very dark. Lighter on liver pigmented dogs and blue pigmented dogs. Fault: Small, close-set or light eyes; excessive eye white. Ears—Large, set slightly below crown of skull; heavily coated. Skull—Domed. Stop—There is a definite stop. Muzzle—Square, short, unwrinkled, with good cushioning, set no lower than bottom eye rim; never downturned. Ideally, no longer than 1 inch from tip of nose to stop, although length may vary slightly in relation to overall size of dog. Front of muzzle should be flat; lower lip and chin not protruding and definitely never receding. Fault: Snipiness, lack of definite stop. Nose—Nostrils are broad, wide and open. Pigmentation—Nose, lips, eye rims are black on all colors, except liver on liver pigmented dogs and blue on blue pigmented dogs. Fault: Pink on nose, lips or eye rims. Bite—Undershot. Jaw is broad and wide. A missing tooth or slightly misaligned teeth should not be too severely penalized. Teeth and tongue should not show when mouth is closed. Fault: Overshot bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Of utmost importance is an overall well-balanced dog with noexaggerated features. Neck—Well set-on flowing smoothly into shoulders; of sufficient length to permit natural high head carriage and in balance with height and length of dog. Topline—Level. Body—Short-coupled and sturdy with no waist or tuck-up. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall. Fault: Legginess. Chest—Broad and deep with good spring-of-rib, however, not barrel-chested. Depth of ribcage should extend to just below elbow. Distance from elbow to withers is a little greater than from elbow to ground. Croup—Flat. Tail—Set on high, heavily plumed, carried in curve well over back. Too loose, too tight, too flat, or too low set a tail is undesirable and should be penalized to extent of deviation.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Well-angulated, well laid-back, well laid-in, fitting smoothly into body. Legs—Straight, well-boned, muscular, set well-apart and under chest, with elbows set close to body. Pasterns—Strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws—May be removed. Feet—Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.
Hindquarters—Angulation of hindquarters should be in balance with forequarters.Legs—Well-boned, muscular, and straight when viewed from rear with well-bent stifles, not close set but in line with forequarters. Hocks—Well let down, perpendicular. Fault: Hyperextension of hocks. Dewclaws—May be removed. Feet—Firm, wellpadded, point straight ahead.
Coat—Coat—Luxurious, double-coated, dense, long and flowing. Slight wave permissible. Hair on top of head is tied up. Fault: Sparse coat, single coat, curly coat. Trimming—Feet, bottom of coat, and anus may be done for neatness and to facilitate movement. Fault: Excessive trimming.
Color and Markings—All are permissible and to be considered equally.
Gait—The Shih Tzu moves straight and must be shown at its own natural speed, neither raced nor strung-up, to evaluate its smooth, flowing, effortless movement with good front reach and equally strong rear drive, level topline, naturally high head carriage, and tail carried in gentle curve over back.
Temperament—As the sole purpose of the Shih Tzu is that of a companion and house pet, it is essential that its temperament be outgoing, happy, affectionate, friendly and trusting towards all.
Approved May 9, 1989
Effective June 29, 1989
DEVELOPED AROUND THE TURN OF THE CENTURY IN AUSTRALIA FROM CROSS-INGS of native Australian Terriers and imported Yorkshire Terriers, the Silky Terrier encompasses many of the best qualities of both.
A number of Yorkshire Terriers from England were brought into the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales at the end of the 1800s. In an attempt to improve coat color in the blue and tan Australian Terrier, fanciers bred a few of the larger Yorkie dogs with some of their Australian Terrier bitches. The resulting litters produced individuals, some of which were exhibited as Australian Terriers, some as Yorkies and some as Silkys. The Silkys were then bred together until a recognized type was fixed.
In 1906, a standard was developed for the Silky in Sydney, New South Wales, and a separate standard for the new breed was drawn up at Victoria in 1909. Some discrepancies were apparent between the two standards. The New South Wales standard stated that weights should be over six pounds and under twelve pounds, while the standard in Victoria described two classes, one for weights of under six pounds and the other for six pounds to under twelve pounds. Also, while the New South Wales standard permitted only prick ears, the Victoria standard allowed for both drop and prick ears.
A revised standard was published in 1926 while efforts were being made to stabilize weights. In order to protect the three breeds from further crossings, the Kennel Control Council of Victoria introduced canine legislation in 1932.
