Intelligent Choice of the Right Pet Dog (A Case Study)
GROUP IV: TERRIER BREEDS
AIREDALE ORIGIN IS SHROUDED IN THE SAME THEORY AND CONJECTURE AS that of many other breeds.
The Airedale is a “manufactured breed,” having been created in England’s Aire Valley, located less than a hundred miles south of the Scottish border. This was an industrial center, with many mills and factories, so the Airedale was created by workingmen, not aristocrats. There is not much written on the breed’s early development, but it is generally believed Airedales first emerged near the Aire and Wharfe rivers in Yorkshire around 1840. It is said the breed was created to be a large, fearless, hardy duck-and-rat hunter of the terrier type. Airedales were probably meant to be good poachers and strong, intelligent guards and companions. It is also generally stated that Otterhounds and old English Black and Tan Terriers were mainstays in the mix.
In 1900, Airedale scholars concluded that the breed was largely composed of the Otterhound, contributing size and bone, combined with the old English Black and Tan, or Rat Catcher Terrier, giving ears, harder coat, and expression. The Irish Terrier was also evident in head development. Sporting breeds, such as retrievers and setters; sheepdogs, such as the Yorkshire Collie; and Bedlington Terriers were all used. In fact, any breed enhancing the sporting value of Bingley or Waterside terriers, as Airedales were then called, may have been used.
The publication of “Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog” in the spring 2004 issue of Science Magazine was the most thorough DNA analysis of purebred dogs to date. Airedales were found to be in the “Hunting Cluster.” Other terriers were included, such as the Soft Coated Wheaten, Irish, Kerry Blue, and Cairn. Also named were traditional gundog breeds: the Golden, Chesapeake Bay, Flat Coated, and Labrador retrievers; the Pointer and German Shorthaired Pointer; and the American Cocker, Clumber, and Welsh springer spaniels. Others were hounds, such as the Beagle and Bloodhound, and herding dogs, such as Border Collies and Old English Sheepdogs. No wonder Airedale fanciers feel they have the most versatile dogs on the planet.
The breed is unique, having been working dogs, war dogs, and sporting dogs. Before World War I, Lieutenant Colonel Edwin Hautonville Richardson bred, trained, and provided working dogs in the British Isles and for several heads of state and armies worldwide. He touted Airedales as the world’s number one working breed. Their work as watchdogs and police dogs is legendary.
After the outbreak of war, Richardson headed the British war-dog program. Again, Airedales rose to the occasion, serving as messengers, sentries, and guards. They were Red Cross dogs, carrying medical supplies, searching out wounded, and helping place signal wire for communication. This is documented in Richardson’s Fifty Years with Dogs, British War Dogs, and Watch-Dogs.
The Airedale’s big break came when they were imported to North America, where Airedales developed into the original three-in-one gundog, equally able to handle upland game birds, waterfowl, and fur. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, Airedales went west and their numbers grew. They became first-choice farm and ranch dogs because of their versatility and grit. Their do-it-all skills included guarding the farm or ranch against two- and four-legged predators; babysitting toddlers; herding sheep and cattle; and being a gundog when there was time for upland bird, waterfowl, or fur hunts. Through the 1950s, Airedales were the first choice of most serious hunters because of their versatility. During this time, there were thousands of references to Airedales’ hunting prowess in the mainstream press. To cite one example, William L. Barkley, a founding member of the Airedale Terrier Club of America, confirms their use in his article “What Can’t an Airedale Do?” for the April 1924 American Kennel Gazette. He wrote: “It is said about the first Airedales, and it is as true today as it was then, that they could do the work of any breed their size, and do it better. . . . The dogs principally were used as hunting and working dogs. . . . On Chesapeake Bay, they have done the work of a retriever.”
Stability of type is attained by those who adhere to the ideal of the breed standard, and is illustrated by Airedales being judged Best in Show at the most prestigious shows in England and America.
Today’s Airedale, when bred to the standard, is still prized as a first-rate hunting partner by countless devotees who hunt all manner of game, and is the dog of choice for many in police and search-and-rescue work. They are also well suited as therapy and assistance dogs and are adept at herding, sledding, carting, and backpacking. When it comes to fun, many of them enjoy the obedience ring as well as agility and flyball. Finally, they are great family companions.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AIREDALE TERRIER
Head—Should be well balanced with little apparent difference between the length of skull and foreface.
Skull—Should be long and flat, not too broad between the ears and narrowing very slightly to the eyes. Scalp should be free from wrinkles, stop hardly visible and cheeks level and free from fullness.
Ears—Should be V-shaped with carriage rather to the side of the head, not pointing to the eyes, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog. The topline of the folded ear should be above the level of the skull.
Foreface—Should be deep, powerful, strong and muscular. Should be well filled up before the eyes.
Eyes—Should be dark, small, not prominent, full of terrier expression, keenness and intelligence.
Lips—Should be tight.
Nose—Should be black and not too small.
Teeth—Should be strong and white, free from discoloration or defect. Bite either level or viselike. A slightly overlapping or scissors bite is permissible without preference.
Neck—Should be of moderate length and thickness gradually widening towards the shoulders. Skin tight, not loose.
Shoulders and Chest—Shoulders long and sloping well into the back. Shoulder blades flat. From the front, chest deep but not broad. The depth of the chest should be approximately on a level with the elbows.
Body—Back should be short, strong and level. Ribs well sprung. Loins muscular and of good width. There should be but little space between the last rib and the hip joint.
Hindquarters—Should be strong and muscular with no droop.
Tail—The root of the tail should be set well up on the back. It should be carried gaily but not curled over the back. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length.
Legs—Forelegs should be perfectly straight, with plenty of muscle and bone. Elbows should be perpendicular to the body, working free of sides. Thighs should be long and powerful with muscular second thigh, stifles well bent, not turned either in or out, hocks well let down parallel with each other when viewed from behind. Feet should be small, round and compact with a good depth of pad, well cushioned; the toes moderately arched, not turned either in or out.
Coat—Should be hard, dense and wiry, lying straight and close, covering the dog well over the body and legs. Some of the hardest are crinkling or just slightly waved. At the base of the hard very stiff hair should be a shorter growth of softer hair termed the undercoat.
Color—The head and ears should be tan, the ears being of a darker shade than the rest. Dark markings on either side of the skull are permissible. The legs up to the thighs and elbows and the underpart of the body and chest are also tan and the tan frequently runs into the shoulder. The sides and upper parts of the body should be black or dark grizzle. A red mixture is often found in the black and is not to be considered objectionable. A small white blaze on the chest is a characteristic of certain strains of the breed.
Size—Dogs should measure approximately 23 inches in height at the shoulder; bitches, slightly less. Both sexes should be sturdy, well muscled and boned.
Movement—Movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. Movement should be free. As seen from the front the forelegs should swing perpendicular from the body free from the sides, the feet the same distance apart as the elbows. As seen from the rear the hind legs should be parallel with each other, neither too close nor too far apart, but so placed as to give a strong well-balanced stance and movement. The toes should not be turned either in or out.
Yellow eyes, hound ears, white feet, soft coat, being much over or under the size limit, being undershotor overshot, having poor movement, are faults which should be severely penalized.
SCALE OF POINTS
Approved July 14, 1959
AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER
TO CORRECTLY GIVE THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE Terrier, it is necessary to comment briefly on two other dogs, namely the Bulldog and the terrier.
Until the early part of the nineteenth century, the Bulldog was bred with great care in England for the purpose of baiting bulls. The Bulldog of that day was vastly different from our present-day “sourmug.” Pictures from as late as 1870 represent the Bulldog as agile and as standing straight on his legs—his front legs in particular. In some cases he was even possessed of a muzzle, and long rat tails were not uncommon. The Bulldog of that day, with the exception of the head, looked more like the present-day American Staffordshire Terrier than like the present-day Bulldog.
Some writers contend it was the White English Terrier, or the Black-and-Tan Terrier, that was used as a cross with the Bulldog to perfect the Staffordshire Terrier. It seems easier to believe that any game terrier, such as the fox terrier of the early 1800s, was used in this cross, since some of the foremost authorities on dogs of that time state that the Black-and-Tan and the White English Terrier were none too game, but these same authorities go on to stress the gameness of the fox terrier. It is reasonable to believe that breeders attempting to perfect a dog that would combine the spirit and agility of the terrier with the courage and tenacity of the Bulldog would not use a terrier which was not game. In analyzing the three above-mentioned terriers at that time, we find that there was not a great deal of difference in body conformation, the greatest differences being in color, aggressiveness, and spirit.
In any event, it was the cross between the Bulldog and the terrier that resulted in the Staffordshire Terrier, which was originally called the Bull-and-Terrier Dog, Half and Half, and at times Pit Dog or Pit Bullterrier. Later, it assumed the name in England of Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
These dogs began to find their way into America as early as 1870, where they became known as Pit Dog, Pit Bull Terrier, later American Bull Terrier, and still later as Yankee Terrier.
In 1936, they were accepted for registration in the AKC Stud Book as Staffordshire Terriers. The name of the breed was revised effective January 1, 1972, to American Staffordshire Terrier. Breeders in this country had developed a type which is heavier in weight than the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England and the name change was to distinguish them as separate breeds.
The American Staffordshire Terrier’s standard allows a variance in weight, but it should be in proportion to size. The dog’s chief requisites should be strength unusual for his size, soundness, balance, a strong powerful head, a well-muscled body, and courage that is proverbial.
To clarify the confusion that may exist, even in the minds of dog fanciers, as to the difference between the American Staffordshire Terrier and the Bull Terrier, a comment on the latter may be helpful. The Bull Terrier was introduced by James Hinks, of Birmingham, who had been experimenting for several years with the old Bull-and-Terrier Dog, now known as Staffordshire. It is generally conceded that he used the Staffordshire, crossed with the white English Terrier, and some writers contend that a dash of Pointer and Dalmatian blood was also used to help perfect the all-white Bull Terrier.
In mentioning the gameness of the Staffordshire, it is not the intention to tag him as a fighting machine or to praise this characteristic. These points are discussed because they are necessary in giving the correct origin and history of the breed. The good qualities of the dogs are many, and it would be difficult for anyone to overstress them. In appearance they are flashy-looking and they attract much attention on the show bench. As to character, they are game for anything; nevertheless, they should not be held in ill repute merely because some have been taking advantage of this rare courage to use them in the pit as gambling tools. These dogs are docile, and with a little training are even tractable around other dogs. They are intelligent, excellent guardians, and they protect their masters’ property with an air of authority that counts; they easily discriminate between strangers who mean well and those who do not. They have another characteristic that is unusual: When they are sold, or change hands, they accept their new master in a comparatively short time.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AMERICAN STAFFORDSHIRE TERRIER
General Impression—The American Staffordshire Terrier should give the impression of great strength for his size, a well put-together dog, muscular, but agile and graceful, keenly alive to his surroundings. He should be stocky, not long-legged or racy in outline. His courage is proverbial.
Head—Medium length, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop; and ears are set high. Ears—Cropped or uncropped, the latter preferred. Uncropped ears should be short and held rose or half prick. Full drop to be penalized. Eyes—Dark and round, low down in skull and set far apart. No pink eyelids. Muzzle—Medium length, rounded on upper side to fall away abruptly below eyes. Jaws well defined. Underjaw to be strong and have biting power. Lips close and even, no looseness. Upper teeth to meet tightly outside lower teeth in front. Nose definitely black.
Neck—Heavy, slightly arched, tapering from shoulders to back of skull. No looseness of skin. Medium length.
Shoulders—Strong and muscular with blades wide and sloping.
Back—Fairly short. Slight sloping from withers to rump with gentle short slope at rump to base of tail. Loins slightly tucked.
Body—Well-sprung ribs, deep in rear. All ribs close together. Forelegs set rather wide apart to permit chest development. Chest deep and broad.
Tail—Short in comparison to size, low set, tapering to a fine point; not curled or held over back. Not docked.
Legs—The front legs should be straight, large or round bones, pastern upright. No resemblance of bend in front. Hindquarters well-muscled, let down at hocks, turning neither in nor out. Feet of moderate size, well-arched and compact. Gait must be springy but without roll or pace.
Coat—Short, close, stiff to the touch, and glossy.
Color—Any color, solid, parti, or patched is permissible, but all white, more than 80 percent white, black and tan, and liver not to be encouraged.
Size—Height and weight should be in proportion. A height of about 18 to 19 inches at shoulders for the male and 17 to 18 inches for the female is to be considered preferable.
Faults—Faults to be penalized are: Dudley nose, light or pink eyes, tail too long or badly carried, undershot or overshot mouths.
Approved June 10, 1936
THE AUSTRALIAN TERRIER WAS THE FIRST AUSTRALIAN BREED TO BE RECOG-NIZED and shown in its native land, and was also the first Australian breed to be accepted officially in other countries. An Australian native-bred, broken-coated terrier made its first appearance on the show bench at Melbourne in 1868. In 1899 the breed was exhibited specifically as “Australian Terriers, Rough-Coated,” and both sandy/red and blue/tan colors are noted in show records of that year. An Australian Rough-Coated Terrier Club, founded at Melbourne in 1887, made the first attempt at standardizing the breed, and by 1896 a standard for the breed had been established. Exports to England and the United States soon followed, and in 1933 breed status was granted in England. The American Kennel Club admitted the breed to its registry in 1960, its first terrier addition in 24 years and the 114th breed entered in the AKC Stud Book.
In 1977, the Australian Terrier Club of America joined the AKC. The breed is officially recognized and shown in many countries worldwide.
This dog, one of the smallest of the working terriers, was bred to be both helper and companion in rough times and terrain. A native dog known as the Rough-Coated Terrier, a close relative of the old Scotch Dog of Great Britain (not the present-day Scottish Terrier), had been in Tasmania since the early 1880s. These terriers are believed to have been crossbred with a number of other breeds of British terrier stock to produce the fast, sturdy, rough, weatherproof, fearless little dog which the settlers needed as they expanded the frontiers of their country— helping to control rodents and snakes on the waterfronts, farms, and sheep and cattle stations in the outback, sometimes tending flocks, sounding an alarm when intruders appeared, and being a companion. The breeds chosen for crossbreeding were selected to promote specific desired traits. Although there are differences among writers of the histories of the Australian Terrier, there is consensus of opinion that the breeds used in its development included the precursors of the Dandie Dinmont, Skye, Yorkshire terriers, and the old Black-and-Tan Terrier (today’s Manchester), with perhaps the Irish and Cairn terriers. Fortunately, the various crossbreedings produced a handsome dog that prosperous settlers were proud to show at home or in public.
The Australian Terrier is an excellent choice for show, city, home, or farm. He is very spirited, with an air of self-assurance and inquiry into all that goes on about him. His excellent hearing and good eyesight make him a fine watch-alert dog to warn of any kind of disturbance. He is generally adaptable to any climate and terrain, and his weatherproof double coat, which sheds little, keeps him comfortable year-round.
He continues to be a natural and tireless ratter and sporting terrier. Perhaps because he was developed in close association with man under often stressful conditions, he has a very strong sense of devotion and affection for his humans and accepts full responsibility for his household. He is a good family dog and also a fine companion for the single person. He indeed seems to have fulfilled the dream of early breeders to produce a dog who was tough, smart, and able to withstand a full day’s work outdoors and yet small and biddable enough to come into the home at night.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AUSTRALIAN TERRIER
General Appearance—A small, sturdy, medium-boned working terrier, rather long in proportion to height with pricked ears and docked tail. Blue and tan, solid sandy or solid red in color, with harsh-textured outer coat, a distinctive ruff and apron, and a soft, silky topknot. As befits their heritage as versatile workers, Australian Terriers are sound and free moving with good reach and drive. Their expression keen and intelligent; their manner spirited and self-assured.
The following description is that of the ideal Australian Terrier. Any deviation from this description must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height 10 to 11 inches at the withers. Deviation in either direction is to be discouraged. Proportion—The body is long in proportion to the height of the dog. The length of back from withers to the front of the tail is approximately 1 to 11⁄2 inches longer than from withers to the ground. Substance—Good working condition, medium bone, correct body proportions, symmetry and balance determine proper weight.
Head—The head is long and strong. The length of the muzzle is equal to the length of the skull. Expression—Keen and intelligent. Eyes—Small, dark brown to black (the darker the better), keen in expression, set well apart. Rims are black, oval in shape. Faults: Light-colored or protruding eyes. Ears—Small, erect and pointed; set high on the skull yet well apart, carried erect without any tendency to flare obliquely off the skull. Skull—Viewed from the front or side is long and flat, slightly longer than it is wide and full between the eyes, with slight but definite stop. Muzzle—Strong and powerful with slight fill under the eyes. The jaws are powerful. Nose—Black. A desirable breed characteristic is an inverted V-shaped area free of hair extending from the nose up the bridge of the muzzle, varying in length in the mature dog. Lips—Tight and dark brown- or black-rimmed. Bite—Scissors with teeth of good size.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Long, slightly arched and strong, blending smoothly into well laid back shoulders. Topline—Level and firm. Body—The body is of sturdy structure with ribs well-sprung but not rounded, forming a chest reaching slightly below the elbows with a distinct keel. The loin is strong and fairly short with slight tuck-up. Faults: Cobbiness, too long in loin. Tail—Set on high and carried erect at a twelve to one o’clock position, docked in balance with the overall dog leaving slightly less than one half, a good hand-hold when mature.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Long blades, well laid back with only slight space between the shoulder blades at the withers. The length of the upper arm is comparable to the length of the shoulder blade. The angle between the shoulder and the upper arm is 90 degrees. Faults: Straight, loose and loaded shoulders. Elbows—Close to the chest. Forelegs—Straight, parallel when viewed from the front; the bone is round and medium in size. They should be set well under the body, with definite body overhang (keel) before them when viewed from the side. Pasterns—Strong, with only slight slope. Fault—Down on pasterns. Dewclaws—Removed. Feet—Small, clean, catlike; toes arched and compact, nicely padded turning neither inward nor outward. Nails—Short, black and strong.
Hindquarters—Strong; legs well angulated at the stifles and hocks, short and perpendicular from the hocks to the ground. Upper and lower thighs are well muscled. Viewed from behind the rear legs are straight from the hip joints to the ground and in the same plane as the forelegs. Faults: Lack of muscular development or excessive muscularity. Feet—(See under Forequarters.)
Coat—Outer Coat—Harsh and straight; 21⁄2 inches all over body except the tail, pasterns, rear legs from the hocks down, and the feet which are kept free of long hair. Hair on the ears is kept very short. Undercoat—Short and soft. Furnishings—Softer than body coat. The neck is well furnished with hair, which forms a protective ruff blending into the apron. The forelegs are slightly feathered to the pasterns. Topknot— Covering only the top of the skull; of finer and softer texture than the rest of the coat.
Color and Markings—Colors: Blue and tan, solid sandy and solid red. BlueandTan—Blue: dark blue, steel-blue, dark gray-blue, or silver-blue. In silver-blues, each hair carries blue and silver alternating with the darker color at the tips. Tan markings (not sandy or red), as rich as possible, on face, ears, underbody, lower legs and feet, and around vent. The richer the color and more clearly defined the better. Topknot—Silver or a lighter shade than head color. SandyorRed—Any shade of solid sandy or solid red, the clearer the better. Topknot—Silver or a lighter shade of body coat. Faults: All black body coat in the adult dog. Tan smut in the blue portion of the coat, or dark smut in sandy/red coated dogs. In any color, white markings on chest or feet are to be penalized.
Gait—As seen from the front and from the rear, the legs are straight from the shoulder and hip joints to the pads, and move in planes parallel to the centerline of travel. The rear legs move in the same planes as the front legs. As the dog moves at a faster trot, the front and rear legs and feet may tend to converge toward the centerline of travel, but the legs remain straight even as they flex or extend. Viewed from the side, the legs move in a ground-covering stride. The rear feet should meet the ground in the same prints as left by the front feet, with no gap between them. Topline remains firm and level, without bounce.
Temperament—The Australian Terrier is spirited, alert, courageous and self-confident, with the natural aggressiveness of a ratter and hedge hunter; as a companion, friendly and affectionate. Faults: Shyness or aggressiveness toward people.
Approved August 9, 1988
THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER TAKES HIS NAME FROM A MINING SHIRE IN THE county of Northumberland, England. Purely a Northumbrian production, he first came to be known as the Rothbury Terrier, having originated in the Hannys hills, where the sporting squires loved a game terrier.
Going back to 1820, we find that a Joseph Ainsley of Bedlington acquired a bitch, Coates Phoebe. In 1825 Phoebe was mated to a Rothbury dog, Anderson’s Piper, also acquired by Ainsley, and the fruit of this union was a dog referred to as Ainsley’s Piper—the first dog known to have been called a Bedlington Terrier.
About this time there flourished in Bedlington a colony of nailers who took to the breed and became noted for their plucky terriers. Of this dog’s gameness there was not the slightest doubt—he never shirked at any kind of vermin and could more than hold his own at drawing a badger or at ratting in or out of Wales.
Both Piper and his mother, Phoebe, were considerably lighter in weight and smaller in stature than the dogs of the present day. But it is on record that Piper was set on a badger at eight months old and was constantly at work, more or less on badgers, foxes, otters, and other vermin. He drew a badger after he was fourteen years old, when toothless and nearly blind, after several other terriers had failed.
Although many crosses were introduced, there was always a band of enthusiastic admirers who kept to the original breed. In 1877, the National Bedlington Terrier Club (England) was formed by a few influential fanciers who made themselves responsible for bringing him to the notice of the public by exhibiting him on the show bench. Since then the Bedlington has made vast improvement in type.
Many tales have been told by the older generation of matches made by the miners and nailers of that period, where large sums were at stake on the result of a fight between terriers of their respective fancies. The Bedlington was never a mischief seeker, but once he started fighting, it was to the death.
As time went on, he was taken into the homes of the elite, who found him a tractable and first-class companion. He was not long in developing into a pet, his great heart and lovable nature endearing him to all fortunate enough to own him.
There are two distinct colors, liver and blue, and it is only a question of fancy as to which is preferred. In the early days the liver was much in evidence, and some great dogs were of that color; in fact, the liver dog was preferred to the blue which is now so fashionable. Whether the former shade has become rarer from a change of tastes on the part of Bedlington breeders, or whether it is merely a coincidence that so few good liver-colored specimens happen to be shown at the present time, we are unable to say, but the fact remains that, of late, high-class blue Bedlingtons far outnumber good liver specimens. While there have been many good specimens of both colors, it is noticeable that the mother of the celebrated Piper was a blue-black bitch, possessing a light-colored topknot, a characteristic which has been meticulously preserved.
One reason there were fewer Bedlingtons at one time than their desirability warranted was the trimming necessary for exhibition in the show ring. Known only to a few so-called experts, this trimming seemed difficult. Gradually, however, the knack was mastered so that now most owners trim their own dogs and find it quite easy. It is only necessary to see it done by someone who knows how, after which, with a little practice, the novice becomes expert. The dog is hardy and not difficult to raise, and his feeding is the same as that required for other terriers of like weight.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BEDLINGTON TERRIER
General Appearance—A graceful, lithe, well-balanced dog with no sign of coarseness, weakness or shelliness. In repose the expression is mild and gentle, not shy or nervous. Aroused, the dog is particularly alert and full of immense energy and courage. Noteworthy for endurance, Bedlingtons also gallop at great speed, as their body outline clearly shows.
Head—Narrow, but deep and rounded. Shorter in skull and longer in jaw. Covered with a profuse topknot which is lighter than the color of the body, highest at the crown, and tapering gradually to just back of the nose. There must be no stop and the unbroken line from crown to nose end reveals a slender head without cheekiness or snipiness. Lips are black in the blue and tans and brown in all other solid and bi-colors. Eyes—Almond-shaped, small, bright and well sunk with no tendency to tear or water. Set is oblique and fairly high on the head. Blues have dark eyes; blues and tans, less dark with amber lights; sandies, sandies and tans, light hazel; livers, livers and tans, slightly darker. Eye rims are black in the blue and blue and tans, and brown in all other solid and bi-colors. Ears—Triangular with rounded tips. Set on low and hanging flat to the cheek in front with a slight projection at the base. Point of greatest width approximately 3 inches. Ear tips reach the corners of the mouth. Thin and velvety in texture, covered with fine hair forming a small silky tassel at the tip. Nose—Nostrils large and well defined. Blues and blues and tans have black noses. Livers, livers and tans, sandies, sandies and tans have brown noses. Jaws—Long and tapering. Strong muzzle well filled up with bone beneath the eye. Close-fitting lips, no flews. Teeth—Large, strong and white. Level or scissors bite. Lower canines clasp the outer surface of the upper gum just in front of the upper canines. Upper premolars and molars lie outside those of the lower jaw.
Neck and Shoulders—Long, tapering neck with no throatiness, deep at the base and rising well up from the shoulders which are flat and sloping with no excessive musculature. The head is carried high.
Body—Muscular and markedly flexible. Chest deep. Flat-ribbed and deep through the brisket, which reaches to the elbows. Back has a good natural arch over the loin, creating a definite tuck-up of the underline. Body slightly greater in length than height. Well-muscled quarters are also fine and graceful.
Legs and Feet—Lithe and muscular. The hind legs are longer than the forelegs, which are straight and wider apart at the chest than at the feet. Slight bend to pasterns which are long and sloping without weakness. Stifles well angulated. Hocks strong and well let down, turning neither in nor out. Long hare feet with thick, well-closed-up, smooth pads. Dewclaws should be removed.
Coat—A very distinctive mixture of hard and soft hair standing well out from the skin. Crisp to the touch but not wiry, having a tendency to curl, especially on the head and face. When in show trim must not exceed 1 inch on body; hair on legs is slightly longer.
Tail—Set low, scimitar-shaped, thick at the root and tapering to a point which reaches the hock. Not carried over the back or tight to the underbody.
Color—Blue, sandy, liver, blue and tan, sandy and tan, liver and tan. In bi-colors the tan markings are found on the legs, chest, under the tail, inside the hindquarters and over each eye. The topknots of all adults should be lighter than the body color. Patches of darker hair from an injury are not objectionable, as these are only temporary. Darker body pigmentation of all colors is to be encouraged.
Height—The preferred Bedlington Terrier dog measures 16 1⁄2 inches at the withers, the bitch 151⁄2 inches. Under 16 inches or over 171⁄2 inches for dogs and under 15 inches or over 161⁄2 inches for bitches are serious faults. Only where comparative superiority of a specimen outside these ranges clearly justifies it, should greater latitude be taken.
Weight—To be proportionate to height within the range of 17 to 23 pounds.
Gait—Unique lightness of movement. Springy in the slower paces, not stilted or hackneyed. Must not cross, weave or paddle.
Approved September 12, 1967
AS THE NAME SUGGESTS, THE BORDER TERRIER HAS ITS ORIGIN ON EITHER side of the Cheviot Hills which form the border country, and may be regarded as one of the oldest kinds of terrier in Great Britain. As a purely “working terrier,” border farmers, shepherds, and sportsmen for generations carefully preserved a particular strain of this dog, which could be found in almost every border homestead.
With the hills at their disposal and miles from habitation, stock was subjected to the ravages of the powerful hill foxes, and to hunt and kill them the border farmer and shepherd required a game terrier with length of leg sufficient to follow a horse, yet small enough to follow a fox to ground. The dogs had to be active, strong, and tireless; they had to have weather-resistant coats in order to withstand prolonged exposure to drenching rains and mists in the hills.
The Border Terrier is a tireless hard-worker for his size, and he is full of pluck. There is no wall he cannot get over or wire entanglement he cannot scramble through. Should the fox run to earth, he will bolt him every time, or stay the night in the earth until the matter is settled. It may therefore be gathered that in order to meet these requirements the Border Terrier, as now known, was evolved by a process of judicious selection from the native hill terriers.
Until Kennel Club (England) recognition was given, the Border Terrier was unknown to the great majority but was always exhibited in considerable numbers at most of the Agricultural Societies’ shows in the border country. Following recognition by the English Kennel Club and the formation of the Border Terrier Club in 1920, the breed has been catered to at many of the important shows in the British Isles. The first registration of the breed in the United States was in 1930.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BORDER TERRIER
General Appearance—He is an active terrier of medium bone, strongly put together, suggesting endurance and agility, but rather narrow in shoulder, body and quarter. The body is covered with a somewhat broken though close-fitting and intensely wiry jacket. The characteristic “otter” head with its keen eye, combined with a body poise which is “at the alert,” gives a look of fearless and implacable determination characteristic of the breed.
Since the Border Terrier is a working terrier of a size to go to ground and able, within reason, to follow a horse, his conformation should be such that he be ideally built to do his job. No deviations from this ideal conformation should be permitted, which would impair his usefulness in running his quarry to earth and in bolting it therefrom. For this work he must be alert, active and agile, and capable of squeezing through narrow apertures and rapidly traversing any kind of terrain. His head, “like that of an otter,” is distinctive, and his temperament ideally exemplifies that of a terrier. By nature he is good-tempered, affectionate, obedient, and easily trained. In the field he is hard as nails, “game as they come” and driving in attack. It should be the aim of Border Terrier breeders to avoid such overemphasis of any point in the Standard as might lead to unbalanced exaggeration.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Weight—Dogs, 13–15 1⁄2 pounds, bitches, 111⁄2–14 pounds, are appropriate weights for Border Terriers in hard-working condition. The proportions should be that the height at the withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the tail, i.e., by possibly 1–1 1⁄2 inches in a 14-pound dog. Of medium bone, strongly put together, suggesting endurance and agility, but rather narrow in shoulder, body and quarter.
Head—Similar to that of an otter. Eyes dark hazel and full of fire and intelligence. Moderate in size, neither prominent nor small and beady. Ears small, V-shaped and of moderate thickness, dark preferred. Not set high on the head but somewhat on the side, and dropping forward close to the cheeks. They should not break above the level of the skull. Moderately broad and flat in skull with plenty of width between the eyes and between the ears. A slight, moderately broad curve at the stop rather than a pronounced indentation. Cheeks slightly full. Muzzle short and “well filled.” A dark muzzle is characteristic and desirable. A few short whiskers are natural to the breed. Nose black, and of a good size. Teeth strong, with a scissors bite, large in proportion to size of dog.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck clean, muscular and only long enough to give a well-balanced appearance. It should gradually widen into the shoulder. Back strong but laterally supple, with no suspicion of a dip behind the shoulder. Loin strong. Body deep, fairly narrow and of sufficient length to avoid any suggestions of lack of range and agility. The body should be capable of being spanned by a man’s hands behind the shoulders. Brisket not excessively deep or narrow. Deep ribs carried well back and not oversprung in view of the desired depth and narrowness of the body. The underline fairly straight. Tail moderately short, thick at the base, then tapering. Not set on too high. Carried gaily when at the alert, but not over the back. When at ease, a Border may drop his stern.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back and of good length, the blades converging to the withers gradually from a brisket not excessively deep or narrow. Forelegs straight and not too heavy in bone and placed slightly wider than in a Fox Terrier. Feet small and compact. Toes should point forward and be moderately arched with thick pads.
Hindquarters—Muscular and racy, with thighs long and nicely molded. Stifles well bent and hocks well let down. Feet as in front.
Coat—A short and dense undercoat covered with a very wiry and somewhat broken topcoat which should lie closely, but it must not show any tendency to curl or wave. With such a coat a Border should be able to be exhibited almost in his natural state, nothing more in the way of trimming being needed than a tidying up of the head, neck and feet. Hide very thick and loose fitting.
Color—Red, grizzle and tan, blue and tan, or wheaten. A small amount of white may be allowed on the chest but white on the feet should be penalized. A dark muzzle is characteristic and desirable.
Gait—Straight and rhythmical before and behind, with good length of stride and flexing of stifle and hock. The dog should respond to his handler with a gait which is free, agile and quick.
Temperament—His temperament ideally exemplifies that of a terrier. By nature he is good-tempered, affectionate, obedient and easily trained. In the field he is hard as nails, “game as they come” and driving in attack.
SCALE OF POINTS
Approved March 14, 1950
Reformatted July 13, 1990
THE BULL TERRIER BREED DATES BACK TO ABOUT 1835. THERE ARE TWO varieties, white and colored. It is almost unanimously believed that this breed was established by mating a Bulldog to the now-extinct White English Terrier. The results were known as the Bull-and-Terrier. Some few years later, the Bull-and-Terrier was crossed with the Spanish Pointer to gain size. To this day, evidence of pointer inheritance is occasionally seen.
In approximately 1860, fanciers decided that an entirely white dog would be more attractive, so James Hinks produced such a specimen. Breeding all-white dogs was most fashionable and was enthusiastically taken up by youngbloods of the day.
The Bull Terrier was a dog for sportsmen in a time when life in general was more strenuous and of rougher, coarser fiber. Because this breed was developed for sport as well as to be the gentleman’s companion, it had to be athletic and possess great strength, agility, and courage. The Bull Terrier was bred by gentlemen for gentlemen, for those who had a great sense of fair play. These dogs were taught to courageously defend themselves and their masters yet to never seek or provoke a fight. As a result the white variety became known as “The White Cavalier,” a nickname the breed bears with distinction to this day. The colored Bull Terrier, in accordance with the standard, must be any color other than white or any color with white, just so long as the white does not predominate. In 1936, it was voted that the colored Bull Terrier would be a separate variety of the Bull Terrier breed.
Contrary to the belief of those who evaluate the breed only by its powerful physical presence, Bull Terriers are exceedingly friendly dogs. They thrive on affection yet are always ready for a frolic. As youngsters, Bull Terriers’ exuberance and ebullient nature require families with active lifestyles. It should be remembered that the Bull Terrier comes from the Terrier Group. As such, this is an independent free-thinker with a higher commitment to sports and games than to the traditional work ethic. The desire is for a well-balanced animal, not extreme in any aspect, but well put together, active, and agile—that is, an athlete of perfect form.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BULL TERRIER
The Bull Terrier must be strongly built, muscular, symmetrical and active, with a keen, determined and intelligent expression, full of fire but of sweet disposition and amenable to discipline.
Head—Should be long, strong and deep right to the end of the muzzle, but not coarse. Full face it should be oval in outline and be filled completely up giving the impression of fullness with a surface devoid of hollows or indentations, i.e., egg shaped. In profile it should curve gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose. The forehead should be flat across from ear to ear. The distance from the tip of the nose to the eyes should be perceptibly greater than that from the eyes to the top of the skull. The underjaw should be deep and well defined.
Lips—Should be clean and tight.
Teeth—Should meet in either a level or in a scissors bite. In the scissors bite the upper teeth should fit in front of and closely against the lower teeth, and they should be sound, strong and perfectly regular.
Ears—Should be small, thin and placed close together. They should be capable of being held stiffly erect, when they should point upwards.
Eyes—Should be well sunken and as dark as possible, with a piercing glint and they should be small, triangular and obliquely placed; set near together and high up on the dog’s head. Blue eyes are a disqualification.
Nose—Should be black, with well-developed nostrils bent downward at the tip.
Neck—Should be very muscular, long, arched and clean, tapering from the shoulders to the head and it should be free from loose skin.
Chest—Should be broad when viewed from in front, and there should be great depth from withers to brisket, so that the latter is nearer the ground than the belly.
Body—Should be well rounded with marked spring of rib, the back should be short and strong. The back ribs deep. Slightly arched over the loin. The shoulders should be strong and muscular but without heaviness. The shoulder blades should be wide and flat and there should be a very pronounced backward slope from the bottom edge of the blade to the top edge. Behind the shoulders there should be no slackness or dip at the withers. The underline from the brisket to the belly should form a graceful upward curve.
Legs—Should be big boned but not to the point of coarseness; the forelegs should be of moderate length, perfectly straight, and the dog must stand firmly upon them. The elbows must turn neither in nor out, and the pasterns should be strong and upright. The hind legs should be parallel viewed from behind. The thighs very muscular with hocks well let down. Hind pasterns short and upright. The stifle joint should be well bent with a well-developed second thigh.
Feet—Round and compact with well-arched toes like a cat.
Tail—Should be short, set on low, fine, and ideally should be carried horizontally. It should be thick where it joins the body, and should taper to a fine point.
Coat—Should be short, flat, harsh to the touch and with a fine gloss. The dog’s skin should fit tightly.
Color—Is white though markings on the head are permissible. Any markings elsewhere on the coat are to be severely faulted. Skin pigmentation is not to be penalized.
Movement—The dog shall move smoothly, covering the ground with free, easy strides; fore and hind legs should move parallel each to each when viewed from in front or behind. The forelegs reaching out well and the hind legs moving smoothly at the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. The dog should move compactly and in one piece but with a typical jaunty air that suggests agility and power.
Any departure from the foregoing points shall be considered a fault and the seriousness of the fault shall be in exact proportion to its degree, i.e., a very crooked front is a very bad fault; a rather crooked front is a rather bad fault; and a slightly crooked front is a slight fault.
The Standard for the Colored Variety is the same as for the White except for the subhead “Color” which reads: Color. Any color other than white, or any color with white markings. Other things being equal, the preferred color is brindle. A dog which is predominantly white shall be disqualified.
Any dog which is predominantly white.
Approved July 9, 1974
THE HISTORY OF THE CAIRN TERRIER IS ENHANCED BY THE FACT THAT THE modern Cairn is an attempt to preserve in typical form the old-time working terrier of the Isle of Skye.
From Martin’s 1845 History of the Dog, Captain McDonald’s description and measurements of the ideal Cairn in 1876, from Ross’s Cairn Terrier, Darley Matheson’s Terriers, and from many other sources, it is plain that these were working terriers, with courage for the bolting of otter, foxes, and other vermin from rocks, cliffs, and ledges on the wild shores of their misty isle.
Scotland’s terriers had been grouped together as Scotch Terriers until 1873, when they were separated into two classifications—Dandie Dinmont Terriers and Skye Terriers. The breeds we now know as the Scottish Terrier, West Highland White Terrier, and Cairn Terrier were included in classes for Skye Terriers. The Scottish, West Highland, and Cairn had developed from the same stock, originating in the islands and highlands of western Scotland. The three often were found in the same litter, distinguished only by color. A club for Hard-Haired Scotch Terriers embracing the three was formed in 1881, and a standard was approved in 1882. White markings were considered a fault, though an all-white dog was valued.
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, fanciers of the Scottish Terrier type (who were in the majority) began to breed along separate lines. The Kennel Club (England) was petitioned by a group known as the White Scottish Terrier Club for separate classes for whites in 1899. The request originally had been denied, but at Crufts in 1907 separate classes were available for white terriers. The studbooks were opened to West Highland White Terriers as a separate breed, with the first registrations listed as 1908.
In 1909, the show at Inverness offered classes for Short-Haired Skyes. At a meeting of the Skye Terrier Club, fanciers protested the use of the name. The confusion over the classification of these “Short-Haired Skyes” was once again apparent when they were entered in classes for Skye Terriers at Crufts in 1910, even though classes for Short-Haired Skyes were provided. The judge refused to judge these dogs as entered and marked her book “wrong class.” A change of name to the Cairn Terrier of Skye was suggested for the Short-Haired Skye. (Cairns were piles of stones which served as landmarks or memorials. Common throughout much of Scotland, cairns were frequent hiding places for small mammals. Farmers used small terriers to bolt the animals from their rocky lairs.) The shortened name, Cairn Terrier, was agreed upon, and in 1912 the breed was permitted to compete for Challenge Certificates.
The Cairn Terrier standard in England permitted white as a color until 1923. The interbreeding of Cairns and West Highland White Terriers had occurred in both England and the United States. However, the AKC (which had given the breed official recognition in 1913) in 1917 barred any Cairn from registration if it was a product of “such a mixed breeding practice.”
The modern Cairn should have the hardiness to meet the performance of his old-time prototype. Utility should be the aim of the fancier, since the expressed object of Cairn Terrier clubs is to preserve the breed in its best old working-type.
The height of the Cairn, which differs from that of other terriers, is important in giving the breed the distinctive conformation that has been called “Cairnishness.” He is not so low to ground, in proportion to his size, as the Sealyham and the Scottish Terrier. There is one, and only one, correct size for the Cairn Terrier— fourteen pounds for dogs, thirteen pounds for bitches, and the dogs should be in proper proportion to those weights.
If the breed is to resist passing fads and the inroads of modernization, the first consideration in judging should be given to those qualities which are unique in the Cairn.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CAIRN TERRIER
General Appearance—That of an active, game, hardy, small working terrier of the short-legged class; very free in its movements, strongly but not heavily built, standing well forward on its forelegs, deep in the ribs, well coupled with strong hindquarters and presenting a well-proportioned build with a medium length of back, having a hard, weather-resisting coat; head shorter and wider than any other terrier and well furnished with hair giving a general foxy expression.
Skull—Broad in proportion to length with a decided stop and well furnished with hair on the top of the head, which may be somewhat softer than the body coat. Muzzle—Strong but not too long or heavy. Teeth—Large, mouth neither overshot nor undershot. Nose—Black. Eyes—Set wide apart, rather sunken, with shaggy eyebrows, medium in size, hazel or dark hazel in color, depending on body color, with a keen terrier expression. Ears—Small, pointed, well carried erectly, set wide apart on the side of the head. Free from long hairs.
Tail—In proportion to head, well furnished with hair but not feathery. Carried gaily but must not curl over back. Set on at back level.
Body—Well-muscled, strong, active body with well-sprung, deep ribs, coupled to strong hindquarters, with a level back of medium length, giving an impression of strength and activity without heaviness.
Shoulders, Legs and Feet—A sloping shoulder, medium length of leg, good but not too heavy bone; forelegs should not be out at elbows, and be perfectly straight, but forefeet may be slightly turned out. Forefeet larger than hind feet. Legs must be covered with hard hair. Pads should be thick and strong and dog should stand well up on its feet.
Coat—Hard and weather-resistant. Must be double-coated with profuse harsh outer coat and short, soft, close furry undercoat.
Color—May be of any color except white. Dark ears, muzzle and tail tip are desirable.
Ideal Size—Involves the weight, the height at the withers and the length of body. Weight for bitches, 13 pounds; for dogs, 14 pounds. Height at the withers—bitches, 91⁄2 inches; dogs, 10 inches. Length of body from 141⁄4 to 15 inches from the front of the chest to back of hindquarters. The dog must be of balanced proportions and appear neither leggy nor too low to ground; and neither too short nor too long in body. Weight and measurements are for matured dogs at two years of age. Older dogs may weigh slightly in excess and growing dogs may be under these weights and measurements.
Condition—Dogs should be shown in good hard flesh, well muscled and neither too fat or thin. Should be in full good coat with plenty of head furnishings, be clean, combed, brushed and tidied up on ears, tail, feet and general outline. Should move freely and easily on a loose lead, should not cringe on being handled, should stand up on their toes and show with marked terrier characteristics.
Skull—Too narrow in skull.
Muzzle—Too long and heavy a foreface; mouth overshot or undershot.
Eyes—Too large, prominent, yellow, and ringed are all objectionable.
Ears—Too large, round at points, set too close together, set too high on the head; heavily covered with hair.
LegsandFeet—Too light or too heavy bone. Crooked forelegs or out at elbow. Thin, ferrety feet; feet let down on the heel or too open and spread. Too high or too low on the leg.
Body—Too short back and compact a body, hampering quickness of movement and turning ability. Too long, weedy and snaky a body, giving an impression of weakness. Tail set on too low. Back not level.
Coat—Open coats, blousy coats, too short or dead coats, lack of sufficient undercoat, lack of head furnishings, lack of hard hair on the legs. Silkiness or curliness. A slight wave permissible.
Nose—Flesh or light-colored nose.
Color—White on chest, feet or other parts of body.
Approved May 10, 1938
DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER
FIRST RECORDED AS A DISTINCT BREED ABOUT 1700, THE DANDIE DINMONT Terrier was bred from selected specimens of the rough native terrier owned by border hunters in the Cheviot Hills between England and Scotland. The breed was distinguished as preeminent in hunting otter and badger. A direct line of these dogs descended to dogs of the farmers in the Teviotdale Hills, where Sir Walter Scott chanced upon them and made them famous in his 1815 novel, Guy Mannering. One of Scott’s characters, the farmer Dandie Dinmont, was believed to be patterned after James Davidson, of Hindlee, near Hawick, who kept the immortal six: Old Pepper, Old Mustard, Young Pepper, Young Mustard, Little Pepper, and Little Mustard. During the popularity of Guy Mannering, the breed was referred to as “Dandie Dinmont’s terriers.” Over the years the name was slightly modified to Dandie Dinmont Terriers.