Originally known as the Sydney Silky Terrier, in 1955 the official name for the breed in Australia became the Australian Silky Terrier.
The Australian National Kennel Council was formed in 1958 and, aware that the American Kennel Club planned to recognize the breed, one of their first acts was to recommend the development of a national standard for the Australian Silky Terrier. In March 1959, a national standard was approved in which weights were narrowed to “ideally from eight to ten pounds.”
The first official meeting of the Sydney Silky Terrier Club of America was held on March 25, 1955, and in July the name was changed by a vote of its members to Silky Terrier Club of America.
The Silky Terrier is a lively, friendly, outgoing dog with true terrier temperament and personality. They are devoted to their owners but never forget a familiar face.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SILKY TERRIER
General Appearance—The Silky Terrier is a true “toy terrier.” He is moderately low set, slightly longer than tall, of refined bone structure, but of sufficient substance to suggest the ability to hunt and kill domestic rodents. His coat is silky in texture, parted from the stop to the tail and presents a well groomed but not sculptured appearance. His inquisitive nature and joy of life make him an ideal companion.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Shoulder height from nine to ten inches. Deviation in either direction is undesirable. Proportion—The body is about one fifth longer than the dog’s height at the withers. Substance—Lightly built with strong but rather fine bone.
Head—The head is strong, wedge-shaped, and moderately long. Expressionpiercingly keen, eyes small, dark, almond shaped with dark rims. Light eyes are a serious fault. Ears are small, V-shaped, set high and carried erect without any tendency to flare obliquely off the skull. Skullflat, and not too wide between the ears. The skull is slightly longer than the muzzle. Stop shallow. The nose is black. Teethstrong and well aligned, scissors bite. An undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault.
Neck, Topline and Body—The neckfits gracefully into sloping shoulders. It is medium long, fine, and to some degree crested. The toplineis level. A topline showing a roach or dip is a serious fault. Chestmedium wide and deep enough to extend down to the elbows. The bodyis moderately low set and about one fifth longer than the dog’s height at the withers. The body is measured from the point of the shoulder (or forechest) to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh (or point of the buttocks). A body which is too short is a fault, as is a body which is too long. The tailis docked, set high and carried at twelve to two o’clock position.
Forequarters—Well laid back shoulders, together with proper angulation at the upper arm, set the forelegs nicely under the body. Forelegs are strong, straight and rather fine-boned. Feetsmall, catlike, round, compact. Pads are thick and springy while nails are strong and dark colored. White or flesh-colored nails are a fault. The feet point straight ahead, with no turning in or out. Dewclaws, if any, are removed.
Hindquarters—Thighs well muscled and strong, but not so developed as to appear heavy. Well angulated stifles with low hocks which are parallel when viewed from behind. Feetas in front.
Coat—Straight, single, glossy, silky in texture. On matured specimens the coat falls below and follows the body outline. It should not approach floor length. On the top of the head, the hair is so profuse as to form a topknot, but long hair on the face and ears is objectionable. The hair is parted on the head and down over the back to the root of the tail. The tail is well coated but devoid of plume. Legs should have short hair from the pastern and hock joints to the feet. The feet should not be obscured by the leg furnishings.
Color—Blue and tan. The blue may be silver blue, pigeon blue or slate blue, the tan deep and rich. The blue extends from the base of the skull to the tip of the tail, down the forelegs to the elbows, and half way down the outside of the thighs. On the tail the blue should be very dark. Tan appears on muzzle and cheeks, around the base of the ears, on the legs and feet and around the vent. The topknot should be silver or fawn which is lighter than the tan points.
Gait—Should be free, light-footed, lively and straightforward. Hindquarters should have strong propelling power. Toeing in or out is to be faulted.
Temperament—The keenly alert air of the terrier is characteristic, with shyness or excessive nervousness to be faulted. The manner is quick, friendly, responsive.
Approved October 10, 1989
Effective November 30, 1989
TOY FOX TERRIER
THE TOY FOX TERRIER (TFT) ORIGINATED IN THE UNITED STATES. IT IS truly an American-bred toy dog. Smooth Fox Terriers were the breed’s English ancestors, and several small breeds, such as the Toy Manchester Terrier, Italian Greyhound, and quite possibly the Chihuahua, were doubtless intermixed before the Toy Fox Terrier was standardized as the breed we know today. Some believe that the breed’s foundation resulted purely from breeding down the Smooth Fox Terrier. Others remain convinced of the influence from the above-mentioned toy breeds. At any rate, the first Toy Fox Terrier was registered at Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1936.