Terriers recognizable as Dandies appear in paintings by Ansdell and Landseer before 1850. King Louis Philippe of France owned a pair of the breed in 1845. Today the hunting ability of the Dandie is not so often required, but other qualities make this an excellent house dog. They are intelligent, fond of children, and often alert the family with a deep bark. They have a will of their own and will sometimes obey a command reluctantly with a look that seems to say, “I’ll do it, but please don’t make me.”
The physical characteristics of Dandies are quite the opposite from those of the average terrier, as they are mostly a set of curves. The head is large, with a full, domed skull. Their very deep hazel eyes are large and luminous, the darker the better. The jaw is strong, deep, and punishing. Dandies’ bodies are long. The topline of the back is rather low at the shoulder with a corresponding arch over the loins and a slight drop at the root of the tail. The Dandie has a broad, deep, and powerful chest; the front legs are short and the feet may be turned slightly out. The hind legs are longer, and the tail is set low, slightly curved, and carried at an angle of about 45 degrees, coming up like a scimitar. There are two distinct colors. One is pepper, which is blue-gray to light silver, with tan or silver points and a very light gray or white topknot on the skull. The other is mustard, a dark ocher to cream color, with white points and topknot. The Dandie has a rough double coat, made up of both hard and soft hair, in a ratio of about 2 to 1. This type of coat easily sheds water and feels crisp to the touch but does not have the harsh feel of a wire-coated dog. The head is covered with soft, silky hair that should not be confined to a mere topknot. When groomed and properly shaped, this forms one of the characteristic features of the show Dandie. Dandies require regular coat care. Frequent plucking (pulling out) will improve both the texture and color of the coat. In doing so, only the longest hairs should be removed to keep the double coat and appearance of penciling. If the coat is neglected for a long period, it may be necessary to strip it down close to the skin. This will leave only undercoat and the Dandie may appear white. After stripping, it can take months for the coat to grow in to a proper length and texture.
Dandies fit in anywhere, either in a rough-and-tumble country life or the confines of a city. They are ideally between eighteen and twenty-four pounds, small enough to be comfortable in an apartment, but a dog big in character.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER
General Appearance—Originally bred to go to ground, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier is a long, low-stationed working terrier with a curved outline. The distinctive head with silken topknot is large but in proportion to the size of the dog. The dark eyes are large and round with a soft, wise expression. The sturdy, flexible body and scimitar shaped tail are covered with a rather crisp double coat, either mustard or pepper in color.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Heightis from 8 to 11 inches at the top of the shoulders. Lengthfrom top of shoulders to root of tail is one to two inches less than twice the height. For a dog in good working condition, the preferred weightis from 18 to 24 pounds. Sturdily built with ample bone and well developed muscle, but without coarseness. The overall balance is more important than any single specification.
Head—The head is strongly made and large, but in proportion to the dog’s size. Muscles are well developed, especially those covering the foreface. The expression shows great determination, intelligence and dignity. The eyesare large, round, bright and full, but not protruding. They are set wide apart and low, and directly forward. Color, a rich dark hazel. Eye rims dark. The earsare set well back, wide apart and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight projection at the fold. The shape is broad at the base, coming almost to a point. The front edge comes almost straight down from base to tip; the tapering is primarily on the back edge. The cartilage and skin of the ear are rather thin. The ear’s length is from three to four inches. The skullis broad between the ears, gradually tapering toward the eyes, and measures about the same from stop to occiput as it does from ear to ear. Forehead (brow) well domed. Stop well defined. The cheeksgradually taper from the ears toward the muzzle in the same proportion as the taper of the skull. The muzzleis deep and strong. In length, the proportions are a ratio of three (muzzle) to five (skull). The nose is moderately large and black or dark colored. The lips and inside of the mouth are black or dark colored. The teethmeet in a tight scissors bite. The teeth are very strong, especially the canines, which are an extraordinary size for a small dog. The canines mesh well with each other to give great holding and punishing power. The incisors in each jaw are evenly spaced and six in number.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis very muscular, well developed and strong, showing great power of resistance. It is well set into the shoulders and moderate in length. The toplineis rather low at the shoulder, having a slight downward curve and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very slight gradual drop from the top of the loins to the root of the tail. Both sides of the backbone well muscled. The outline is a continuous flow from the crest of the neck to the tip of the tail. The bodyis long, strong and flexible. Ribs are well sprung and well rounded. The chest is well developed and well let down between the forelegs. The underline reflects the curves of the topline. The tail is 8 to 10 inches in length, rather thick at the root, getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a point. The set-on of the tail is a continuation of the very slight gradual drop over the croup. The tail is carried a little above the level of the body in a curve like a scimitar. Only when the dog is excited may the tip of the tail be aligned perpendicular to its root.
Forequarters—There should be sufficient layback of shoulderto allow good reach in front; angulation in balance with hindquarters. Upper arms nearly equal in length to the shoulder blades, elbows lying close to the ribs and capable of moving freely. The forelegsare short with good muscular development and ample bone, set wide apart. Feet point forward or very slightly outward. Pasterns nearly straight when viewed from the side. Bandy legs and fiddle front are objectionable.
Hindquarters—The hindlegsare a little longer than the forelegs and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an unnatural manner. The upper and lower thighs are rounded and muscular and approximately the same length; stifles angulated, in balance with forequarters. The hocks are well let down and rear pasterns perpendicular to the ground.
Feet—The feet are round and well cushioned. Dewclaws preferably removed on forelegs. Rear feet are much smaller than the front feet and have no dewclaws. Nails strong and dark; nail color may vary according to the color of the dog. White nails are permissible. Flat feet are objectionable.
Coat—This is a very important point: The hair should be about two inches long; the body coat is a mixture of about 2⁄3 hardish hair with about 1⁄3 soft hair, giving a sort of crisp texture. The hair is not wiry. The body coat is shortened by plucking. The coat is termed pily or penciled, the effect of the natural intermingling of the two types of hair. The hair on the underpart of the body is softer than on the top.
The head is covered with very soft, silky hair, the silkier the better. It should not be confined to a mere topknot but extends to cover the upper portion of the ears, including the fold, and frames the eyes. Starting about two inches from the tip, the ear has a thin feather of hair of nearly the same color and texture as the topknot, giving the ear the appearance of ending in a distinct point. The body of the ear is covered with short, soft, velvety hair. The hair on the muzzle is of the same texture as the foreleg feather. For presentation, the hair on the top of the muzzle is shortened. The hair behind the nose is naturally more sparse for about an inch. The forelegs have a feather about two inches long, the same texture as the muzzle. The hind leg hair is of the same texture but has considerably less feather. The upper side of the tail is covered with crisper hair than that on the body. The underside has a softer feather about two inches long, gradually shorter as it nears the tip, shaped like a scimitar. Trimming for presentation is to appear entirely natural; exaggerated styling is objectionable.
Color—The color is pepper or mustard.
Pepper ranges from dark bluish black to a light silvery gray, the intermediate shades preferred. The topknot and ear feather are silvery white, the lighter the color the better. The hair on the legs and feet should be tan, varying according to the body color from a rich tan to a very pale fawn. Mustardvaries from a reddish brown to a pale fawn. The topknot and ear feather are a creamy white. The hair on the legs and feet should be a darker shade than the topknot.
In both colors the body color comes well down the shoulders and hips, gradually merging into the leg color. Hair on the under part of the body is lighter in color than on the top. The hair on the muzzle (beard) is a little darker shade than the topknot. Ear color harmonizes with the body color. The upper side of the tail is a darker shade than the body color, while the underside of the tail is lighter, as the legs. Some white hair on the chest is common.
Gait—Proper movement requires a free and easy stride, reaching forward with the front legs and driving with evident force from the rear. The legs move in a straight plane from shoulder to pad and hip to pad. A stiff, stilted, hopping or weaving gait and lack of drive in the rear quarters are faults to be penalized.
Temperament—Independent, determined, reserved and intelligent. The Dandie Dinmont Terrier combines an affectionate and dignified nature with, in a working situation, tenacity and boldness.
Approved February 9, 1991
Effective March 27, 1991
SMOOTH FOX TERRIER
THE FOX TERRIER IS AN OLD ENGLISH BREED. FOR ALMOST 100 YEARS IT WAS registered and shown in the United States as one breed with two varieties, smooth and wire. However, in 1984 the American Kennel Club approved separate standards for the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier; this ruling became effective on June 1, 1985.
Authorities believe the two fox terriers probably originated from very different sources. The ancestor of the Wire is thought to be the old rough-coated, black-and-tan working terrier of Wales, Derbyshire, and Durham. The important ancestors of the Smooth are believed to include the smooth-coated black-and-tan terrier, the Bull Terrier, the Greyhound, and the Beagle.
One of the first records of the breed was made in 1790, when Colonel Thornton’s Pitch—a smooth-coated white fox terrier—was immortalized in print and paintings.
Smooth Fox Terriers preceded the Wires in the show ring by 15 to 20 years. At first they were classified with sporting dogs, a tribute to their keen nose, remarkable eyesight, and stamina in driving foxes from their hole.
Early breeders liberally crossed Wire Fox Terriers with Smooths to give the former predominantly white pigmentation, a cleaner-cut head, and a more classical outline. However, interbreeding has been almost universally discontinued for many years.
The original breed standard was so well drawn in 1876 by the Fox Terrier Club in Great Britain that, with the exception of reducing the weight of a male dog in show condition from 20 pounds to 18 pounds, changes were unnecessary for many decades. The American Fox Terrier Club, the parent club of the breed in this country, adopted this standard when the club was founded in 1885.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SMOOTH FOX TERRIER
General Appearance—The dog must present a generally gay, lively and active appearance; bone and strength in a small compass are essentials; but this must not be taken to mean that a Fox Terrier should be cloddy, or in any way coarse—speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a cleverly made hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back, as stated below. He will then attain the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest length of stride that is compatible with the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a Terrier’s fitness for his work— general shape, size and contour are the main points; and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or so.
N.B. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a Terrier’s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud.
Size, Proportion, Substance—According to present-day requirements, a full-sized, well balanced dog should not exceed 151⁄2 inches at the withers—the bitch being proportionately lower—nor should the length of back from withers to root of tail exceed 12 inches, while to maintain the relative proportions, the head should not exceed 71 ⁄4 inches or be less than 7 inches. A dog with these measurements should scale 18 pounds in show condition—a bitch weighing some two pounds less—with a margin of one pound either way. Balance—This may be defined as the correct proportions of a certain point, or points, when considered in relation to a certain other point or points. It is the keystone of the Terrier’s anatomy. The chief points for consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface; head and back; height at withers and length of body from shoulder point to buttock—the ideal of proportion being reached when the last two measurements are the same. It should be added that, although the head measurements can be taken with absolute accuracy, the height at withers and length of back and coat are approximate, and are inserted for the information of breeders and exhibitors rather than as a hard-and-fast rule.
Head—Eyesand rimsshould be dark in color, moderately small and rather deep set, full of fire, life and intelligence and as nearly possible circular in shape. Anything approaching a yellow eye is most objectionable. Ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound. The topline of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. Disqualifications—Ears prick, tulip or rose.
The skullshould be flat and moderately narrow, gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much “stop” should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the forehead and the top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. It should be noticed that although the foreface should gradually taper from eye to muzzle and should tip slightly at its junction with the forehead, it should not “dish” or fall away quickly below the eyes, where it should be full and well made up, but relieved from “wedginess” by a little delicate chiseling. There should be apparent little difference in length between the skull and foreface of a well balanced head. Cheeks must not be full.
Jaws, upper and lower, should be strong and muscular and of fair punishing strength, but not so as in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes. This part of the head should, however, be moderately chiseled out, so as not to go down in a straight slope like a wedge. The nose, toward which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. Disqualifications—Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.
The teethshould be as nearly as possible together, i.e., the points of the upper (incisors) teeth on the outside of or slightly overlapping the lower teeth. Disqualifications—Much undershot, or much overshot.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckshould be clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoulders. Backshould be short, straight (i.e., level), and strong, with no appearance of slackness. Chest deep and not broad. Brisket should be deep, yet not exaggerated. The foreribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs deep and well sprung, and the dog should be well ribbed up. Loin should be very powerful, muscular and very slightly arched. Stern should be set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not over the back or curled, docked to leave about three quarters of the original length of the tail. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a “Pipestopper” tail being especially objectionable.
Forequarters—Shouldersshould be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the withers. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. The forelegs viewed from any direction must be straight with bone strong right down to the feet, showing little or no appearance of ankle in front, and being short and straight in pastern. Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in traveling. Feetshould be round, compact, and not large; the soles hard and tough; the toes moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out.
Hindquarters—Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful, stifles well curved and turned neither in nor out; hocks well bent and near the ground should be perfectly upright and parallel each with the other when viewed from behind, the dog standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. The worst possible form of hindquarters consists of a short second thigh and a straight stifle. Both fore and hind legs should be carried straight forward in traveling, the stifles not turning outward. Feet as in front.
Coat—Should be smooth, flat, but hard, dense and abundant. The belly and underside of the thighs should not be bare.
Color—White should predominate; brindle, red or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no importance.
Gait—Movement, or action, is the crucial test of conformation. The Terrier’s legs should be carried straight forward while traveling, the forelegs hanging perpendicular and swinging parallel with the sides, like the pendulum of a clock. The principal propulsive power is furnished by the hind legs, perfection of action being found in the Terrier possessing long thighs and muscular second thighs well bent at the stifles, which admit of a strong forward thrust or “snatch” of the hocks. When approaching, the forelegs should form a continuation of the straight line of the front, the feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. When stationary it is often difficult to determine whether a dog is slightly out at shoulder, but, directly he moves, the defect—if it exists—becomes more apparent, the forefeet having a tendency to cross, “weave,” or “dish.” When, on the contrary, the dog is tied at the shoulder, the tendency of the feet is to move wider apart, with a sort of paddling action. When the hocks are turned in— cow-hocks—the stifles and feet are turned outwards, resulting in a serious loss of propulsive power. When the hocks are turned outward the tendency of the hind feet is to cross, resulting in an ungainly waddle.
Temperament—The dog must present a generally gay, lively and active appearance.
Ears prick, tulip or rose.
Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.
Mouth much undershot, or much overshot.
Approved July 8, 2002
Effective August 28, 2002
WIRE FOX TERRIER
THE FOX TERRIER IS AN OLD ENGLISH BREED. FOR ALMOST 100 YEARS IT WAS registered and shown in the United States as one breed with two varieties, Smooth and Wire. However, in 1984 the American Kennel Club approved separate standards for the Smooth Fox Terrier and the Wire Fox Terrier; this ruling became effective on June 1, 1985.
For more information on the history and characteristics of the breed, see the entry for the Smooth Fox Terrier.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE WIRE FOX TERRIER
General Appearance—The Terrier should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation. Character is imparted by the expression of the eyes and by the carriage of ears and tail.
Bone and strength in a small compass are essential, but this must not be taken to mean that a Terrier should be “cloddy,” or in any way coarse—speed and endurance being requisite as well as power. The Terrier must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short on the leg. He should stand like a cleverly made, short-backed hunter, covering a lot of ground.
N.B. Old scars or injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a Terrier’s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with its movement or with its utility for work or stud.
Size, Proportion, Substance—According to present-day requirements, a full-sized, well balanced dog should not exceed 151⁄2 inches at the withers—the bitch being proportionately lower—nor should the length of back from withers to root of tail exceed 12 inches, while to maintain the relative proportions, the head—as mentioned below—should not exceed 71⁄4 inches or be less than 7 inches. A dog with these measurements should scale 18 pounds in show condition—a bitch weighing some two pounds less—with a margin of one pound either way.
The dog should be balanced and this may be defined as the correct proportions of a certain point or points, when considered in relation to a certain other point or points. It is the keystone of the Terrier’s anatomy. The chief points for consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface; head and back; height at withers; and length of body from shoulder point to buttock—the ideal of proportion being reached when the last two measurements are the same. It should be added that, although the head measurements can be taken with absolute accuracy, the height at withers and length of back are approximate, and are inserted for the information of breeders and exhibitors rather than as a hard-and-fast rule.
Head—The length of the head of a full-grown well developed dog of correct size—measured with calipers—from the back of the occipital bone to the nostrils— should be from 7 to 71⁄4 inches, the bitch’s head being proportionately shorter. Any measurement in excess of this usually indicates an oversized or long-backed specimen, although occasionally—so rarely as to partake of the nature of a freak—a Terrier of correct size may boast a head 71⁄2 inches in length. In a well balanced head there should be little apparent difference in length between skull and foreface. If, however, the foreface is noticeably shorter, it amounts to a fault, the head looking weak and “unfinished.” On the other hand, when the eyes are set too high up in the skull and too near the ears, it also amounts to a fault, the head being said to have a “foreign appearance.”
Keen of expression. Eyes should be dark in color, moderately small, rather deepset, not prominent, and full of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in shape, and not too far apart. Anything approaching a yellow eye is most objectionable. Ears should be small and V-shaped and of moderate thickness, the flaps neatly folded over and dropping forward close to the cheeks. The topline of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. A pendulous ear, hanging dead by the side of the head like a Hound’s, is uncharacteristic of the Terrier, while an ear which is semierect is still more undesirable. Disqualifications—Ears prick, tulip or rose.
The topline of the skull should be almost flat, sloping slightly and gradually decreasing in width toward the eyes, and should not exceed 31⁄2 inches in diameter at the widest part—measuring with the calipers—in the full-grown dog of correct size, the bitch’s skull being proportionately narrower. If this measurement is exceeded, the skull is termed “coarse,” while a full-grown dog with a much narrower skull is termed “bitchy” in head.
Although the foreface should gradually taper from eye to muzzle and should dip slightly at its juncture with the forehead, it should not “dish” or fall away quickly below the eyes, where it should be full and well made up, but relieved from “wedginess” by a little delicate chiseling. While well developed jaw bones, armed with a set of strong, white teeth, impart that appearance of strength to the foreface which is so desirable, an excessive bony or muscular development of the jaws is both unnecessary and unsightly, as it is partly responsible for the full and rounded contour of the cheeks to which the term “cheeky” is applied.
Nose should be black. Disqualifications—Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors. Mouth—Both upper and lower jaws should be strong and muscular, the teethas nearly as possible level and capable of closing together like a vise—the lower canines locking in front of the upper and the points of the upper incisors slightly overlapping the lower. Disqualifications—Much undershot, or much overshot.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckshould be clean, muscular, of fair length, free from throatiness and presenting a graceful curve when viewed from the side. The backshould be short and level with no appearance of slackness—the loins muscular and very slightly arched. The term “slackness” is applied both to the portion of the back immediately behind the withers when it shows any tendency to dip, and also the flanks when there is too much space between the back ribs and hipbone. When there is little space between the ribs and hips, the dog is said to be “short in couplings,” “short-coupled,” or “well ribbed up.” A Terrier can scarcely be too short in back, provided he has sufficient length of neck and liberty of movement. The bitch may be slightly longer in couplings than the dog.
Chest deep and not broad, a too narrow chest being almost as undesirable as a very broad one. Excessive depth of chest and brisket is an impediment to a Terrier when going to ground. The brisket should be deep, the front ribs moderately arched, and the back ribs deep and well sprung. Tail should be set on rather high and carried gaily but not curled. It should be of good strength and substance and of fair length—a three-quarters dock is about right—since it affords the only safe grip when handling working Terriers. A very short tail is suitable neither for work nor show.
Forequarters—Shoulderswhen viewed from the front should slope steeply downwards from their juncture, with the neck towards the points, which should be fine. When viewed from the side they should be long, well laid back, and should slope obliquely backwards from points to withers, which should always be clean-cut. A shoulder well laid back gives the long forehand which, in combination with a short back, is so desirable in Terrier or Hunter. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides, carried straight through in traveling. Viewed from any direction the legs should be straight, the bone of the forelegs strong right down to the feet. Feet should be round, compact, and not large—the pads tough and well cushioned, and the toes moderately arched and turned neither in nor out. A Terrier with good-shaped forelegs and feet will wear his nails down short by contact with the road surface, the weight of the body being evenly distributed between the toe pads and the heels.
Hindquarters—Should be strong and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; the stifles well curved and turned neither in nor out; the hock joints well bent and near the ground; the hocks perfectly upright and parallel with each other when viewed from behind. The worst possible form of hindquarters consists of a short second thigh and a straight stifle, a combination which causes the hind legs to act as props rather than instruments of propulsion. The hind legs should be carried straight through in traveling. Feet as in front.
Coat—The best coats appear to be broken, the hairs having a tendency to twist, and are of dense, wiry texture—like coconut matting—the hairs growing so closely and strongly together that, when parted with the fingers, the skin cannot be seen. At the base of these stiff hairs is a shorter growth of finer and softer hair—termed the undercoat. The coat on the sides is never quite so hard as that on the back and quarters. Some of the hardest coats are “crinkly” or slightly waved, but a curly coat is very objectionable. The hair on the upper and lower jaws should be crisp and only sufficiently long to impart an appearance of strength to the foreface. The hair on the forelegs should also be dense and crisp. The coat should average in length from 3⁄4 to one inch on shoulders and neck, lengthening to 11⁄2 inches on withers, back, ribs, and quarters. These measurements are given rather as a guide to exhibitors than as an infallible rule, since the length of coat depends on the climate, seasons, and individual animal. The judge must form his own opinion as to what constitutes a “sufficient” coat on the day.
Color—White should predominate; brindle, red, liver or slaty blue are objectionable. Otherwise, color is of little or no importance.
Gait—The movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. The Terrier’s legs should be carried straight forward while traveling, the forelegs hanging perpendicular and swinging parallel to the sides, like the pendulum of a clock. The principal propulsive power is furnished by the hind legs, perfection of action being found in the Terrier possessing long thighs and muscular second thighs well bent at the stifles, which admit of a strong forward thrust or “snatch” of the hocks. When approaching, the forelegs should form a continuation of the straight of the front, the feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. When stationary it is often difficult to determine whether a dog is slightly out at shoulder but, directly he moves, the defect—if it exists—becomes more apparent, the forefeet having a tendency to cross, “weave,” or “dish.” When, on the contrary, the dog is tied at the shoulder, the tendency of the feet is to move wider apart, with a sort of paddling action. When the hocks are turned in—cow-hocks—the stifles and feet are turned outwards, resulting in a serious loss of propulsive power. When the hocks are turned outwards the tendency of the hind feet is to cross, resulting in an ungainly waddle.
Temperament—The Terrier should be alert, quick of movement, keen of expression, on the tip-toe of expectation at the slightest provocation.
Ears prick, tulip or rose.
Nose white, cherry or spotted to a considerable extent with either of these colors.
Mouth much undershot, or much overshot.
Approved February 9, 1991
Effective March 27, 1991
GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER
“THERE IS A GLEN, IMAAL, IN THE WICKLOW MOUNTAINS THAT HAS ALWAYS been, and still is, celebrated for its terriers.” This is an early–nineteenth century reference to the fascinating breed we know now as the Glen of Imaal Terrier.
The valley where the breed was developed is one of Ireland’s most remote regions, helping to explain why this rough-and-ready terrier bearing the valley’s name has been so little known. The Glen of Imaal evolved along different lines from the three other terrier breeds indigenous to Ireland: the Kerry Blue, Soft Coated Wheaten, and Irish terriers. Until recently, geographic isolation has defined the history and evolution of the Glen of Imaal Terrier. Because of this unique breed’s specific place of origin, there is considerable information on how it probably came into existence.
Around 1570, Elizabeth I faced what nearly every British monarch has faced: trouble in Ireland. She hired Flemish and Lowland soldiers to do her fighting, and as payment for their services she offered them tracts of land in the largely barren Wicklow mountains of Ireland.
The soldiers did Elizabeth’s bidding effectively and proceeded to settle the Glen of Imaal and its environs. We know from several sources that they brought their dogs with them. Among these was a low-slung, harsh-coated “French” hound. These dogs mingled with several different native Irish canines, including hounds and emerging terrier types. Over time, these settlers began to develop a breed of terrier that would not only perform the traditional terrier tasks of dispatching vermin, as well as hunting fox and badger, but also would perform a most unique function.
These prototype Glens were meant to be turnspit dogs. The turnspit was a large wheel rigged with a pulley that was connected to a rotisserie-like device over the hearth. The dog was put into the wheel, and when he began to paddle away, dinner was cooked over the fire.
Some controversy exists about the veracity of the turnspit portion of Glen history. This is largely due to a fanciful and widely published artist’s rendering depicting a Glen in such a device. Indeed, the device illustrated could never have fit in the average Irish cottage of the day. Further research reveals that smaller devices were common throughout Ireland and used largely to churn butter. For several centuries these hardy dogs performed their unique task in this quiet and distant corner of Ireland, largely unknown elsewhere in the country, let alone the rest of the world.
The advent of dog shows in the 1860s brought the breed wider appreciation. By 1933, enthusiasm had grown sufficiently that the Irish Kennel Club recognized the Glen of Imaal Terrier, the third of Ireland’s four terrier breeds to be so recognized.
In the United States we know of several Glens arriving in the 1930s, when families emigrated from Ireland with their dogs. The breed did not gain a true foothold here, however, until the early 1980s, when several breed pioneers led by Frank and Mary Murphy, of Kansas City, Missouri, imported foundation stock from the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Finland. Shortly thereafter, they founded the Glen of Imaal Terrier Club of America. The breed became eligible for the AKC Miscellaneous class on September 1, 2001. Glens were admitted to full AKC registration effective July 1, 2004, and became eligible for Terrier Group competition in October of that year.
Hardy and resilient to the point of stoicism, the Glen is very much a big dog on short legs, which speaks both to its conformation and its approach to life. An understanding of terrier temperament, and the rigors of hand-stripping a harsh-coated breed, are essential considerations for the prospective Glen owner. A superb earthdog and loyal companion, the Glen of Imaal Terrier has been unaltered by fashion. The Glens of today are true descendants, in form and spirit, of their celebrated ancestors in County Wicklow.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE GLEN OF IMAAL TERRIER
General Appearance—The Glen of Imaal Terrier, named for the region in the Wicklow Mountains of Ireland where it was developed long ago, is a medium-sized working terrier. Longer than tall and sporting a double coat of medium length, the Glen possesses great strength and should always convey the impression of maximum substance for size of dog. Unrefined to this day, the breed still possesses “antique” features once common to many early terrier types; its distinctive head with rose or half-prick ears, its bowed forequarters with turned out feet, its unique outline and topline are hallmarks of the breed and essential to the breed type.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height—The maximum height is 14 inches with a minimum of 121⁄2 inches, measured at the highest point of the shoulder blades. Weight—Weight is approximately 35 pounds, bitches somewhat less; however, no Glen in good condition and otherwise well-balanced shall be penalized for being slightly outside the suggested weight. Length—The length of body, measured from sternum to buttocks, and height measured from the highest point of the shoulder blades to ground, to be in a ratio of approximately 5 (length) to 3 (height). The overall balance is more important than any single specification.
Head—The head must be powerful and strong with no suggestion of coarseness. Impressive in size yet in balance with, and in proportion to, the overall size and symmetry of the dog. Eyes—Brown, medium size, round and set well apart. Light eyes should be penalized. Ears—Small, rose or half pricked when alert, thrown back when in repose. Set wide apart and well back on the top outer edge of the skull. Full drop or prick ears undesirable. Skull—Broad and slightly domed; tapering slightly toward the brow. Of fair length, distance from stop to occiput being approximately equal to distance between ears. Muzzle—Foreface of power, strong and well filled below the eyes, tapering toward the nose. Ratio of length of muzzle to length of skull is approximately three (muzzle) to five (skull). Bottle head or narrow foreface undesirable. Stop—Pronounced. Nose—Black. Teeth—Set in a strong jaw, sound, regular, and of good size. Full dentition. Scissors bite preferred; level mouth accepted.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Very muscular and of moderate length. Topline— Straight, slightly rising to a very strong well-muscled loin with no drop-off at the croup. Body—Deep, long and fully muscled. Longer than high with the ideal ratio of body length to shoulder height approximately five (length) to three (height). Chest —Wide, strong and deep, extending below the elbows. Ribs—Well sprung with neither a flat nor a barrel appearance. Loins—Strong and well muscled. Tail—Docked to approximately half-length, in balance with the overall dog and long enough to allow a good handhold. Strong at root, well set on and carried gaily. Dogs with undocked tails not to be penalized.
Forequarters—Shoulder—Well laid back, broad and muscular. Forelegs—Short, bowed and well boned. Forearm should curve slightly around the chest. Upper arm (humerus) nearly equal in length to the shoulder blades (scapula). Feet to turn out slightly but perceptibly from pasterns. Feet—Compact and strong with rounded pads.
Hindquarters—Strong and well muscled, with ample bone and in balance with forequarters. Good bend of stifle and a well-defined second thigh. Hocks turn neither in nor out, are short, well let down and perpendicular from hock to ground. Feet—As front, except they should point forward.
Coat—Medium length, of harsh texture with a soft undercoat. The coat may be tidied to present a neat outline characteristic of a rough-and-ready working terrier. Overtrimming of dogs is undesirable.
Color—Wheaten, blue or brindle. Wheaten includes all shades from cream to red wheaten. Blue may range from silver to deepest slate but not black. Brindle may be any shade but is most commonly seen as blue brindle, a mixture of dark blue, light blue, and tan hairs in any combination or proportion.
Gait—The action should be free and even, covering the ground effortlessly with good reach in front and good drive behind. This is a working terrier, which must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work for which it was developed.
Temperament—Game and spirited with great courage when called upon, otherwise gentle and docile. Although generally less easily excited than other terriers, the Glen is always ready to give chase. When working they are active, agile, silent and dead game.
Faults—Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
Approved June 11, 2001
Effective September 1, 2001
THE MODERN IRISH TERRIER SERVES PRIMARILY AS A LOYAL FAMILY COMPANION but has a rich heritage as a hardworking farm dog. Affectionate to family members, reserved with strangers, and challenging to enemies, this strong-willed breed was highly valued by rural Irish families. Bred to control vermin, Irish Terriers were the watchful guardians of farm and family, and also served as hunting companions, capable on land and in the water.
The existence of an Irish sporting terrier was referred to for centuries in ancient manuscripts now archived in the Dublin Museum. One old-time Irish writer referred to these dogs as the poor-man’s sentinel, the farmer’s friend, and the gentleman’s favorite. A generally accepted theory traces the origin of the breed to the wirehaired black-and-tan terriers that existed in Great Britain more than 300 years ago.
The Irish Terrier emerged as a recognized breed in the 1870s. Separate classes for Irish Terriers were first provided at a Dublin dog show in 1873. In 1879, the first Irish Terrier Club was founded in Dublin. A standard was adopted to provide breeders with a description of an ideal Irish Terrier. In 1897, the Irish Terrier Club of America was formed. Every breed has defining characteristics. For the Irish Terrier they are good temper, a graceful racing outline, keen expression, and a dense, wiry coat with a distinctive broken appearance.
The original breed standard describes Irish Terriers as remarkably good tempered, notably so with mankind. When off duty, they are characterized by a quiet, caress-inviting appearance, and when one sees them endearingly, timidly pushing their heads into their master’s hands, it is difficult to realize that on occasion, at the set-on, they can prove they have the courage of a lion and will fight with their last breath. The average Irish Terrier today continues to exhibit this wonderful personality, being both gentle and game.
The Irish Terrier is built on lines of speed. His moderately long back gives him a graceful racing outline and sets him apart from the other terriers. In 1906, F. M. Jowett, a prominent English breeder and the author of the first book on the breed, wrote:
A true Irish Terrier should not be a short-backed dog, but well up on his legs, a shade long in the body, a dog that looks like galloping, but still with plenty of bone and substance, and not whippety; a dog, in short, that even if he were white could not possibly be mistaken for a Wirehaired Fox Terrier.
Dr. E. S. Montgomery reflected on the breed’s keen expression in his book The Complete Irish Terrier:
By his head, the Irish Terrier is first recognized and last remembered, because the challenging piercing expression is unlike the expression of any other member of the canine kingdom. All exhibitors, all judges, but more important, all breeders must always carry in their minds the hard-bitten devil-may-care expression which is so necessary and so desirable in this breed.
The wiry and dense coat of an Irish Terrier hugs the body and creates a tight water-resistant jacket. After a walk in light rain, a correctly coated dog just needs a couple of good shakes to dry off. Underneath the stiff outer coat, a dense undercoat of softer, finer hair traps body heat on a cool, damp day. Dried mud on a good-coated dog knocks off easily with a quick brushing.
The Irish Terrier is not born with a propensity to obey. The breed’s heritage as a strong-willed, independent worker can get in the way at times. Some owners refer to this as willfulness, others as stubbornness. “Let’s try it my way first” is an Irish Terrier’s natural response to a challenge, including obedience training.
Although willful, the Irish Terrier is a loyal family companion and ultimately wants to please. Channeling this trait and leveraging the breed’s intelligence, owners routinely train dogs that distinguish themselves at obedience and agility trials. The pluck and devotion of an Irish Terrier provides the opportunity for a companion you’ll never forget.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE IRISH TERRIER
Head—Long, but in nice proportion to the rest of the body; the skull flat, rather narrow between the ears, and narrowing slightly toward the eyes; free from wrinkle, with the stop hardly noticeable except in profile. The jaws must be strong and muscular, but not too full in the cheek, and of good punishing length. The foreface must not fall away appreciably between or below the eyes; instead, the modeling should be delicate. An exaggerated foreface, or a noticeably short foreface, disturbs the proper balance of the head and is not desirable. The foreface and the skull from occiput to stop should be approximately equal in length. Excessive muscular development of the cheeks, or bony development of the temples, conditions which are described by the fancier as “cheeky,” or “strong in head,” or “thick in skull” are objectionable. The “bumpy” head, in which the skull presents two lumps of bony structure above the eyes, is to be faulted. The hair on the upper and lower jaws should be similar in quality and texture to that on the body, and of sufficient length to present an appearance of additional strength and finish to the foreface. Either the profuse, goat-like beard, or the absence of beard, is unsightly and undesirable.
Teeth—Should be strong and even, white and sound; and neither overshot nor undershot.
Lips—Should be close and well-fitting, almost black in color.
Nose—Must be black.
Eyes—Dark brown in color; small, not prominent; full of life, fire and intelligence, showing an intense expression. The light or yellow eye is most objectionable, and is a bad fault.
Ears—Small and V-shaped; of moderate thickness; set well on the head, and dropping forward closely toward the outside corner of the eye. The top of the folded ear should be well above the level of the skull. A “dead” ear, hound-like in appearance, must be severely penalized. It is not characteristic of the Irish Terrier. The hair should be much shorter and somewhat darker in color than that on the body.
Neck—Should be of fair length and gradually widening toward the shoulders; well and proudly carried, and free from throatiness. Generally there is a slight frill in the hair at each side of the neck, extending almost to the corner of the ear.
Shoulders and Chest—Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the back. The chest should be deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide.
Body—The body should be moderately long. The short back is not characteristic of the Irish Terrier, and is extremely objectionable. The back must be strong and straight, and free from an appearance of slackness or “dip” behind the shoulders. The loin should be strong and muscular, and slightly arched, the ribs fairly sprung, deep rather than round, reaching to the level of the elbow. The bitch may be slightly longer than the dog.
Hindquarters—Should be strong and muscular; thighs powerful; hocks near the ground; stifles moderately bent.
Stern—Should be docked, taking off about one quarter. It should be set on rather high, but not curled. It should be of good strength and substance; of fair length and well covered with harsh, rough hair.
Feet and Legs—The feet should be strong, tolerably round, and moderately small; toes arched and turned neither out nor in, with dark toenails. The pads should be deep, and must be perfectly sound and free from corns. Cracks alone do not necessarily indicate unsound feet. In fact, all breeds have cracked pads occasionally, from various causes.
Legs moderately long, well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone and muscle; the elbows working clear of the sides; pasterns short, straight, and hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should move straight forward when traveling; the stifles should not turn outward. “Cowhocks”—that is, the hocks turned in and the feet turned out—are intolerable. The legs should be free from feather and covered with hair of similar texture to that on the body to give proper finish to the dog.
Coat—Should be dense and wiry in texture, rich in quality, having a broken appearance, but still lying fairly close to the body, the hairs growing so closely and strongly together that when parted with the fingers the skin is hardly visible; free of softness or silkiness, and not so long as to alter the outline of the body, particularly in the hindquarters. On the sides of the body the coat is never as harsh as on the back and quarters, but it should be plentiful and of good texture. At the base of the stiff outer coat there should be a growth of finer and softer hair, lighter in color, termed the undercoat. Single coats, which are without any undercoat, and wavy coats are undesirable; the curly and the kinky coats are most objectionable.
Color—Should be whole-colored: bright red, golden red, red wheaten, or wheaten. A small patch of white on the chest, frequently encountered in all whole-colored breeds, is permissible but not desirable. White on any other part of the body is most objectionable. Puppies sometimes have black hair at birth, which should disappear before they are full grown.
Size—The most desirable weight in show condition is 27 pounds for the dog and 25 pounds for the bitch. The height at the shoulder should be approximately 18 inches. These figures serve as a guide to both breeder and judge. In the show ring, however, the informed judge readily identifies the oversized or undersized Irish Terrier by its conformation and general appearance. Weight is not the last word in judgment. It is of the greatest importance to select, insofar as possible, terriers of moderate and generally accepted size, possessing the other various characteristics.
General Appearance—The overall appearance of the Irish Terrier is important. In conformation he must be more than a sum of his parts. He must be all-of-a-piece, a balanced vital picture of symmetry, proportion and harmony. Furthermore, he must convey character. This terrier must be active, lithe and wiry in movement, with great animation; sturdy and strong in substance and bone structure, but at the same time free from clumsiness, for speed, power and endurance are most essential. The Irish Terrier must be neither “cobby” nor “cloddy,” but should be built on lines of speed with a graceful, racing outline.
Temperament—The temperament of the Irish Terrier reflects his early background: he was family pet, guard dog, and hunter. He is good tempered, spirited and game. It is of the utmost importance that the Irish Terrier show fire and animation. There is a heedless, reckless pluck about the Irish Terrier which is characteristic, and which, coupled with the headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with which he rushes at his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud epithet of “Daredevil.” He is of good temper, most affectionate, and absolutely loyal to mankind. Tender and forbearing with those he loves, this rugged, stout-hearted terrier will guard his master, his mistress and children with utter contempt for danger or hurt. His life is one continuous and eager offering of loyal and faithful companionship and devotion. He is ever on guard, and stands between his home and all that threatens.
Approved December 10, 1968
KERRY BLUE TERRIER
THE KERRY BLUE TERRIER ORIGINATED IN IRELAND, HAVING BEEN NOTICED first in the mountainous regions of County Kerry, hence the name. The dogs had been purebred in that section for more than a hundred years.
Gentle, lovable, and intelligent, the Kerry is an all-round working and utility terrier, used in Ireland and England for hunting small game and birds, and for retrieving from land and water. He is used quite successfully, too, for herding sheep and cattle and ridding the farm of vermin. This overall working and sporting terrier is a faithful companion to the family, showing great personality, drive, and energy.
After the formation of the Republic, they began to appear on the show bench and met with quick favor. The first few came out at the Dublin show. Fostered by the Irish Blue Terrier Club of Dublin, organized by H. G. Fotterell.
English fanciers were quick to realize the Blues’ possibilities once groomed, and the Kennel Club there provided regular classification for them. Their rise to popularity was almost instant, and each show brought out increasing numbers of entries.
The Blue Terrier Club of England, organized by Captain Watts Williams, is the supporting organization back of the Blues for England. The English standard is with a few minor exceptions identical with the American standard in that coats must be trimmed.
There is more or less conjecture in America as to who imported the first Kerry and where it was originally shown, but it appears that the first important show at which the breed appeared was Westminster in 1922. For two years following their initial exhibition at Madison Square Garden they resided in the Miscellaneous class, but in 1924 they were officially recognized by the American Kennel Club as a breed and given championship rating.
During the Westminster show of 1926, a group of fanciers met at the Waldorf-Astoria and organized the Kerry Blue Terrier Club of America. At about the same time another club, the United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club, Inc., was formed, and in 1938 both clubs joined membership to form the parent club under the title of the United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club, as it remains today. As the national representative and guardian of the breed, the USKBTC encourages and promotes responsible and ethical ownership and breeding of the purebred Kerry Blue Terrier and fosters both the utilitarian and sporting qualities of the breed.
The Kerry is a dog of many-sided accomplishment and can be seen in many performance events. He is an instinctive trailer and retrieves well. He is adaptable to all manner of farm work, for which he is easily trained. He is an indomitable foe and cannot be surpassed as a watchdog and companion. In some instances in England he has even been used for police work. With proper treatment, food, and exercise, the Kerry Blue Terrier is very long-lived and will usually retain his activeness until the end; in fact, at six and eight years of age they might be taken for young dogs.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE KERRY BLUE TERRIER
General Appearance—The typical Kerry Blue Terrier should be upstanding, well knit and in good balance, showing a well-developed and muscular body with definite terrier style and character throughout. Correct coat and color are important. A low-slung Kerry is not typical.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The ideal Kerry should be 18 1⁄2 inches at the withers for a dog, slightly less for a bitch. In judging Kerries, a height of 18–191⁄2 inches for a dog, and 171⁄2–19 inches for a bitch, should be given primary preference. Only where the comparative superiority of a specimen outside of the ranges noted clearly justifies it should greater latitude be taken. In no case should it extend to a dog over 20 inches or under 17 1⁄2 inches, or to a bitch over 191⁄2 inches or under 17 inches. The minimum limits do not apply to puppies. The most desirable weight for a fully developed dog is from 33–40 pounds, bitches weighing proportionately less. A well-developed and muscular body. Legs moderately long with plenty of bone and muscle.
Head—Long, but not exaggerated, and in good proportion to the rest of the body. Well balanced. Eyes—Dark, small, not prominent, well placed and with a keen terrier expression. Anything approaching a yellow eye is very undesirable. Ears—V-shaped, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog, of moderate thickness, carried forward close to the cheeks with the top of the folded ear slightly above the level of the skull. A “dead” ear, houndlike in appearance, is very undesirable. Skull—Flat, with very slight stop, of moderate breadth between the ears, and narrowing very slightly to the eyes. Foreface full and well made up, not falling away appreciably below the eyes but moderately chiseled out to relieve the foreface from wedginess. Little apparent difference between the length of the skull and foreface. Jaws deep, strong and muscular. Cheeks—Clean and level, free from bumpiness. Nose—Black, nostrils large and wide. Teeth—Strong, white and either level or with the upper (incisors) teeth slightly overlapping the lower teeth. An undershot mouth should be strictly penalized.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Clean and moderately long, gradually widening to the shoulders upon which it should be well set and carried proudly. Back short, strong and straight (i.e., level), with no appearance of slackness. Chest deep and of moderate breadth. Ribs fairly well sprung, deep rather than round. A slight tuck-up. Loin short and powerful. Tail should be set on high, of moderate length and carried gaily erect, the straighter the tail the better.
Forequarters—Shoulders fine, long and sloping, well laid back and well knit. The elbows hanging perpendicularly to the body and working clear of the side in movement. The forelegs should be straight from both front and side view. The pasterns short, straight and hardly noticeable. Feet should be strong, compact, fairly round and moderately small, with good depth of pad free from cracks, the toes arched, turned neither in nor out, with black toenails.
Hindquarters—Strong and muscular with full freedom of action, free from droop or crouch, the thighs long and powerful, stifles well bent and turned neither in nor out, hocks near the ground and, when viewed from behind, upright and parallel with each other, the dog standing well up on them.
Coat—Correct coat is important to be soft, dense and wavy. A harsh, wire or bristle coat should be severely penalized. In show trim the body should be well covered but tidy, with the head (except for the whiskers) and the ears and cheeks clear.