First recognized and registered by the United Kennel Club, headquartered in Kalamazoo, it was not until January 2003 that the American Kennel Club admitted the Toy Fox Terrier to championship competition in the Toy Group. In the 1970s, there had been some effort put forth to gain AKC recognition, but the goal was not achieved. The first meeting of organizers took place in 1994. From that, a third wave of interested exhibitors pushed forward. There followed a nine-year quest to achieve recognition by the American Kennel Club.
From the beginning, foxhunters liked the gameness of this very small version of the Smooth Fox Terrier. Hunters kept them in saddlebags and released them to chase foxes out of their holes. TFTs serve as mascots for ranches, yachts, and a host of other environments.
Truly a toy as well as a terrier, this animated little bundle of energy is agile, intelligent, and devoted as a companion and family entertainer. The breed is multifaceted in its ability to go to ground, hunt vermin, and play fetch, as well as conquer fly-ball or agility courses and any number of other competitions. Farmers appreciate their ratting talent, and apartment dwellers find them a perfect match. This is a toy breed to be enjoyed in whatever lifestyle the owner chooses.
The overall appearance of the Toy Fox Terrier is one of a proud, regal, athletic little companion. The basic color is white, with or without body spots matching the primary color of the head. A black head with tan markings may or may not have a moderate blaze of white with white on the muzzle. The body spots would then be black, with or without a small tan fringe on a body spot. Some exhibitors appreciate dogs with completely white bodies. Another color combination is white and tan, with or without body spots, the shades of tan ranging from honey to auburn. A third color combination, white and black, has no tan markings. Fourth, white with chocolate and tan, is similar to the tri-color pattern of white, black, and tan, but with chocolate in place of black. Although there is much in the standard regarding color, it is less important than the correct structure, movement, and type of this little terrier.
Indeed, life is merrier with a Toy Fox Terrier!
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE TOY FOX TERRIER
General Appearance—The Toy Fox Terrier is truly a toy and a terrier and both have influenced his personality and character. As a terrier, the Toy Fox Terrier possesses keen intelligence, courage, and animation. As a toy his is diminutive, and devoted with an endless abiding love for his master. The Toy Fox Terrier is a well-balanced Toy dog of athletic appearance displaying grace and agility in equal measure with strength and stamina. His lithe muscular body has a smooth elegant outline which conveys the impression of effortless movement and endless endurance. He is naturally well groomed, proud, animated, and alert. Characteristic traits are his elegant head, his short glossy and predominantly white coat, coupled with a predominantly solid head, and his short high-set tail.
Size, Proportion and Substance—Size: 8.5–11.5 inches, 9–11 preferred, 8.5–11.5 acceptable. Proportion: The Toy Fox Terrier is square in proportion, with height being approximately equal to length; with height measured from withers to ground and length measured from point of shoulder to buttocks. Slightly longer in bitches is acceptable. Substance: Bone must be strong, but not excessive and always in proportion to size. Overall balance is important. Disqualification: Any dog under 8.5 inches and over 11.5 inches.
Head—The head is elegant, balanced and expressive with no indication of coarseness. Expression is intelligent, alert, eager and full of interest. Eyes: clear, bright and dark, including eye-rims, with the exception of chocolates whose eye-rims should be self-colored. The eyes are full, round and somewhat prominent, yet never bulging, with a soft intelligent expression. They are set well apart, not slanted, and fit well together into the sockets. Ears: The ears are erect, pointed, inverted V-shaped, set high and close together, but never touching. The size is in proportion to the head and body. Disqualification: Ears not erect on any dog over six months of age. Skull: is moderate in width, slightly rounded and softly wedge shaped. Medium stop, somewhat sloping. When viewed from the front, the head widens gradually from the nose to the base of the ears. The distance from the nose to the stop is equal to the distance from the stop to the occiput. The cheeks are flat and muscular, with the area below the eyes well filled in. Faults: Apple head. Muzzle: Strong rather than fine, in proportion to the head as a whole and parallel to the top of the skull. Nose: Black only with the exception of self-colored in chocolate dogs. Disqualification: Dudley nose. Lips: are small and tight fitting. Bite: a full complement of strong white teeth meeting in a scissors bite is preferred. Loss of teeth should not be faulted as long as the bite can be determined as correct. Disqualification: Undershot, wry mouth, overshot more than 1⁄8 inch.