Color—Color is important. The correct mature color is any shade of blue gray or gray blue from the deep slate to light blue gray, of a fairly uniform color throughout except that distinctly darker to black parts may appear on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet. Kerry color, in its process of “clearing,” changes from an apparent black at birth to the mature gray blue or blue gray. The color passes through one or more transitions—involving a very dark blue (darker than deep slate), shades or tinges of brown, and mixtures of these, together with a progressive infiltration of the correct mature color. The time needed for this “clearing” process varies with each dog. Small white markings are permissible. Black on the muzzle, head, ears, tail and feet is permissible at any age. A black dog 18 months of age or older is never permissible in the show ring and is to be disqualified. Disqualification—A black dog 18 months of age or older is to be disqualified. (White markings on a black dog 18 months of age or older does not constitute clearing or mature color and the dog is to be disqualified.)
Gait—Full freedom of action. The elbows hanging perpendicularly to the body and working clear of the sides in movement; both forelegs and hind legs should move straight forward when traveling, the stifles turning neither in nor out.
A black dog 18 months of age or older is to be disqualified. (White markings on a black dog18 months of age or older does not constitute clearing or mature color and the dog is to be disqualified.)
Approved July 12, 2005
Effective January 1, 2006
THE LAKELAND TERRIER IS ONE OF THE OLDEST WORKING TERRIER BREEDS still known today. It was bred, raised, and worked in the Lake District of England long before there was a kennel club or an official studbook. The fact that it has been outstripped by many younger terrier breeds is not so much a reflection on its quality as a tribute to the scope of its working ability. The name Lakeland, indeed, is a modern acquisition for the breed once known as the Patterdale Terrier.
It is said that long before the days of the famous foxhunter John Peel, or before any packs of hounds were formed, the Lakeland was kept by the farmers in the mountain districts, who, at that time, would form a hunt with a couple of hounds and these terriers. Their work was to destroy the foxes found raiding the sheepfolds. There was sport, but it was not sport for sport’s sake alone. It was a very practical matter.
The color of these dogs did not matter to their owners; they bred principally for gameness at first. The color was quite secondary as long as the dogs were game enough to withstand the punishment meted out by the foxes in their rocky mountain lairs. Later came the packs of hounds, but there was not a single pack in the lake district that did not have one or two game old terriers that had continually shown their courage with fox or otter. These were coveted as breeding material. None of their puppies were ever destroyed. They were given out among various friends and followers of the hunt, later to be tried and the best workers retained to carry on the traditions of the older dogs.
So great was the courage of the native Lakeland Terriers that they would follow underground for tremendous distances. It is told that, in 1871, Lord Lonsdale had one that crawled 23 feet under rock after an otter. In order to extricate the dog it was necessary to undertake extensive blasting operations. Finally, after three days’ work, they reached the dog, and he was gotten out, none the worse for his experience. Still other dogs have been known to be trapped underground for ten or twelve days and have been taken out alive. Others have paid the penalty.
Classes for the likeliest-looking terrier, suitable for fox or otter, were judged in connection with agricultural shows throughout the lake district about 1896, when more interest was evinced in this game old breed. They were judged by masters of hounds or other experienced hunting men. At that time, the color ranged from grizzle to blue and tan, red, or wheaten, with a sprinkling of white terriers. Later these classes were divided in color; for white working terriers and for colored working terriers. Always, working ability was taken into consideration.
Usually the white terriers were found working with the Otterhounds, as in many cases a dark terrier got severely mauled in the muddy waters due to the excitement of the younger hounds when the otter had been dislodged from under tree roots and drains.
It is believed by experienced terrier fanciers that the somewhat remote ancestors of the Lakeland Terrier are similar to the progenitor of the Border Terrier. In fact, there is sound evidence that the Lakeland is an offshoot of the breed known later as the Bedlington, which was closely related to the Dandie Dinmont.
In 1830 or thereabouts, these northern counties of England—Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland—had many varieties of terrier, each named after the small locality in which it was found in greatest numbers. Many of the old names have been lost since the breeds have gained recognition. This changing of names usually took place when specialist clubs were formed, with breeders unwilling to agree on any of the older names; and, of course, there were cases where the same dog might have been known by half a dozen different names.
Cumberland was the birthplace of the Lakeland Terrier. This is a particularly beautiful county, richly studded with lakes, particularly in the southern part. The Bedlington is attributed to neighboring Northumberland county, but it is not difficult to suppose that there was certain traffic in dogs at that time.
The first organized effort to promote the interest of this Cumberland County breed came at the Kersurck show in 1912, when a terrier club was formed. The new club made considerable headway for two years. Then came the outbreak of World War I, and little or nothing was heard of the Lakeland Terrier again until 1921, when nine fanciers met at Whitehaven, in Cumberland. According to Thomas Hosking, who later came to the United States, and who was one of the fanciers in attendance, the name Lakeland Terrier was chosen at that meeting. The standard was drawn up at that time, and shortly after the breed was made eligible for registration in the studbook of The Kennel Club (England). The Lakeland Terrier was accepted for registration in the AKC Stud Book in 1934.
Although a worker for generations, the Lakeland makes a very good appearance in the ring. He has a dense, weather-resisting coat, strong jaws of moderate length, powerful hindquarters, and good legs and feet on a short, strong back. Despite his gameness and courage, he has an attractive, quiet disposition.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE LAKELAND TERRIER
General Appearance—The Lakeland Terrier was bred to hunt vermin in the rugged shale mountains of the Lake District of northern England. He is a small, workmanlike dog of square, sturdy build. His body is deep and relatively narrow, which allows him to squeeze into rocky dens. He has sufficient length of leg under him to cover rough ground easily. His neck is long, leading smoothly into high withers and a short topline ending in a high tail set. His attitude is gay, friendly and self-confident, but not overly aggressive. He is alert and ready to go. His movement is lithe and graceful, with a straight-ahead, free stride of good length. His head is rectangular, jaws are powerful and ears are V-shaped. A dense, wiry coat is finished off with longer furnishings on muzzle and legs.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The ideal height of the mature dog is 141⁄2 inches from the withers to the ground, with up to a one-half inch deviation either way permissible. Bitches may measure as much as one inch less than dogs. The weight of the well balanced, mature male in hard show condition averages approximately 17 pounds. Dogs of other heights will be proportionately more or less. The dog is squarely built, and bitches may be slightly longer than dogs. Balance and proportion are of primary importance. Short-legged, heavy-bodied dogs or overly refined, racy specimens are atypical and should be penalized. The dog should have sufficient bone and substance, so as to appear sturdy and workmanlike without any suggestion of coarseness.
Head—The expression depends on the dog’s mood of the moment; although typically alert, it may be intense and determined, or gay and even impish. The eyes, moderately small and somewhat oval in outline, are set squarely in the skull, fairly wide apart. In liver or liver and tan dogs, the eyes are dark hazel to warm brown and eye rims are brown. In all other colors, the eyes are warm brown to black and eye rims are dark. The ears are small, V-shaped, their fold just above the top of the skull, the inner edge close to the side of the head, and the flap pointed toward the outside corner of the eye.
The skullis flat on top and moderately broad, the cheeks flat and smooth as possible. The stop is barely perceptible. The muzzleis strong with straight nose bridge and good fill-in beneath the eyes. The head is well balanced, rectangular, the length of skull equaling the length of the muzzle when measured from occiput to stop, and from stop to nose tip. The proportions of the head are critical to correct type. An overlong foreface or short, wedge shaped head are atypical and should be penalized. The noseis black. A “winter” nose with faded pigment is permitted, but not desired. Liver colored noses and lips are permissible on liver coated dogs only. A pink or distinctly spotted nose is very undesirable. The lips are dark. Jaws are powerful. The teeth, which are comparatively large, may meet in either a level, edge to edge bite, or a slightly overlapping scissors bite. Specimens with teeth overshot or undershot are to be disqualified.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis long; refined but strong; clean at the throat; slightly arched, and widening gradually and smoothly into the shoulders. The withers, that point at the back of the neck where neck and body meet, are noticeably higher than the level of the back. The topline, measured from the withers to the tail, is short and level. The bodyis strong and supple. The moderately narrow oval chest is deep, extending to the elbows. The ribs are well sprung and moderately rounded off the vertebrae. The Lakeland Terrier is a breed of moderation. A barrel-chested, big-bodied dog or one which is slab-sided and lacking substance is atypical and should be penalized. The loins are taut and short, although they may be slightly longer in bitches. There is moderate tuck-up. The tail is set high on the back. It is customarily docked so that when the dog is set up in show position, the tip of the tail is level with the occiput. In carriage, it is upright and a slight curve toward the head is desirable. Behind the tail is a well-defined, broad pelvic shelf. It is more developed in dogs than in bitches. The tail tightly curled over the back is a fault.
Forequarters—The shoulders are well angulated. An imaginary line drawn from the top of the shoulder blade should pass through the elbow. The shoulder blade is long in proportion to the upper arm, which allows for reasonable angulation while maintaining the more upright “terrier front.” The musculature of the shoulders is flat and smooth. The elbows are held close to the body, standing or moving. The forelegs are strong, clean and straight when viewed from the front or side. There is no appreciable bend at the pasterns. The feet are round and point forward, the toes compact and strong. The pads are thick and black or dark gray, except in liver colored dogs where they are brown. The nails are strong and may be black or self-colored. Dewclaws are removed.
Hindquarters—The thighs are powerful and well muscled. The hind legs are well angulated, but not so much as to affect the balance between front and rear, which allows for smooth efficient movement. The stifles turn neither in nor out. The distance from the hock to the ground is relatively short and the line from the hock to toes is straight when viewed from the side. From the rear the hocks are parallel to each other. Feet same as front. Dewclaws, if any, are removed.
Coat—Two-ply or double, the outer coat is hard and wiry in texture, the undercoat is close to the skin and soft and should never overpower the wiry outer coat. The Lakeland is hand stripped to show his outline. (Clipping is inappropriate for the show ring.) The appearance should be neat and workmanlike. The coat on the skull, ears, forechest, shoulders and behind the tail is trimmed short and smooth. The coat on the body is longer (about one-half to one inch) and may be slightly wavy or straight. The furnishings on the legs and foreface are plentiful as opposed to profuse and should be tidy. They are crisp in texture. The legs should appear cylindrical. The face is traditionally trimmed, with the hair left longer over the eyes to give the head a rectangular appearance from all angles, with the eyes covered from above. From the front, the eyes are quite apparent, giving the Lakeland his own unique mischievous expression.
Color—The Lakeland Terrier comes in a variety of colors, all of which are equally acceptable. Solid colors include blue, black, liver, red and wheaten. In saddle marked dogs, the saddle covers the back of the neck, back, sides and up the tail. A saddle may be blue, black, liver or varying shades of grizzle. The remainder of the dog (head, throat, shoulders and legs) is a wheaten or golden tan. Grizzle is a blend of red or wheaten intermixed in varying proportions with black, blue or liver.
Gait—Movement is straightforward and free, with good reach in front and drive behind. It should be smooth, efficient and ground-covering. Coming and going, the legs should be straight with feet turning neither in nor out; elbows close to the sides in front and hocks straight behind. As the dog moves faster he will tend to converge toward his center of gravity. This should not be confused with close movement.
Temperament—The typical Lakeland Terrier is bold, gay and friendly, with a confident, cock-of-the-walk attitude. Shyness, especially shy-sharpness, in the mature specimen is to be heavily penalized. Conversely, the overly aggressive, argumentative dog is not typical and should be strongly discouraged.
Teeth overshot or undershot.
Approved January 15, 1991
Effective February 27, 1991
GENERATIONS AGO, BEFORE THE DAYS OF DOG SHOWS, THERE WAS IN ENGLAND a Black-and-Tan Terrier, less graceful in outline and coarser in type than those of today. Those early dogs did not have penciled toes and dotted brows, and their tan was smutty; nevertheless they were sound, game, and useful. They were accomplished rat killers, whether in the pits or along the watercourses. In fact, their value was reckoned not at all upon any consideration of make and shape, but solely upon the number of rats they had killed.
The Black-and-Tan Terrier was one of the breeds mentioned by Dr. John Caius in the famous letter concerning the dogs of England that was sent to Gesner for inclusion in his encyclopedic work on the dogs of all nations. Caius completed his survey in 1570. He described the breed as carrying the essential colors and characteristics, but as being rougher in coat and shorter on the leg.
The Manchester district of England was a noted center for two “poor men’s sports,” rat killing and rabbit coursing. A fancier by the name of John Hulme, with the idea of producing a dog that could be used at both contests, mated a Whippet bitch with a celebrated rat-killing dog, a crossbred terrier dark brown in color. On this basis the roached back, seldom found in a terrier, is explained. The dogs proved useful, other fanciers took to breeding them, and the Manchester school of terriers was launched.
The name Manchester, however, was regarded as somewhat misleading, for similar dogs were known in many parts of England. Designation of the new breed did not take place until 1860 or thereabouts, at which time the city for which the dog was named had become a breed center. Manchesters soon spread over the British Isles and eventually came to this country in considerable numbers, but years were to pass before the name was stabilized. Actually it was dropped for a time as being too restricted in designation, and the dog was once again known as the Black-and-Tan Terrier. In 1923, however, the newly formed Manchester Terrier Club of America changed the name back to Manchester Terrier, and there it has remained.
Whippet, Greyhound, and Italian Greyhound have all been mentioned (with how much accuracy none can say) as partners of more or less importance in the creation of the Manchester. But supposition regarding heritage does not end there. That intrepid investigator, Edward C. Ash, surmised a bit regarding a Dachshund ancestor. He said it would be interesting to know not whether the Dachshund is related, but how closely it is related to the Manchester Terrier. In substantiation of the conjecture is the 1771 description of the dog of Manchester as a “short-legged, crooked-legged dog.” Such a relationship seems fantastic; even so it is not an impossibility since the Dachshund’s forebears were not as exaggerated as the modern breed.
As a sagacious, intelligent companion, no dog is superior to the well-bred Manchester. There is a sleek, breedy look about him that no other dog presents. His long, clean head, keen expression, glossy coat, whip tail, and smart, wide-awake appearance always command attention, while his clean habits and short coat admit him to homes which might shut out his rough-haired brothers. Moreover, his weight leaves nothing to be desired, for there is a medium-sized type weighing over twelve and not exceeding twenty-two pounds, and a toy weighing twelve pounds or under.
Until 1959 the Manchester Terrier and the Toy Manchester Terrier were registered as two separate breeds, although interbreeding between the two breeds was permitted. They have since been registered as a single breed, the Manchester Terrier, with two varieties, the Toy and the Standard, for dog-show purposes.
Development of the Toy from the larger dog was first a matter of chance and later a matter of selective breeding. Two of the larger specimens would produce a litter in which all but one puppy attained the same size as the parents. As has happened again and again in the breeding of dogs, the tiny prototype attracted attention to such a degree as to create a demand for more. So naturally the breeders tried to produce more puppies of the smaller size. It had been claimed that the Toy was so highly prized as to prompt surreptitious matings with Italian Greyhounds in order to keep the dog small. Fortunately these crosses were not perpetuated.
At this point excessive inbreeding took its toll. As can be readily understood, there are few toy-size dogs to breed from, so inbreeding became the order of the day. In Victorian times size diminished alarmingly to around two and a half pounds, and the tiny ones were admittedly delicate. Realizing their mistake, breeders endeavored to correct their technique; they aimed for, and got, more normal toy weight together with renewed vigor.
When the anti-cropping edict was passed in England, many of the older fanciers grew discouraged after trying for a time to produce an attractive-looking dog with small button ears, and consequently many ceased breeding. A few staunch devotees, however, kept the breed alive. They loved the game little fellow, whether his ears were up or down, trimmed or untrimmed, and they stayed with him through lean times and good.
No longer are extremes of any sort favored or fostered within the breed, for “the gentleman’s terrier,” as he was known long ago, has come into his own. He exhibits that true Manchester type, with its flat skull, triangular eyes, accented kiss marks, and sleek ebony coat with clearly delineated markings. The sole difference between the larger dog and the Toy is concerned with the ears. Both varieties have moderately small, thin ears, narrow at the base and pointed at the tips. They are set high on the skull and quite close together. In the Standard variety, ears may be erect or button; if cropped, they are long and carried straight up. In the Toy variety, however, cropping disqualifies. The Toy ear is carried naturally erect, without sidewise flare.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MANCHESTER TERRIER
General Appearance—A small, black, short-coated dog with distinctive rich mahogany markings and a taper-style tail. In structure the Manchester presents a sleek, sturdy, yet elegant look, and has a wedge-shaped, long and clean head with a keen, bright, alert expression. The smooth, compact, muscular body expresses great power and agility, enabling the Manchester to kill vermin and course small game.
Except for size and ear options, there are no differences between the Standard and Toy varieties of the Manchester Terrier. The Toy is a diminutive version of the Standard variety.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Toy variety shall not exceed 12 pounds. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: 7 pounds and under, over 7 pounds and not exceeding 12 pounds.
The Standard variety shall be over 12 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds. Dogs weighing over 22 pounds shall be disqualified. It is suggested that clubs consider dividing the American-bred and Open classes by weight as follows: over 12 pounds and not exceeding 16 pounds, over 16 pounds and not exceeding 22 pounds.
The Manchester Terrier, overall, is slightly longer than tall. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, is slightly less than the length, measured horizontally from the point of the shoulders to the rear projection of the upper thigh. The bone and muscle of the Manchester Terrier is of sufficient mass to ensure agility and endurance.
Head—The Manchester Terrier has a keen and alert expression. The nearly black, almond-shaped eyesare small, bright, and sparkling. They are set moderately close together, slanting upwards on the outside. The eyes neither protrude nor sink in the skull. Pigmentation must be black.
Correct earsfor the Standard variety are either the naturally erect ear, the cropped ear or the button ear. No preference is given to any of the ear types. The naturally erect ear, and the button ear, should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or “bell” ears are a serious fault. Cropped ears should be long, pointed and carried erect.
The only correct earfor the Toy variety is the naturally erect ear. They should be wider at the base tapering to pointed tips, and carried well up on the skull. Wide, flaring, blunt tipped, or “bell” ears are a serious fault. Cropped, or cut ears are a disqualification in the Toy variety.
The headis long, narrow, tight skinned and almost flat, with a slight indentation up the forehead. It resembles a blunted wedge in frontal and profile views. There is a visual effect of a slight stop as viewed in profile.
The muzzleand skullare equal in length. The muzzle is well filled under the eyes with no visible cheek muscles. The underjaw is full and well defined and the nose is black.
Tight black lips lie close to the jaw. The jaws should be full and powerful with full and proper dentition. The teeth are white and strongly developed with a true scissors bite. Level bite is acceptable.
Neck, Topline, Body—The slightly arched neckshould be slim and graceful, and of moderate length. It gradually becomes larger as it approaches, and blends smoothly with the sloping shoulders. Throatiness is undesirable.
The toplineshows a slight arch over the robust loins falling slightly to the tail set. A flat back or roached back is to be severely penalized. The chest is narrow between the legs and deep in the brisket. The forechest is moderately defined. The ribs are well sprung, but flattened in the lower end to permit clearance of the forelegs. The abdomen should be tucked up extending in an arched line from the deep brisket. The taper style tailis moderately short reaching no farther than the hock joint. It is set on at the end of the croup. Being thicker where it joins the body, the tail tapers to a point. The tail is carried in a slight upward curve, but never over the back.
Forequarters—The shoulder blades and the upper arm should be relatively the same length. The distance from the elbow to the withers should be approximately the same as the distance from the elbow to the ground. The elbows should lie close to the brisket. The shoulders are well laid back.
The forelegs are straight, of proportionate length, and placed well under the brisket. The pasterns should be almost perpendicular.
The front feet are compact and well arched. The two middle toes should be slightly longer than the others. The pads should be thick and the toenails should be jet black.
Hindquarters—The thigh should be muscular with the length of the upper and lower thighs being approximately equal. The stifle is well turned. The well let down hocks should not turn in nor out as viewed from the rear. The hind legs are carried well back. The hindfeetare shaped like those of a cat, with thick pads and jet black nails.
Coat—The coat should be smooth, short, dense, tight and glossy; not soft.
Color—The coat color should be jet black and rich mahogany tan, which should not run or blend into each other, but abruptly form clear, well defined lines of color. There shall be a very small tan spot over each eye, and a very small tan spot on each cheek. On the head, the muzzle is tanned to the nose. The nose and nasal bone are jet black. The tan extends under the throat, ending in the shape of the letter V. The inside of the ears are partly tan. There shall be tan spots, called “rosettes,” on each side of the chest above the front legs. These are more pronounced in puppies than in adults. There should be a black “thumbprint” patch on the front of each foreleg at the pastern. The remainder of the foreleg shall be tan to the carpus joint. There should be a distinct black “pencil mark” line running lengthwise on the top of each toe on all four feet. Tan on the hind leg should continue from the penciling on the toes up the inside of the legs to a little below the stifle joint. The outside of the hind legs should be black. There should be tan under the tail, and on the vent, but only of such size as to be covered by the tail.
White on any part of the coat is a serious fault, and shall disqualify whenever the white shall form a patch or stripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan shall be disqualified.
Color and/or markings should never take precedence over soundness and type.
Gait—The gait should be free and effortless with good reach of the forequarters, showing no indication of hackney gait. Rear quarters should have strong, driving power to match the front reach. Hocks should fully extend. Each rear leg should move in line with the foreleg of the same side, neither thrown in nor out. When moving at a trot, the legs tend to converge towards the center of gravity line beneath the dog.
Temperament—The Manchester Terrier is neither aggressive nor shy. He is keenly observant, devoted, but discerning. Not being a sparring breed, the Manchester is generally friendly with other dogs. Excessive shyness or aggressiveness should be considered a serious fault.
Standard variety—Weight over 22 pounds.
Toy variety—Cropped or cut ears.
Both varieties—White on any part of the coat whenever the white shall form a patch orstripe measuring as much as one half inch at its longest dimension.
Any color other than black and tan.
Approved June 10, 1991
Effective July 31, 1991
MINIATURE BULL TERRIER
THE MINIATURE BULL TERRIER IS NO NEWCOMER TO THE WORLD OF PURE-BRED dogs. As a matter of fact, for more than eighty years he has been highly prized as a distinctive small dog noted, among other things, for tenacity and remarkable courage. He is a sturdy chap, muscular, active, and full of fire but withal good tempered and amenable to discipline.
Miniature beginnings date to the early nineteenth century, when the Bulldog and the now extinct White English Terrier were interbred to produce the Bull and Terrier, later known as the Bull Terrier. There are some who say, too, that the Black-and-Tan played a part in the dog’s creation. The original offshoot of the cross was a rather small dog that was crossed again, this time with the Spanish Pointer to increase the size.
Possessed of such a heritage, it is small wonder that the earliest specimens came in a wide range of sizes. There were toys that weighed from four to seven pounds, medium-sized ones of some fifteen and sixteen pounds, as well as the more usual sort resembling the full-sized Bull Terrier of this day. The small dog came in various colors; some black-patched, a few blue, and others pure white. Incidentally, the tiny white ones were known for a while as Coverwood Terriers, after England’s kennel of that name.
The toys were exhibited abroad up to about 1914, but they elicited scant response from the fanciers because their type was poor. Dogs of medium or miniature size fared better since particularly in eyes and foreface they more closely approximated the type desired. This has been exactly what the fanciers have been aiming for, namely, a down-faced, smaller dog weighing around sixteen pounds and identical in make and shape and every single feature to the full-sized Bull Terrier.
The Miniature Bull Terrier became eligible to be shown in the AKC Miscellaneous class in 1963, and was accepted as a breed in 1991.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MINIATURE BULL TERRIER
General Appearance—The Miniature Bull Terrier must be strongly built, symmetrical and active, with a keen, determined and intelligent expression. He should be full of fire, having a courageous, even temperament and be amenable to discipline.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height 10 inches to 14 inches. Dogs outside these limits should be faulted. Weight in proportion to height. In proportion, the Miniature Bull Terrier should give the appearance of being square.
Head—The head should be long, strong and deep, right to the end of the muzzle, but not coarse. The full face should be oval in outline and be filled completely up, giving the impression of fullness with a surface devoid of hollows or indentations, i.e., egg shaped. The profile should curve gently downwards from the top of the skull to the tip of the nose. The forehead should be flat across from ear to ear. The distance from the tip of the nose to the eyes should be perceptibly greater than that from the eyes to the top of the skull. The underjaw should be deep and well defined.
To achieve a keen, determined and intelligent expression, the eyes should be well sunken and as dark as possible with a piercing glint. They should be small, triangular and obliquely placed, set near together and high up on the dog’s head. The ears should be small, thin and placed close together, capable of being held stiffly erect when they point upwards. The nose should be black, with well developed nostrils bent downwards at the tip. The lips should be clean and tight. The teeth should meet in either a level or scissorbite. In the scissor bite, the top teeth should fit in front of and closely against the lower teeth. The teeth should be sound, strong and perfectly regular.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck should be very muscular, long, and arched; tapering from the shoulders to the head, it should be free from loose skin. The back should be short and strong with a slight arch over the loin. Behind the shoulders there should be no slackness or dip at the withers. The body should be well rounded with marked spring of rib. The back ribs deep. The chest should be broad when viewed from in front. There should be great depth from withers to brisket, so that the latter is nearer to the ground than the belly. The underline, from the brisket to the belly, should form a graceful upward curve. The tail should be short, set on low, fine, and should be carried horizontally. It should be thick where it joins the body, and should taper to a fine point.
Forequarters—The shoulders should be strong and muscular, but without heaviness. The shoulder blades should be wide and flat and there should be a very pronounced backward slope from the bottom edge of the blade to the top edge. The legs should be big boned but not to the point of coarseness. The forelegs should be of moderate length, perfectly straight, and the dog must stand firmly up on them. The elbows must turn neither in nor out, and the pasterns should be strong and upright.
Hindquarters—The hind legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. The thighs are very muscular with hocks well let down. The stifle joint is well bent with a well developed second thigh. The hind pasterns should be short and upright.
Feet—The feet are round and compact with well arched toes like a cat.
Coat—The coat should be short, flat and harsh to the touch with a fine gloss. The dog’s skin should fit tightly.
Color—For white, pure white coat. Markings on head and skin pigmentation are not to be penalized. For colored, any color to predominate.
Gait—The dog shall move smoothly, covering the ground with free, easy strides. Fore and hind legs should move parallel to each other when viewed from in front or behind, with the forelegs reaching out well and the hind legs moving smoothly at the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. The dog should move compactly and in one piece but with a typical jaunty air that suggests agility and power.
Temperament—The temperament should be full of fire and courageous, but even and amenable to discipline.
Faults—Any departure from the foregoing points shall be considered a fault, and the seriousness of the fault shall be in exact proportion to its degree.
Approved May 14, 1991
Effective January 1, 1992
THE SCHNAUZER IS OF GERMAN ORIGIN, SAID TO BE RECOGNIZABLE IN pictures of the fifteenth century. The Miniature Schnauzer is derived from the Standard Schnauzer and is said to have come from mixing of Affenpinschers and Poodles with small Standards. The Miniature Schnauzer was exhibited as a distinct breed as early as 1899.
Today’s Miniature Schnauzer in the United States is an elegant dog of the Terrier Group. While the breed resembles other dogs in this group, almost all of which were bred in the British Isles to “go to ground” to root out vermin of all kinds, his origin and blood are quite different, giving the Miniature Schnauzer a naturally happy temperament.
The breed is characterized by its stocky build, wiry coat, and abundant whiskers and leg furnishings. A Miniature Schnauzer may be of several colors with salt-and-pepper (gray) being the most common, although blacks and black-and-silvers are now seen in increasing numbers. The salt-and-pepper color is the result of unique light and dark banding of each hair instead of mixing of light and dark hairs. The correct coat can be retained only by stripping and is lost when the coat is clipped. The breed has a soft undercoat that can range from black and dark gray, to very light gray, or beige. If the animal is clipped, in time only the undercoat will remain.
The breed is hardy, healthy, intelligent, and fond of children. It was developed as a small farm dog, used as a ratter. His size (twelve to fourteen inches at the withers) has permitted him to adapt easily to small city quarters. On the other hand, he is still at home in the country and can cover a substantial amount of ground without tiring. As a rule a Miniature Schnauzer is not a fighter, although he will stand up for himself if necessary.
There is no standard weight for the breed, but a grown bitch of about thirteen inches should weigh about fourteen pounds, with a dog weighing somewhat more. The weight depends, to a great extent, on the amount of bone.
The Miniature Schnauzer is now viewed primarily as a charming and attractive companion. He is seldom a wanderer and is devoted to his home and family. He functions very well as a guard dog in that he can give an alarm as well as a larger dog. His good health, good temperament, and attractive appearance combine to fit him admirably for his role as family pet.
Miniature Schnauzers have been bred in the United States since 1925 and have gained steadily in popular favor. The American Miniature Schnauzer Club began its independent operation in August 1933.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE MINIATURE SCHNAUZER
General Appearance—The Miniature Schnauzer is a robust, active dog of terrier type, resembling his larger cousin, the Standard Schnauzer, in general appearance, and of an alert, active disposition. Faults—Type—Toyishness, ranginess or coarseness.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—From 12 to 14 inches. He is sturdily built, nearly square in proportionof body length to height with plenty of bone, and without any suggestion of toyishness. Disqualifications—Dogs or bitches under 12 inches or over 14 inches.
Head—Eyes—Small, dark brown and deep-set. They are oval in appearance and keen in expression. Faults—Eyes light and/or large and prominent in appearance. Ears—When cropped, the ears are identical in shape and length, with pointed tips. They are in balance with the head and not exaggerated in length. They are set high on the skull and carried perpendicularly at the inner edges, with as little bell as possible along the outer edges. When uncropped, the ears are small and V-shaped, folding close to the skull.
Head strong and rectangular, its width diminishing slightly from ears to eyes, and again to the tip of the nose. The forehead is unwrinkled. The topskullis flat and fairly long. The foreface is parallel to the topskull, with a slight stop, and it is at least as long as the topskull. The muzzleis strong in proportion to the skull; it ends in a moderately blunt manner, with thick whiskers which accentuate the rectangular shape of the head. Faults—Head coarse and cheeky. The teethmeet in a scissors bite. That is, the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth in such a manner that the inner surface of the upper incisors barely touches the outer surface of the lower incisors when the mouth is closed. Faults—Bite—Undershot or overshot jaw. Level bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Strong and well arched, blending into the shoulders, and with the skin fitting tightly at the throat. Bodyshort and deep, with the brisket extending at least to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung and deep, extending well back to a short loin. The underbody does not present a tucked-up appearance at the flank. The backlineis straight; it declines slightly from the withers to the base of the tail. The withers form the highest point of the body. The overall length from chest to buttocks appears to equal the height at the withers. Faults—Chest too broad or shallow in brisket. Hollow or roach back.
Tail set high and carried erect. It is docked only long enough to be clearly visible over the backline of the body when the dog is in proper length of coat. Fault—Tail set too low.
Forequarters—Forelegs are straight and parallel when viewed from all sides. They have strong pasterns and good bone. They are separated by a fairly deep brisket which precludes a pinched front. The elbows are close, and the ribs spread gradually from the first rib so as to allow space for the elbows to move close to the body. Fault—Loose elbows.
The sloping shouldersare muscled, yet flat and clean. They are well laid back, so that from the side the tips of the shoulder blades are in a nearly vertical line above the elbow. The tips of the blades are placed closely together. They slope forward and downward at an angulation which permits the maximum forward extension of the forelegs without binding or effort. Both the shoulder blades and upper arms are long, permitting depth of chest at the brisket.
Feet short and round (cat feet) with thick, black pads. The toes are arched and compact.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters have strong-muscled, slanting thighs. They are well bent at the stifles. There is sufficient angulation so that, in stance, the hocks extend beyond the tail. The hindquarters never appear overbuilt or higher than the shoulders. The rear pasterns are short and, in stance, perpendicular to the ground and, when viewed from the rear, are parallel to each other. Faults—Sickle hocks, cow hocks, open hocks or bowed hindquarters.
Coat—Double, with hard, wiry, outer coat and close undercoat. The head, neck, ears, chest, tail, and body coat must be plucked. When in show condition, the body coat should be of sufficient length to determine texture. Close covering on neck, ears and skull. Furnishings are fairly thick but not silky. Faults—Coat too soft or too smooth and slick in appearance.
Color—The recognized colors are salt and pepper, black and silver and solid black. All colors have uniform skin pigmentation, i.e., no white or pink skin patches shall appear anywhere on the dog.
Salt and Pepper—The typical salt and pepper color of the topcoat results from the combination of black and white banded hairs and solid black and white unbanded hairs, with the banded hairs predominating. Acceptable are all shades of salt and pepper, from light to dark mixtures with tan shadings permissible in the banded or unbanded hair of the topcoat. In salt and pepper dogs, the salt and pepper mixture fades out to light gray or silver white in the eyebrows, whiskers, cheeks, under throat, inside ears, across chest, under tail, leg furnishings, and inside hind legs. It may or may not also fade out on the underbody. However, if so, the lighter underbody hair is not to rise higher on the sides of the body than the front elbows.
Black and Silver—The black and silver generally follows the same pattern as the salt and pepper. The entire salt and pepper section must be black. The black color in the topcoat of the black and silver is a true rich color with black undercoat. The stripped portion is free from any fading or brown tinge and the underbody should be dark.
Black—Black is the only solid color allowed. Ideally, the black color in the topcoat is a true rich glossy solid color with the undercoat being less intense, a soft matting shade of black. This is natural and should not be penalized in any way. The stripped portion is free from any fading or brown tinge. The scissored and clippered areas have lighter shades of black. A small white spot on the chest is permitted, as is an occasional single white hair elsewhere on the body.
Disqualifications—Color solid white or white striping, patching, or spotting on the colored areas of the dog, except for the small white spot permitted on the chest of the black.
The body coat color in salt and pepper and black and silver dogs fades out to light gray or silver white under the throat and across the chest. Between them there exists a natural body coat color. Any irregular or connecting blaze or white mark in this section is considered a white patch on the body, which is also a disqualification.
Gait—The trot is the gait at which movement is judged. When approaching, the forelegs, with elbows close to the body, move straight forward, neither too close nor too far apart. Going away, the hind legs are straight and travel in the same planes as the forelegs.
Note—It is generally accepted that when a full trot is achieved, the rear legs continue to movein the same planes as the forelegs, but a very slight inward inclination will occur. It begins at thepoint of the shoulder in front and at the hip joint in the rear. Viewed from the front or rear, the legsare straight from these points to the pads. The degree of inward inclination is almost imperceptiblein a Miniature Schnauzer that has correct movement. It does not justify moving close, toeing in,crossing, or moving out at the elbows.
Viewed from the side, the forelegs have good reach, while the hind legs have strong drive, with good pickup of hocks. The feet turn neither inward nor outward.
Faults—Single tracking, sidegaiting, paddling in front, or hackney action. Weak rear action.
Temperament—The typical Miniature Schnauzer is alert and spirited, yet obedient to command. He is friendly, intelligent and willing to please. He should never be overaggressive or timid.
Dogs or bitches under 12 inches or over 14 inches.
Color solid white or white striping, patching, or spotting on the colored areas of the dog, except for the small white spot permitted on the chest of the black.
The body coat color in salt and pepper and black and silver dogs fades out to light gray or silverwhite under the throat and across the chest. Between them there exists a natural body coatcolor. Any irregular or connecting blaze or white mark in this section is considered a whitepatch on the body, which is also a disqualification.
Approved January 15, 1991
Effective February 27, 1991
THE NORFOLK TERRIER IS SMALL AND STURDY, ALERT AND FEARLESS, WITH sporting instincts and an even temperament. Good-natured and gregarious, the Norfolk has proved adaptable under a wide variety of conditions.
In England at the turn of the century, working terriers from stables in Cambridge, Market Harborough, and Norwich were used by Frank “Roughrider” Jones to develop a breed recognized by The Kennel Club (England) in 1932 as the Norwich Terrier. In the early days there was a diversity in type, size, color, coat, and ear carriage. Correct color and ear carriage were constantly argued. When the Norwich breed standard was drawn up, the drop-ear and the prick-ear terriers remained one breed. The Kennel Club, in 1964, recognized them as two breeds—the drop-ear variety as the Norfolk and the prick-ear as the Norwich.
The year that the breed divided in England, an article in The Field explained: “Actually there is nothing new about the Norfolk Terrier, but simply the name under which it is registered. The Eastern Counties have always produced these principally wheaten, red, and otherwise black-and-tan or grizzle good-ribbed short-legged terriers, built on the generally accepted lines of a hunt terrier. They go to ground readily and are famous ratters.”
In the United States the Norwich was for generations referred to as the Jones Terrier after Frank Jones, from whom many American sportsmen traveling abroad bought their first little red terriers. In 1936, thanks to the efforts of Gordon Massey (who registered the first Norwich Terrier in this country) and Henry Bixby, then executive vice president of the American Kennel Club, the Norwich Terrier was accepted as a breed by the AKC. It remained one breed until 1979, when division by ear carriage became official. The drop-ears are now recognized as the Norfolk, while the prick-ears remain Norwich.
Visually there appears to be a distinct difference between the two breeds, resulting in two slightly different breed standards. Each breed has developed with success since separation.
Today, although as many live in cities as in foxhunting country, the Norfolk should still conform to the standard. The characteristic coat requires regular grooming, but trimming is heavily penalized. The ears should be neatly dropped, slightly rounded at the tip, carried close to the cheek, and not falling lower than the outer corner of the eye.
The Norfolk Terrier is essentially a sporting terrier—not a toy. His chief attributes are gameness, hardiness, loyalty to his master, and great charm. He is affectionate and reasonably obedient. He must be kept small enough to conform with the standard. Above all, the outstanding personality characteristic of the breed must never be subordinated for the sake of appearance and conformation.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE NORFOLK TERRIER
General Appearance—The Norfolk Terrier, game and hardy, with expressive dropped ears, is one of the smallest of the working terriers. It is active and compact, free-moving, with good substance and bone. With its natural, weather-resistant coat and short legs, it is a “perfect demon” in the field. This versatile, agreeable breed can go to ground, bolt a fox and tackle or dispatch other small vermin, working alone or with a pack. Honorable scars from wear and tear are acceptable in the ring.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height at the withers 9 to 10 inches at maturity. Bitches tend to be smaller than dogs. Length of back from point of withers to base of tail should be slightly longer than the height at the withers. Good substance and bone. Weight 11 to 12 pounds or that which is suitable for each individual dog’s structure and balance. Fit working condition is a prime consideration.
Head—Eyes small, dark and oval, with black rims. Placed well apart with a sparkling, keen and intelligent expression. Ears neatly dropped, small, with a break at the skull line, carried close to the cheek and not falling lower than the outer corner of the eye. V-shaped, slightly rounded at the tip, smooth and velvety to the touch.
Skull wide, slightly rounded, with good width between the ears. Muzzle is strong and wedge shaped. Its length is one-third less than a measurement from the occiput to the well-defined stop. Jaw clean and strong. Tight-lipped with a scissor bite and large teeth.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders. Level topline. Good width of chest. Ribs well sprung, chest moderately deep. Strong loins. Tail medium docked, of sufficient length to ensure a balanced outline. Straight, set on high, the base level with the topline. Not a squirrel tail.
Forequarters—Well laid back shoulders. Elbows close to ribs. Short, powerful legs, as straight as is consistent with the digging terrier. Pasterns firm. Feet round, pads thick, with strong, black nails.
Hindquarters—Broad with strong, muscular thighs. Good turn of stifle. Hocks well let down and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet as in front.
Coat—The protective coat is hard, wiry and straight, about 11⁄2 to 2 inches long, lying close to the body, with a definite undercoat. The mane on neck and shoulders is longer and also forms a ruff at the base of the ears and the throat. Moderate furnishings of harsh texture on legs. Hair on the head and ears is short and smooth, except for slight eyebrows and whiskers. Some tidying is necessary to keep the dog neat, but shaping should be heavily penalized.
Color—All shades of red, wheaten, black and tan, or grizzle. Dark points permissible. White marks are not desirable.
Gait—Should be true, low and driving. In front, the legs extend forward from the shoulder. Good rear angulation showing great powers of propulsion. Viewed from the side, hind legs follow in the track of the forelegs, moving smoothly from the hip and flexing well at the stifle and hock. Topline remains level.
Temperament—Alert, gregarious, fearless and loyal. Never aggressive.
Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted March 23, 1990
THE ROOTS OF THE NORWICH WERE FIRMLY PLANTED IN EAST ANGLIA, England. By the 1880s owning a small ratting terrier was a fad among the sporting undergraduates of Cambridge University. A popular strain developed of very small red and black-and-tan working crossbreeds from native, Yorkshire, and Irish stock.
By the turn of the twentieth century one of these dogs, then called Trumping-ton Terriers, was living in a stable near the city of Norwich. Rags was sandy colored, short of leg, stocky, with cropped ears. A prodigious ratter and dominant sire, he is the modern breed’s progenitor. For the next two decades various horsemen bred other game terrier types to Rags and his descendants, including a half-sized brindle Staffordshire. So, from companions and barnyard ratters, there gradually developed a line of excellent fox bolters, and one of these introduced the breed to America in 1914.
Bred in Market Harborough by the noted Frank “Roughrider” Jones, Willum became the inseparable companion of a Philadelphia sportsman, Robert Straw-bridge. This Jones terrier was also low legged, cropped, and docked. But his very hard coat had black shadings, and his head showed a marked resemblance to a Bull Terrier. Willum proved a charming, muscular twelve-pound ambassador, and a prolific sire of M.F.H. Hunt Terriers in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. He died at fourteen years of age defending his hearth from a vicious canine intruder just a few years before the breed was recognized in England in 1932. Though the AKC made Norwich Terriers official in 1936, there are still some Americans who associate Norwich with Willum’s breeder and steadfastly call them Jones Terriers.
In 1964 The Kennel Club (England) recognized the drop-ear Norwich as a separate breed, terming them the Norfolk Terrier. The American Kennel Club took the same step effective January 1, 1979. The recognition of the two varieties as separate breeds is now the rule in all English-speaking countries and in Europe and Scandinavia.
Norwich are hardy, happy-go-lucky, weatherproof companions. Though game on vermin, they are usually gregarious with children, adults, and other domestic animals. Today they still weigh about twelve pounds, are short legged, sturdy, and can be any shade from wheaten to dark red, black-and-tan, or grizzle. They are very loyal, alert, and have a sensitive intelligence.
Their body lengths and breadths vary, but their docked tails should be long enough to firmly grasp. Smooth coated and wedge shaped, their heads should have plenty of brain room, with ears spaced well apart. A delineated stop between the wide-set eyes should be just nearer the muzzle than the top of the skull. The small, dark almond eyes coupled with a slightly foxy muzzle give Norwich their typical impish expression.
Most Norwich owners prefer a terrier of sagacious character with a harsh, carefree coat and large close-fitting teeth, and tolerate the variations of color and conformation which befit its heritage. Its unique standard employs horsemen’s terms and the breed’s characteristic mane calls for coarser, longer protective hair on neck and shoulders. Breeders must remain watchful and guard against show fads, exaggerations, excessive coats, or fancy trimming. To keep personality a priority, the parent club rewards working abilities, obedience, and racing competitions along with show-ring events.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE NORWICH TERRIER
General Appearance—The Norwich Terrier, spirited and stocky with sensitive prick ears and a slightly foxy expression, is one of the smallest working terriers. This sturdy descendant of ratting companions, eager to dispatch small vermin alone or in a pack, has good bone and substance and an almost weatherproof coat. A hardy hunt terrier—honorable scars from fair wear and tear are acceptable.
Size, Proportion, Substance—One of the smallest of the terriers, the ideal height should not exceed 10 inches at the withers. Distance from the top of the withers to the ground and from the withers to base of tail are approximately equal. Good bone and substance. Weight approximately 12 pounds. It should be in proportion to the individual dog’s structure and balance. Fit working condition is a prime consideration.