Neck, Topline and Body—The neck is carried proudly erect, well set on, slightly arched, gracefully curved, clean, muscular, and free from throatiness. It is proportioned to the head and body and widens gradually blending smoothly into the shoulders. The length of the neck is approximately the same as that of the head. The topline is level when standing and gaiting. The body is balanced and tapers slightly from ribs to flank. The chest is deep and muscular with well sprung ribs. Depth of chest extends to the point of elbow. The back is straight, level, and muscular. Short and strong in loin with moderate tuck-up to denote grace and elegance. The croup is level with topline and well-rounded. The tail is set high, held erect and in proportion to the size of the dog. Docked to the 3rd or 4th joint.
Forequarters—Forequarters are well angulated. The shoulder is firmly set and has adequate muscle, but is not overdeveloped. The shoulders are sloping and well laid back, blending smoothly from neck to back. The forechest is well developed. The elbows are close and perpendicular to the body. The legs are parallel and straight to the pasterns which are strong and straight while remaining flexible. Feet are small and oval, pointing forward turning neither in nor out. Toes are strong, well-arched and closely knit with deep pads.
Hindquarters—Hindquarters are well angulated, strong and muscular. The upper and lower thighs are strong, well muscled and of good length. The stifles are clearly defined and well angulated. Hock joints are well let down and firm. The rear pasterns are straight. The legs are parallel from the rear and turn neither in nor out. Dewclaws should be removed from hindquarters if present.
Coat—The coat is shiny, satiny, fine in texture and smooth to the touch. It is slightly longer in the ruff, uniformly covering the body.
Color—Tri-Color: Predominately black head with sharply defined tan markings on cheeks, lips and eye dots. Body is over fifty-percent white, with or without black body spots. White, Chocolate and Tan: Predominately chocolate head with sharply defined tan markings on cheeks, lips and eye dots. Body is over fifty-percent white, with or without chocolate body spots. White and Tan: Predominately tan head. Body is over fifty-percent white with or without tan body spots. White and Black: Predominately black head. Body is over fifty-percent white with or without black body spots. Color should be rich and clear. Blazes are acceptable, but may not touch the eyes or ears. Clear white is preferred, but a small amount of ticking is not to be penalized. Body spots on black headed tri-colors must be black; body spots on chocolate headed tri-colors must be chocolate; both with or without a slight fringe of tan alongside any body spots near the chest and under the tail as seen in normal bi-color patterning. Faults: Color, other than ticking, that extends below the elbow or the hock. Disqualifications: A blaze extending into the eyes or ears. Any color combination not stated above. Any dog whose head is more than fifty-percent white. Any dog whose body is not more than fifty-percent white. Any dog whose head and body spots are of different colors.
Gait—Movement is smooth and flowing with good reach and strong drive. The topline should remain straight and head and tail carriage erect while gaiting. Fault: Hackney gait.
Temperament—The Toy Fox Terrier is intelligent, alert and friendly, and loyal to its owners. He learns new tasks quickly, is eager to please, and adapts to almost any situation. The Toy Fox Terrier, like other terriers, is self-possessed, spirited, determined and not easily intimidated. He is a highly animated toy dog that is comical, entertaining and playful all of his life. Any individuals lacking good terrier attitude and personality are to be faulted.
Any dog under 8.5 inches or over 11.5 inches.
Ears not erect on any dog over six months of age.
Undershot, wry mouth, overshot more than 1⁄8 inch.
A blaze extending into the eye or ears.
Any color combination not stated above.
Any dog whose head is more than fifty percent white.
Any dog whose body is not more than fifty percent white.
Any dog whose head and body spots are of different colors.
Approved July 8, 2003
Effective August 27, 2003
THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER BECAME A FASHIONABLE PET IN THE LATE VICTORIAN era. But in its beginnings it belonged to the working class, especially the weavers. In fact, it was so closely linked to them that many facetious comments were made regarding the fine texture of its extremely long, silky coat, inferring it was the ultimate product of the looms.