Head—A slightly foxy expression. Eyes small, dark and oval shaped with black rims. Placed well apart with a bright and keen expression. Ears medium size and erect. Set well apart with pointed tips. Upright when alert.
The skull is broad and slightly rounded with good width between the ears. The muzzle is wedge shaped and strong. Its length is about one-third less than the measurement from the occiput to the well-defined stop. The jaw is clean and strong. Nose and lip pigment black. Tight-lipped with large teeth. A scissor bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders. Level topline. Body moderately short. Compact and deep. Good width of chest. Well-sprung ribs and short loins. Tail medium docked. The terrier’s working origin requires that the tail be of sufficient length to grasp. Base level with topline; carried erect.
Forequarters—Well laid back shoulders. Elbows close to ribs. Short, powerful legs, as straight as is consistent with the digging terrier. Pasterns firm. Feet round with thick pads. Nails black. The feet point forward when standing or moving.
Hindquarters—Broad, strong and muscular with well-turned stifles. Hocks low set and straight when viewed from the rear. Feet as in front.
Coat—Hard, wiry and straight, lying close to the body with a definite undercoat. The coat on neck and shoulders forms a protective mane. The hair on head, ears and muzzle, except for slight eyebrows and whiskers, is short and smooth. This breed should be shown with as natural a coat as possible. A minimum of tidying is permissible but shaping should be heavily penalized.
Color—All shades of red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle. White marks are not desirable.
Gait—The legs moving parallel, extending forward, showing great powers of propulsion. Good rear angulation with a true, yet driving movement. The forelegs move freely with feet and elbows the same distance apart, converging slightly with increased pace. Hind legs follow in the track of the forelegs, flexing well at the stifle and hock. The topline remains level.
Temperament—Gay, fearless, loyal and affectionate. Adaptable and sporting, they make ideal companions.
Approved October 13, 1981
Reformatted March 23, 1990
PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER
THE PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER WAS FIRST BRED TO HUNT RED FOX ABOVE and below the ground in the south of England in the mid-1800s. In the traditional sport of foxhunting, the Parson Russell Terrier followed horse and hound across the countryside. When the hounds drove the fox to ground, the terrier dug in and followed, baying to bolt the fox back above ground. Everything about the breed denotes foxhunting: conformation, character, attitude, and intelligence. The breed is distinguished by a balanced and flexible build, with straight legs; a narrow chest; and a harsh, weatherproof double coat. Height ranges from twelve to fifteen inches at the withers, balance being the main factor. The Parson Russell Terrier is all white or predominantly white with black, tan, or tricolored markings.
The breed is named for the Reverend John Russell (1795–1883), often referred to as the father of the Wirehaired Fox Terrier and as the “Sporting Parson.” He was a founding member of The Kennel Club (England) in 1873 and maintained his own pack of foxhounds. Russell bred a strain of white fox terriers known country-wide for its distinctive type, harsh weatherproof jacket, and hunting acumen. His terriers were frequently bred with dogs from notable fox terrier kennels of the day and can be traced from modern fox terrier pedigrees. The English champion Carlisle Tack (1884) carried Russell’s bloodlines and was said to be indistinguishable from the type of terrier bred by the reverend. The breed we recognize today as the Parson Russell Terrier mirrors Russell’s own stock.
Authorities assert that after Russell’s death, some of his bloodlines were crossed into various other breeds, which would explain the many specimens seen with short legs, long bodies, and big chests. These crossbred dogs were incorrectly called Jack Russell Terriers, although they were not at all representative of Reverend Russell’s terriers. With the approval of the American Kennel Club, in 2003 the Parson Russell Terrier Association of America changed the breed name to Parson Russell Terrier, in order to distinguish the true type terrier.
Still widely used with foxhounds in England, the Parson Russell Terrier is also very popular throughout the world. This is first and foremost a working terrier, one that is single-minded, tenacious, courageous, and clever. Although playful, overwhelmingly affectionate, and an excellent companion, the Parson Russell Terrier is a high-energy terrier with a strong hunting instinct and is not the dog for everyone.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER
General Appearance—The Parson Russell Terrier was developed in the south of England in the 1800s as a white terrier to work European red fox both above and below ground. The terrier was named for the Reverend John Russell, whose terriers trailed hounds and bolted foxes from dens so the hunt could ride on. To function as a working terrier, he must possess certain characteristics: a ready attitude, alert and confident; balance in height and length; medium in size and bone, suggesting strength and endurance. Important to breed type is a natural appearance: harsh, weatherproof coat with a compact construction and clean silhouette. The coat is broken or smooth. He has a small, flexible chest to enable him to pursue his quarry underground and sufficient length of leg to follow the hounds. Old scars and injuries, the result of honorable work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a terrier’s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with movement or utility for work or breeding.
Size, Substance, Proportion—Size—The ideal height of a mature dog is 14 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade, and bitches 13 inches. Terriers whose heights measure either slightly larger or smaller than the ideal are not to be penalized in the show ring provided other points of their conformation, especially balance, are consistent with the working aspects of the standard. Larger dogs must remain spannable and smaller dogs must continue to exhibit breed type and sufficient bone to allow them to work successfully. The weight of a terrier in hard working condition is usually between 13–17 pounds. Proportion—Balance is the keystone of the terrier’s anatomy. The chief points of consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface, head and frame, height at withers, and length of body. The height at withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to tail, i.e., by possibly 1 to 1 1⁄2 inches on a 14-inch dog. The measurement will vary according to height. Substance—The terrier is of medium bone, not so heavy as to appear coarse or so light as to appear racy. The conformation of the whole frame is indicative of strength and endurance.
Disqualification—Height under 12 inches or over 15 inches.
Head—Head—Strong and in good proportion to the rest of the body, so the appearance of balance is maintained. Expression —Keen, direct, full of life and intelligence. Eyes—Almond shaped, dark in color, moderate in size, not protruding. Dark rims are desirable, however, where the coat surrounding the eye is white, the eye rim may be pink. Ears—Small V-shaped drop ears of moderate thickness carried forward close to the head with the tip so as to cover the orifice and pointing toward the eye. Fold is level with the top of the skull or slightly above. When alert, ear tips do not extend below the corner of the eye. Skull—Flat with muzzle and backskull in parallel planes. Fairly broad between the ears, narrowing slightly to the eyes. The stop is well defined but not prominent. Muzzle—Length from nose to stop is slightly shorter than the distance from stop to occiput. Strong and rectangular, measuring in width approximately 2⁄3 that of the backskull between the ears. Jaws—Upper and lower are of fair and punishing strength. Nose—Must be black and fully pigmented. Bite—Teeth are large with complete dentition in a perfect scissors bite, i.e., upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and teeth set square to the jaws. Faults—Snipey muzzle, weak or coarse head. Light or yellow eye, round eye. Hound ear, fleshy ear, rounded tips. Level bite, missing teeth. Four or more missing premolars, incisors or canines is a fault. Disqualifications—Prick ears. Liver color nose. Overshot, undershot or wry mouth.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Clean and muscular, moderately arched, of fair length, gradually widening so as to blend well into the shoulders. Topline—Strong, straight, and level in motion, the loin of moderate length. Body—In overall length-to-height proportion, the dog appears approximately square and balanced. The back is neither short nor long. The back gives no appearance of slackness but is laterally flexible, so that he may turn around in an earth. Tuck-up is moderate. Chest—Narrow and of moderate depth, giving an athletic rather than heavily-chested appearance; must be flexible and compressible. The ribs are fairly well sprung, oval rather than round, not extending past the level of the elbow. Tail—Docked so the tip is approximately level to the skull. Set on not too high, but so that a level topline, with a very slight arch over the loin, is maintained. Carried gaily when in motion, but when baiting or at rest may be held level but not below the horizontal. Faults—Chest not spannable or shallow; barrel ribs. Tail set low or carried low to or over the back, i.e., squirrel tail.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Long and sloping, well laid back, cleanly cut at the withers. Point of shoulder sits in a plane behind the point of the prosternum. The shoulder blade and upper arm are of approximately the same length; forelegs are placed well under the dog. Elbows hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. Legs are strong and straight with good bone. Joints turn neither in nor out. Pasterns firm and nearly straight. Feet—Round, cat-like, very compact, the pads thick and tough, the toes moderately arched pointing forward, turned neither in nor out. Fault—Hare feet.
Hindquarters—Strong and muscular, smoothly molded, with good angulation and bend of stifle. Hocks near the ground, parallel, and driving in action. Feet as in front.
Coat—Smooth and Broken: Whether smooth or broken, a double coat of good sheen; naturally harsh, close and dense, straight with no suggestion of kink. There is a clear outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard if natural to the coat. No sculptured furnishings. The terrier is shown in his natural appearance not excessively groomed. Sculpturing is to be severely penalized. Faults—Soft, silky, woolly, or curly topcoat. Lacking undercoat. Excessive grooming and sculpturing.
Color—White, white with black or tan markings, or a combination of these, tricolor. Colors are clear. As long as the terrier is predominantly white, moderate body markings are not to be faulted. Grizzle is acceptable and should not be confused with brindle. Disqualification —Brindle markings.
Gait—Movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. A tireless ground covering trot displaying good reach in front with the hindquarters providing plenty of drive. Pasterns break lightly on forward motion with no hint of hackney-like action or goose-stepping. The action is straight in front and rear.
Temperament—Bold and friendly. Athletic and clever. At work he is a game hunter, tenacious, courageous, and single minded. At home he is playful, exuberant and overwhelmingly affectionate. He is an independent and energetic terrier and requires his due portion of attention. He should not be quarrelsome. Shyness should not be confused with submissiveness. Submissiveness is not a fault. Sparring is not acceptable. Fault—Shyness. Disqualification—Overt aggression toward another dog.
Spanning—To measure a terrier’s chest, span from behind, raising only the front feet from the ground, and compress gently. Directly behind the elbows is the smaller, firm part of the chest. The central part is usually larger but should feel rather elastic. Span with hands tightly behind the elbows on the forward portion of the chest. The chest must be easily spanned by average size hands. Thumbs should meet at the spine and fingers should meet under the chest. This is a significant factor and a critical part of the judging process. The dog cannot be correctly judged without this procedure.
Height under 12 inches or over 15 inches.
Prick ears, liver nose.
Overshot, undershot or wry mouth.
Overt aggression toward another dog.
Approved July 13, 2004
Effective September 29, 2004
MOST LOVERS OF THE SCOTTISH TERRIER HAVE A DEEP AND ABIDING BELIEF that this breed is the most ancient of any of the Highland terriers; that the other breeds are only offshoots from this, the parent stem, and that the Scottie is the original, dyed-in-the-wool, simon-pure Highland terrier. They will tell you that the Skye Terrier mentioned in early histories and chronicles was not the Skye as we know it today, but the forerunner of the Scottie and similar in type to it. They will refer you to such early writers as Jacques du Fouilloux, who published La Venerie in 1561, Turberville and Dr. Stevens, whose books The Noble Art of Venerie and TheMaison Rustique appeared in 1575 and 1572, respectively. All of these works described an “earth dog used in hunting the fox and the brocke,” and these descriptions fit closely to what might have been the forerunner of our present-day Scottie.
In the seventeenth century, when King James VI of Scotland became James I of England, he wrote to Edinburgh to have a half a dozen terriers sent to France as a present and addressed the letter to the Laird of Caldwell, naming the Earl of Montieth as having good ones. Later, the great English authority Rawdon B. Lee wrote:
The Scottie is the oldest variety of the canine race indigenous to Britain. . . . For generations he had been a popular dog in the Highlands where, strangely enough, he was always known as the Skye Terrier, although he is different from the long-coated, unsporting-like creature with which that name is now associated.
While all this is very interesting and quite possibly true, the fact remains that it is neither definite nor conclusive.
Leaving the realm of speculation and inference and coming down to history and known facts, the Scottish Terrier as we find it today has been bred in purity for many years. The first show to have a class for Scottish Terriers was at Birmingham, England, in 1860. Later, a number of other shows carried this classification, but the dogs shown in these classes were not Scottish Terriers, but Skyes, Dandie Dinmonts, and Yorkshires.
All the while, however, Scotchmen who saw these dogs winning as Scottish Terriers were indignant, and about 1877 they broke into print in the Live Stock Journal with a series of letters protesting the situation and discussing the points and character of the true Scottish Terrier. The discussion waxed so furious that the editors finally called a halt with the statement, “We see no use in prolonging this discussion unless each correspondent described the dog which he holds to be the true type.” This challenge was taken up by Captain Gordon Murray, who in a letter to the Stock Keeper under the nom de plume “Strathbogie,” described in detail his conception of a proper Scottish Terrier. This quieted the warring factions, and about 1880 J. B. Morrison was persuaded to draw up a standard. This was accepted by all parties.
The essentials of this standard have been retained in all the later standards, only minor changes having been introduced. In 1882 the Scottish Terrier Club was organized with joint officers for England and Scotland. Later, as interest in the breed grew, the two countries organized separate clubs, although they have always worked harmoniously together.
John Naylor is credited with being the first to introduce the Scottish Terrier to America; his initial importation in 1883 was of a dog and a bitch, Tam Glen and Bonnie Belle. He showed extensively and continued importing, among his later importations being his famous dogs Glenlyon and Whinstone. The first Scottish Terrier registered in America was Dake, a brindle dog whelped September 15, 1884, bred by O. P. Chandler, of Kokomo, Indiana. His sire was Naylor’s Glenlyon. This was in the American Kennel Register, published by Forest and Stream, at about the time the American Kennel Club was being organized. In December 1887, the bitch Lassie was registered, bred by W. H. Todd, of Vermillion, Ohio. Her sire was Glencoe, by Imp. Whinstone ex. Imp. Roxie. Here we find Whinstone figuring as a sire. Now Whinstone was by Allister, which together with Dundee formed the two great fountainheads of the breed. Whinstone sired Ch. Bellingham Baliff, acquired by J. J. Little, founder of the famous Newcastle Kennels. Whinstone therefore was the forerunner and progenitor of the Scottish Terrier in this country.
Since those days there have been thousands of importations and many notable breeders have carried on the work. Probably none of the early blood is to be found today. Nevertheless, these early dogs must take their place in history; and to that pioneer breeder and missionary of the breed, John Naylor, the great popularity of this staunch little breed stands as an enduring monument.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SCOTTISH TERRIER
General Appearance—The Scottish Terrier is a small, compact, short-legged, sturdily built dog of good bone and substance. His head is long in proportion to his size. He has a hard, wiry, weather-resistant coat and a thick-set, cobby body which is hung between short, heavy legs. These characteristics, joined with his very special keen, piercing, “varminty” expression, and his erect ears and tail are salient features of the breed. The Scottish Terrier’s bold, confident, dignified aspect exemplifies power in a small package.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Scottish Terrier should have a thick body and heavy bone. The principal objective must be symmetry and balance without exaggeration. Equal consideration shall be given to height, weight, length of back and length of head. Height at withers for either sex should be about 10 inches. The length of back from withers to set-on of tail should be approximately 11 inches. Generally, a well-balanced Scottish Terrier dog should weigh from 19 to 22 pounds and a bitch from 18 to 21 pounds.
Head—The head should be long in proportion to the overall length and size of the dog. In profile, the skull and muzzle should give the appearance of two parallel planes. The skull should be long and of medium width, slightly domed and covered with short, hard hair. In profile, the skull should appear flat. There should be a slight but definite stop between the skull and muzzle at eye level, allowing the eyes to be set in under the brow, contributing to proper Scottish Terrier expression. The skull should be smooth with no prominences or depressions and the cheeks should be flat and clean. The muzzle should be approximately equal to the length of skull with only a slight taper to the nose. The muzzle should be well filled in under the eye, with no evidence of snipiness. A correct Scottish Terrier muzzle should fill an average man’s hand. The nose should be black, regardless of coat color, and of good size, projecting somewhat over the mouth and giving the impression that the upper jaw is longer than the lower. The teeth should be large and evenly spaced, having either a scissors or level bite, the former preferred. The jaw should be square, level and powerful. Undershot or overshot bites should be penalized. The eyes should be set wide apart and well in under the brow. They should be small, bright and piercing, and almond-shaped not round. The color should be dark brown or nearly black, the darker the better. The ears should be small, prick, set well up on the skull and pointed, but never cut. They should be covered with short velvety hair. From the front, the outer edge of the ear should form a straight line up from the side of the skull. The use, size, shape and placement of the ear and its erect carriage are major elements of the keen, alert, intelligent Scottish Terrier expression.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck should be moderately short, strong, thick and muscular, blending smoothly into well laid back shoulders. The neck must never be so short as to appear clumsy. The body should be moderately short with ribs extending well back into a short, strong loin, deep flanks and very muscular hindquarters. The ribs should be well sprung out from the spine, forming a broad, strong back, then curving down and inward to form a deep body that would be nearly heart-shaped if viewed in cross-section. The topline of the back should be firm and level. The chest should be broad, very deep and well let down between the forelegs. The forechest should extend well in front of the legs and drop well down into the brisket. The chest should not be flat or concave, and the brisket should nicely fill an average man’s slightly cupped hand. The lowest point of the brisket should be such that an average man’s fist would fit under it with little or no overhead clearance. The tail should be about seven inches long and never cut. It should be set on high and carried erectly, either vertical or with a slight curve forward, but not over the back. The tail should be thick at the base, tapering gradually to a point and covered with short, hard hair.
Forequarters—The shoulders should be well laid back and moderately well knit at the withers. The forelegs should be very heavy in bone, straight or slightly bent with elbows close to the body, and set in under the shoulder blade with a definite forechest in front of them. Scottish Terriers should not be out at the elbows. The forefeet should be larger than the hind feet, round, thick and compact with strong nails. The front feet should point straight ahead, but a slight “toeing out” is acceptable. Dew claws may be removed.
Hindquarters—The thighs should be very muscular and powerful for the size of the dog with the stifles well bent and the legs straight from hock to heel. Hocks should be well let down and parallel to each other.
Coat—The Scottish Terrier should have a broken coat. It is a hard, wiry outer coat with a soft, dense undercoat. The coat should be trimmed and blended into the furnishings to give a distinct Scottish Terrier outline. The dog should be presented with sufficient coat so that the texture and density may be determined. The longer coat on the beard, legs and lower body may be slightly softer than the body coat but should not be or appear fluffy.
Color—Black, wheaten or brindle of any color. Many black and brindle dogs have sprinklings of white or silver hairs in their coats which are normal and not to be penalized. White can be allowed only on the chest and chin and that to a slight extent only.
Gait—The gait of the Scottish Terrier is very characteristic of the breed. It is not the square trot or walk desirable in the long-legged breeds. The forelegs do not move in exact parallel planes; rather, in reaching out, the forelegs incline slightly inward because of the deep broad forechest. Movement should be free, agile and coordinated with powerful drive from the rear and good reach in front. The action of the rear legs should be square and true and, at the trot, both the hocks and stifles should be flexed with a vigorous motion. When the dog is in motion, the back should remain firm and level.
Temperament—The Scottish Terrier should be alert and spirited but also stable and steady-going. He is a determined and thoughtful dog whose “heads up, tails up” attitude in the ring should convey both fire and control. The Scottish Terrier, while loving and gentle with people, can be aggressive with other dogs. He should exude ruggedness and power, living up to his nickname, the “Diehard.”
Soft coat; curly coat; round, protruding or light eyes; overshot or undershot jaws; obviouslyoversize or undersize; shyness or timidity; upright shoulders; lack of reach in front or drive inrear; stiff or stilted movement; movement too wide or too close in rear; too narrow in front orrear; out at the elbow; lack of bone and substance; low set tail; lack of pigment in the nose;coarse head; and failure to show with head and tail up are faults to be penalized.
NO JUDGE SHOULD PUT TO WINNERS OR BEST OF BREED ANYSCOTTISH TERRIER NOT SHOWING REAL TERRIER CHARACTER INTHE RING.
SCALE OF POINTS
Approved October 12, 1993
Effective November 30, 1993
THE SEALYHAM TERRIER DERIVES ITS NAME FROM SEALYHAM, HAVERFORD-WEST, Wales. Sealyham was the estate of Captain John Edwardes. Between 1850 and 1890, Edwardes developed a strain of small white dogs from obscure ancestry, noted for prowess in quarrying badger, otter, and fox. The requisite qualities were extreme gameness and endurance, with as much substance as could be had in a dog that was small and quick enough to dig and battle underground.
As the working ability of Sealyham Terriers drew public interest, they began to take their places with other terrier breeds in prominent homes and at shows. Their first recorded appearance at a dog show was at Haverfordwest in October 1903. In January 1908, a group of Welsh fanciers founded the Sealyham Terrier Club of Haverfordwest. At their first meeting, they drew up the original standard for the breed. The first championship show in which Sealyhams appeared was the English Kennel Club show of October 1910. The Kennel Club (England) recognized the breed in March 1911, and in that year the first Challenge Certificates for Sealyham Terriers were offered at London’s Great Joint Terrier Show.
The American Kennel Club recognized the breed in 1911, shortly after its original importation into the United States. Since its American show debut at San Mateo, California, in September of that year, the breed’s popularity as a show dog has remained fairly constant.
The American Sealyham Terrier Club was founded on May 15, 1913, to promote the interests of the breed in the United States and to encourage working trials and show exhibiting. More recently, interest has developed in agility, obedience, and tracking. Now, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, Sealyham owners and their dogs enjoy successful participation in AKC-sponsored events in addition to the show ring, and companion and performance titles are becoming more frequent. The ASTC annual specialty show is held as part of the Montgomery County Kennel Club terrier show in Pennsylvania, and the club encourages sponsorship of entries throughout the year at all-breed or all-terrier group conformation events.
The breed has had an illustrious record in AKC show rings through the years. A properly prepared Sealyham showing with typical style and vigor is an impressive dog, providing the excitement of a classic terrier. The Sealyham remains a highly competitive participant in the group ring, in spite of low breed-registration numbers and a sharp decline in the number of Sealyham kennels in many regions of the United States. Because there are not large numbers of Sealyhams registered each year, people who want a puppy have to be particularly determined and persevering in their search for breeders.