The Yorkshire Terrier made its first appearance at a benched show in England in 1861 as a “broken-haired Scotch Terrier.” It became known as a Yorkshire Terrier in 1870 when, after the Westmoreland show, Angus Sutherland—the reporter for TheField—wrote, “They ought no longer to be called Scotch Terriers, but Yorkshire Terriers for having been so improved there.” For a number of years thereafter classes were offered for the breed as Yorkshire Terriers, as well as Brokenhaired Scotch Terriers. Often members of the same litter were shown in classes of both designations.
The Yorkshire Terrier traces to the Waterside Terrier, a small longish-coated dog, bluish-gray in color, weighing between six and twenty pounds (most commonly ten pounds). A breed common in Yorkshire since early times, the Waterside Terrier—crossed with the old rough-coated Black-and-Tan English Terrier (common in the Manchester area) and with the Paisley and Clydesdale Terriers—was brought to Yorkshire by the Scotch weavers who migrated from Scotland to England in the mid-nineteenth century. All these breeds were bred together to make what is now known as the Yorkshire Terrier.
The earliest record of a Yorkshire Terrier born in the United States dates to 1872. Classes for the breed have been offered at all shows since 1878. At early shows, these classes were divided by weight—under five pounds, and five pounds and over. However, the size soon settled down to an average of between three and seven pounds. Only one class was offered when it became apparent from records that the class for larger dogs was rarely filled as well as the one for smaller dogs.
Modern specimens of the Yorkshire Terrier breed true to type, and their characteristics are well fixed. Coloring is distinctive, with their metallic colors being a dark steel-blue from the occiput to the root of the tail, and a rich golden tan on head, legs, chest, and breeches. Puppies that develop to correct adult colors are always born black with tan markings.
Though a toy, and at times a greatly pampered one, the Yorkshire is a spirited dog that definitely shows its terrier strain. The length of the show dog’s coat makes constant care necessary to protect it from damage, but the breed is glad to engage in all the roistering activities of the larger terrier breeds.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER
General Appearance—That of a long-haired toy terrier whose blue-and-tan coat is parted on the face and from the base of the skull to the end of the tail and hangs evenly and quite straight down each side of body. The body is neat, compact and well proportioned. The dog’s high head carriage and confident manner should give the appearance of vigor and self-importance.
Head—Small and rather flat on top, theskullnot too prominent or round, themuzzlenot too long, with thebiteneither undershot nor overshot and teeth sound. Either scissors bite or level bite is acceptable. Thenoseis black. Eyesare medium in size and not too prominent; dark in color and sparkling with a sharp, intelligent expression. Eye rims are dark. Ears are small, V-shaped, carried erect and set not too far apart.
Body—Well proportioned and very compact. The back is rather short, the back line level, with height at shoulder the same as at the rump.
Legs and Feet—Forelegsshould be straight, elbows neither in nor out. Hindlegs straight when viewed from behind, but stifles are moderately bent when viewed from the sides. Feetare round with black toenails. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed from the hind legs. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.
Tail—Docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than the level of the back.
Coat—Quality, texture and quantity of coat are of prime importance. Hair is glossy, fine and silky in texture. Coat on the body is moderately long and perfectly straight (not wavy). It may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance, if desired. The fall on the head is long, tied with one bow in center of head or parted in the middle and tied with two bows. Hair on muzzle is very long. Hair should be trimmed short on tips of ears and may be trimmed on feet to give them a neat appearance.
Colors—Puppies are born black and tan and are normally darker in body color, showing an intermingling of black hair in the tan until they are matured. Color of hair on body and richness of tan on head and legs are of prime importance in adult dogs, to which the following color requirements apply:
Blue: Is a dark steel-blue, not a silver-blue and not mingled with fawn, bronzy or black hairs.
Tan: All tan hair is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips. There should be no sooty or black hair intermingled with any of the tan.
Color on Body—The blue extends over the body from back of neck to root of tail. Hair on tail is a darker blue, especially at end of tail.
Headfall—A rich golden tan, deeper in color at sides of head, at ear roots and on the muzzle, with ears a deep rich tan. Tan color should not extend down on back of neck.
Chest and Legs—A bright, rich tan, not extending above the elbow on the forelegs nor above the stifle on the hind legs.