Sealyham conformation and temperament may be chiefly characterized by the word strength. The word strong appears six times in the standard, the words power or powerful four times. The Sealyham standard also contains the telling phrase, “of extraordinary substance.” These words leave no doubt how earlier fanciers wished the breed to be seen.
Sealyhams are eye-catching show dogs as well as loyal and entertaining pets. They serve instinctively and well in therapy assignments with both children and the elderly.
It is an outgoing breed yet a good watchdog, whose big-dog bark discourages intruders. Proper care, food, and training promote the breed’s long life. A life span of twelve to sixteen years is not uncommon for the Sealyham.
With terrier temperament and strength of will, the individual dog can be stubborn. That obstinate behavior is tempered, however, by a sly sense of humor. Owners accept and appreciate the Sealyham character, knowing that it includes an immense capacity for loyalty and love of home and family.
As a family pet, the Sealyham is flexible in its requirements, adapting easily to apartment living or to the luxury of acreage. Regular coat care is necessary to keep the Sealyham smart looking, clean, and comfortable. Brushing, plucking, or clipping the hair is necessary. The primary requirement is that Sealyhams be allowed to accompany their owners wherever they go and add their cheerful dispositions to their family’s everyday life.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SEALYHAM TERRIER
The Sealyham should be the embodiment of power and determination, ever keen and alert, of extraordinary substance, yet free from clumsiness.
Height—At withers about 101⁄2 inches.
Weight—23–24 pounds for dogs; bitches slightly less. It should be borne in mind that size is more important than weight.
Head—Long, broad and powerful, without coarseness. It should, however, be in perfect balance with the body, joining neck smoothly. Length of head roughly, three-quarters height at withers, or about an inch longer than neck. Breadth between ears a little less than one-half length of head. Skull—Very slightly domed, with a shallow indentation running down between the brows, and joining the muzzle with a moderate stop. Cheeks—Smoothly formed and flat, without heavy jowls. Jaws—Powerful and square. Bite level or scissors. Overshot or undershot bad faults. Teeth—Sound, strong and white, with canines fitting closely together. Nose—Black, with large nostrils. White, cherry or butterfly bad faults. Eyes—Very dark, deeply set and fairly wide apart, of medium size, oval in shape with keen terrier expression. Light, large or protruding eye bad faults. Lack of eye rim pigmentation not a fault. Ears—Folded level with top of head, with forward edge close to cheek. Well rounded at tip, and of length to reach outer corner of eye. Thin, not leathery, and of sufficient thickness to avoid creases. Prick, tulip, rose or hound ears bad faults.
Neck—Length slightly less than two-thirds of height of dog at withers. Muscular without coarseness, with good reach, refinement at throat, and set firmly on shoulders.
Shoulders—Well laid back and powerful, but not over-muscled. Sufficiently wide to permit freedom of action. Upright or straight shoulder placement highly undesirable.
Legs—Forelegs strong, with good bone; and as straight as is consistent with chest being well let down between them. Down on pasterns, knuckled over, bowed, and out at elbow, bad faults. Hind legs longer than forelegs and not so heavily boned. Feet— Large but compact, round with thick pads, strong nails. Toes well arched and pointing straight ahead. Forefeet larger, though not quite so long as hind feet. Thin, spread or flat feet bad faults.
Body—Strong, short-coupled and substantial, so as to permit great flexibility. Brisket deep and well let down between forelegs. Ribs well sprung.
Back—Length from withers to set-on of tail should approximate height at withers, or 101⁄2 inches. Topline level, neither roached nor swayed. Any deviations from these measurements undesirable. Hindquarters—Very powerful, and protruding well behind the set-on of tail. Strong second thighs, stifles well bent, and hocks well let down. Cowhocks bad fault.
Tail—Docked and carried upright. Set on far enough forward so that spine does not slope down to it.
Coat—Weather-resisting, comprised of soft, dense undercoat and hard, wiry top coat. Silky or curly coat bad fault.
Color—All white, or with lemon, tan or badger markings on head and ears. Heavy body markings and excessive ticking should be discouraged.
Action—Sound, strong, quick, free, true and level.
SCALE OF POINTS
Approved February 9, 1974
THE MAJORITY OF TERRIERS HAVE ATTAINED SOMETHING OF THEIR PRESENT-DAY form within the last century, but the Skye Terrier of nearly four centuries ago was like the specimens of today.
One may find mention of the Skye Terrier in that historic volume Of EnglisheDogges, by John Caius, master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University, and court physician to Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. He was a man of broad education aside from the sciences, and also a great traveler and sportsman. Referring to the breed, he says it was “brought out of barbarous borders fro’ the uttermost countryes northward . . . which, by reason of the length of heare, makes showe neither of face nor of body.”
Thus we find the Skye Terrier of today. His flowing coat is the same as the one that proved such a grand protection in the days when his only occupation was to challenge vicious animals that otherwise might have crippled him at a single bite. Perhaps this long coat has been a handicap, for all followers of this game old working terrier have witnessed him surpassed in popularity by one after another of the newer breeds. Still they are reluctant to change him in any manner. Indeed, they stand by the motto of the Skye Club of Scotland—“Wha daur meddle wi’ me.”
The breed takes its name from the chief of those northwestern islands of Scotland that, as far back as he can be traced, formed his native home, and in which he was found in greatest perfection. He is the only terrier distinctively belonging to the northwestern islands that is not common to the whole of Scotland. Those who have the best practical knowledge of the Skye maintain that he is without rival in his own peculiar domain, and that wherever there are rocks, dens, burrow, cairns, or coverts to explore, or waters to take to, his services should be called.
From the nature of Caius’s allusion to him, it is evident that the Skye Terrier had become known in the cities of England, especially in the royal palace. The kings and queens of England have always set the styles in that country, and as soon as the Skye had been accepted in court—evidently in the mid-sixteenth century when Caius penned the historic work—he was soon the fashionable pet of all degrees of nobility, and after that of the commoners.
The Skye was the most widely known of all the terriers down to the end of the nineteenth century. Queen Victoria’s early interest and Sir Edwin Landseer’s paintings featuring the breed helped attract attention. He was kept in all the English-speaking countries. Since then he has slipped quietly into the background, yet his admirers in England and Scotland—where he has maintained his greatest foothold—are happy to point to the time when “a duchess would almost be ashamed to be seen in the park unaccompanied by her long-coated Skye.”
The Skye Terrier was first registered with the AKC in 1887 and was one of the most important breeds at American benched shows before the turn of the twentieth century. The rivalry among the leading kennels was exceptionally keen. Although the frontiers of his activities have been somewhat curtailed, the true value of the Skye Terrier is evinced by the tenacious grasp which he has on those who have come in contact with him. Thus, entries may sometimes be small at shows today, but seldom does one find a major show without some specimens of this old terrier breed.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SKYE TERRIER
General Appearance—The Skye Terrier is a dog of style, elegance and dignity: agile and strong with sturdy bone and hard muscle. Long, low and level—he is twice as long as he is high—he is covered with a profuse coat that falls straight down either side of the body over oval-shaped ribs. The hair well feathered on the head veils forehead and eyes to serve as protection from brush and briar as well as amid serious encounters with other animals. He stands with head high and long tail hanging and moves with a seemingly effortless gait. He is strong in body, quarter and jaw.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The ideal shoulder height for dogs is 10 inches and bitches 91⁄2 inches. Based on these heights a 10 inch dog measured from chest bone over tail at rump should be 20 inches. A slightly higher or lower dog of either sex is acceptable. Dogs 9 inches or less and bitches 81⁄2 inches or less at the withers are to be penalized. Proportion—The ideal ratio of body length to shoulder height is 2 to 1, which is considered the correct proportion. Substance—Solidly built, full of strength and quality without being coarse. Bone is substantial.
Head—Long and powerful, strength being deemed more important than extreme length.
Eyesbrown, preferably dark brown, medium in size, close-set and alight with life and intelligence.
Earssymmetrical and gracefully feathered. They may be carried prick or drop. If prick, they are medium in size, placed high on the skull, erect at their outer edges, and slightly wider apart at the peak than at the skull. Drop ears, somewhat larger in size and set lower, hang flat against the skull.
Moderate width at the back of the skull tapers gradually to a strong muzzle. The stop is slight. The dark muzzle is just moderately full as opposed to snipy. Powerful and absolutely true jaws. The nose is always black. A Dudley, flesh-colored or brown nose shall disqualify. Mouth with the incisor teeth closing level, or with upper teeth slightly overlapping the lower.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Long and gracefully arched, carried high and proudly.
The backline is level.
Body pre-eminently long and low, the chest deep, with oval-shaped ribs. The sides appear flattish due to the straight falling and profuse coat.
Tail long and well feathered. When hanging, its upper section is pendulous, following the line of the rump, its lower section thrown back in a moderate arc without twist or curl. When raised, its height makes it appear a prolongation of the backline. Though not to be preferred, the tail is sometimes carried high when the dog is excited or angry. When such carriage arises from emotion only, it is permissible. But the tail should not be constantly carried above the level of the back or hang limp.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back, with tight placement of shoulder blades at the withers, and elbows should fit closely to the sides and be neither loose nor tied. Forearm should curve slightly around the chest. Legs short, muscular and straight as possible. “Straight as possible” means straight as soundness and chest will permit, it does not mean “Terrier straight.”
Feet—Large hare-feet preferably pointing forward, the pads thick and nails strong and preferably black.
Hindquarters—Strong, full, well developed and well angulated. Legs short, muscular and straight when viewed from behind. Feet as in front.
Coat—Double. Undercoat short, close, soft and woolly. Outer coat hard, straight and flat. 51⁄2 inches long without extra credit granted for greater length. The body coat hangs straight down each side, parting from head to tail. The head hair, which may be shorter, veils forehead and eyes and forms a moderate beard and apron. The long feathering on the ears falls straight down from the tips and outer edges, surrounding the ears like a fringe and outlining their shape. The ends of the hair should mingle with the coat of the neck. Tail well feathered.
Color—The coat must be of one overall color at the skin but may be of varying shades of the same color in the full coat, which may be black, blue, dark or light gray, silver platinum, fawn or cream. The dog must have no distinctive markings except for the desirable black points of ears, muzzle and tip of tail, all of which points are preferably dark even to black. The shade of head and legs should approximate that of the body. There must be no trace of pattern, design or clear-cut color variations, with the exception of the breed’s only permissible white which occasionally exists on the chest not exceeding 2 inches in diameter.
The puppy coat may be very different in color from the adult coat. Therefore, as it is growing and clearing, wide variations of color may occur; consequently, this is permissible in dogs under 18 months of age. However, even in puppies there must be no trace of pattern, design or clear-cut variations with the exception of the black band encircling the body coat of the cream colored dog, and the only permissible white which, as in the adult dog, occasionally exists on the chest not exceeding 2 inches in diameter.
Gait—The legs proceed straight forward when traveling. When approaching, the forelegs form a continuation of the straight line of the front. The feet being the same distance apart as the elbows. The principal propelling power is furnished by the back legs which travel straight forward. Forelegs should move well forward, without too much lift. The whole movement may be termed free, active and effortless and give a more or less fluid picture.
Temperament—That of the typical working terrier capable of overtaking game and going to ground, displaying stamina, courage, strength and agility. Fearless, good-tempered, loyal and canny, he is friendly and gay with those he knows and reserved and cautious with strangers.
A Dudley, flesh-colored or brown nose shall disqualify.
Approved February 10, 1990
Effective March 28, 1990
SOFT COATED WHEATEN TERRIER
PARTIALLY SHROUDED BY THE MISTS OF TIME, THE HISTORY OF THIS BREED sometimes reflects the Irish people’s gift as storytellers rather than historians. Folklore persists that following the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a dog swam to the shore of Ireland from a sinking ship. Supposedly, he then bred to native terriers to produce the Wheaten, among other breeds.
Most agree that this breed can be traced back 200 years. Many fanciers feel the Soft Coated Wheaten predates and is the progenitor of its closest terrier kin, the Kerry Blue and the Irish, in spite of the fact that the latter was shown for some eighty years before the Wheaten’s acceptance by the Irish Kennel Club. There is also reason to surmise a very early link to the Irish Wolfhound.
Long before kennel clubs and official records, Wheatens could be found all over Ireland, but the greatest numbers were in the south and southwest. There are records of numerous Wheatens in County Kerry as far back as 1785. They whelped in barns, hedges, and haystacks, and only the fittest survived. Quite early in Britain’s history, the “laws of the forest” were placed in force. These laws allowed only freemen and landowners to own hunting dogs. The poor tenant farmer or fisherman could not legally own any animal of greater value than five British pounds. Also, only wealthy landowners could own a hunting dog or sporting dog more than nineteen inches tall. Further, those dogs with “whole” tails were for the landed gentry. Otherwise a tax was levied, which was not affordable by poor farm folk. Docking was done to provide evidence that these dogs were within the bounds of the law. Thus was born the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier.
This “poor man’s Wolfhound” came to serve as guardians of the tenant farmer’s household and as all-purpose farm dogs. They were adept at herding and guarding sheep. They killed vermin and gave their family ample warning of intruders. They were keen of scent and might often be found with their owners, out for the hunt, bringing down small game.
Certainly the need for a dog’s companionship is firmly established historically. This versatile breed had a keen desire to please and a willingness to do whatever was asked. Indeed, the poor farmer had myriad chores, which this working, sporting terrier eagerly performed. It is said that they might even have been called upon to perform menial kitchen chores, such as turning the spit. They were hardy easy keepers, not fussy about food and totally indifferent to the hardships of weather.
The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier was registered with the Irish Kennel Club and made its debut at the Irish Kennel Club championship show on Saint Patrick’s Day, 1937.
Wheatens first came to American shores in November 1946, when a litter of six arrived from Belfast. Two of these were assigned to Lydia Vogels, of Springfield, Massachusetts, and were shown at the Westminster Kennel Club show the following year. In total these dogs produced seventeen puppies, but public interest was not forthcoming. Consequently, Vogels’ efforts to earn AKC recognition were in vain and would not come to fruition for another twenty-six years.
In 1957 the breed surfaced in the United States once more. Spurred on by the O’Connors (Gramachree kennel name) of Brooklyn, New York, and the Arnolds (Sunset Hills) of Hartford, Connecticut, Wheatens began to appear at dog shows, competing in the Miscellaneous class. In 1962, once again on that most appropriate date, Saint Patrick’s Day, the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of America was formed.
By 1972, the ranks of Wheaten Terrier devotees swelled to 500, with over 1,000 dogs. The breed was admitted to the American Kennel Club Stud Book on May 1, 1973, and on October 3 of that year the Wheatens became eligible to compete in the Terrier Group. That October date auspiciously fell on the weekend of this country’s most illustrious terrier showcase, the Montgomery County Kennel Club show, then held in Ambler, Pennsylvania. At the end of this four-show weekend, the Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier breed would celebrate its first champion.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SOFT COATED WHEATEN TERRIER
General Appearance—The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier is a medium-sized, hardy, well balanced sporting terrier, square in outline. He is distinguished by his soft, silky, gently waving coat of warm wheaten color and his particularly steady disposition. The breed requires moderation both in structure and presentation, and any exaggerations are to be shunned. He should present the overall appearance of an alert and happy animal, graceful, strong and well coordinated.
Size, Proportion, Substance—A dog shall be 18 to 19 inches at the withers, the ideal being 181⁄2. A bitch shall be 17 to 18 inches at the withers, the ideal being 171⁄2. Major Faults—Dogs under 18 inches or over 19 inches; bitches under 17 inches or over 18 inches. Any deviation must be penalized according to the degree of its severity. Square in outline. Hardy, well balanced. Dogs should weigh 35–40 pounds; bitches 30–35 pounds.
Head—Well balanced and in proportion to the body. Rectangular in appearance; moderately long. Powerful with no suggestion of coarseness. Eyes dark reddish brown or brown, medium in size, slightly almond shaped and set fairly wide apart. Eye rims black. Major Fault—Anything approaching a yellow eye. Ears small to medium in size, breaking level with the skull and dropping slightly forward, the inside edge of the ear lying next to the cheek and pointing to the ground rather than to the eye. A hound ear or a high-breaking ear is not typical and should be severely penalized. Skull flat and clean between ears. Cheekbones not prominent. Defined stop. Muzzle powerful and strong, well filled below the eyes. No suggestion of snipiness. Skull and foreface of equal length. Nose black and large for size of dog. Major Fault—Any nose color other than solid black. Lips tight and black. Teeth large, clean and white; scissors or level bite. MajorFault—Undershot or overshot.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck medium in length, clean and strong, not throaty. Carried proudly, it gradually widens, blending smoothly into the body. Back strong and level. Body compact; relatively short coupled. Chest is deep. Ribs are well sprung but without roundness. Tail is docked and well set on, carried gaily but never over the back.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back, clean and smooth; well knit. Forelegs straight and well boned. All dewclaws should be removed. Feet are round and compact with good depth of pad. Pads black. Nails dark.
Hindquarters—Hind legs well developed with well bent stifles turning neither in nor out; hocks well let down and parallel to each other. All dewclaws should be removed. The presence of dewclaws on the hind legs should be penalized. Feet are round and compact with good depth of pad. Pads black. Nails dark.
Coat—A distinguishing characteristic of the breed which sets the dog apart from all other terriers. An abundant single coat covering the entire body, legs and head; coat on the latter falls forward to shade the eyes. Texture soft and silky with a gentle wave. In both puppies and adolescents, the mature wavy coat is generally not yet evident. Major Faults—Woolly or harsh, crisp or cottony, curly or stand away coat; in the adult, a straight coat is also objectionable.
Presentation—For show purposes, the Wheaten is presented to show a terrier outline, but coat must be of sufficient length to flow when the dog is in motion. The coat must never be clipped or plucked. Sharp contrasts or stylizations must be avoided. Head coat should be blended to present a rectangular outline. Eyes should be indicated but never fully exposed. Ears should be relieved of fringe, but not taken down to the leather. Sufficient coat must be left on skull, cheeks, neck and tail to balance the proper length of body coat. Dogs that are overly trimmed shall be severely penalized.
Color—Any shade of wheaten. Upon close examination, occasional red, white or black guard hairs may be found. However, the overall coloring must be clearly wheaten with no evidence of any other color except on ears and muzzle where blue-gray shading is sometimes present. Major Fault—Any color save wheaten.
Puppies and Adolescents—Puppies under a year may carry deeper coloring and occasional black tipping. The adolescent, under two years, is often quite light in color, but must never be white or carry gray other than on ears and muzzle. However, by two years of age, the proper wheaten color should be obvious.
Gait—Gait is free, graceful and lively with good reach in front and strong drive behind. Front and rear feet turn neither in nor out. Dogs who fail to keep their tails erect when moving should be severely penalized.
Temperament—The Wheaten is a happy, steady dog and shows himself gaily with an air of self-confidence. He is alert and exhibits interest in his surroundings; exhibits less aggressiveness than is sometimes encouraged in other terriers. Major Fault— Timid or overly aggressive dogs.
Approved February 12, 1983
Reformatted July 20, 1989
STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER
THE STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER HAD ITS BEGINNINGS IN ENGLAND MANY centuries ago when the Bulldog and Mastiff were closely linked. Bullbaiting and bearbaiting in the Elizabethan era produced large dogs for these sports. Later on the 100- to 120-pound animal gave way to a small, more agile breed of up to 90 pounds.
Early in the nineteenth century the sport of dogfighting gained popularity and a smaller, faster dog was developed. It was called by names such as Bulldog Terrier and Bull-and-Terrier. The Bulldog bred then was a larger dog than we know today and weighed about sixty pounds. This dog was crossed with a small native terrier that appears in the history of the present-day Manchester Terrier. The result, averaging between thirty and forty-five pounds, became the Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
James Hinks, in about 1860, crossed the Old Pit Bull Terrier, now known as the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and produced the all-white English Bull Terrier. The Bull Terrier obtained recognition by The Kennel Club (England) in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, but the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, due to its reputation as a fighting dog, did not receive this blessing.
In 1935 the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was recognized by The Kennel Club and enthusiasts were able to conduct conformation matches. The sport of dogfighting had long been made illegal, and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier had evolved into a dog of such temperament as to make him a fine pet and companion and a worthy show dog.
Bull-and-Terrier types were believed to have arrived in North America sometime in the mid-1880s. Here they developed along different lines with a heavier, taller dog being the result. Today’s American Staffordshire Terrier represents that breeding.
The Staffordshire Bull Terrier was admitted to registration in the AKC Stud Book effective October 1, 1974, and joined the Terrier Group in March 1975.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER
General Appearance—The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a smooth-coated dog. It should be of great strength for its size and, although muscular, should be active and agile.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground.
Head—Short, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, black nose. Pink (Dudley) nose to be considered a serious fault. Eyes—Dark preferable, but may bear some relation to coat color. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Light eyes or pink eye rims to be considered a fault, except that where the coat surrounding the eye is white the eye rim may be pink. Ears—Rose or half-pricked and not large. Full drop or full prick to be considered a serious fault. Mouth—A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors. The lips should be tight and clean. The badly undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is muscular, rather short, clean in outline and gradually widening toward the shoulders. The body is close coupled, with a level topline, wide front, deep brisket and well sprung ribs being rather light in the loins. The tail is undocked, of medium length, low set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. It should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. A tail that is too long or badly curled is a fault.
Forequarters—Legs straight and well boned, set rather far apart, without looseness at the shoulders and showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point the feet turn out a little. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet should be well padded, strong and of medium size.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters should be well muscled, hocks let down with stifles well bent. Legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—Smooth, short and close to the skin, not to be trimmed or de-whiskered.
Color—Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any of these colors with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black-and-tan or liver color to be disqualified.
Gait—Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hind legs.
Temperament—From the past history of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the modern dog draws its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, and children in particular, its off-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes it a foremost all-purpose dog.
Black-and-tan or liver color.
Approved November 14, 1989
Effective January 1, 1990
JUDGING FROM THE OLD PAINTINGS AND PRINTS OF THE FIRST KNOWN terriers, the Welsh Terrier is a very old breed, for these prints show us a rough-haired black-and-tan terrier.
In the early nineteenth century the breed was more commonly known as the Old English Terrier or Black-and-Tan Wire Haired Terrier, and as late as 1886 The Kennel Club (England) allotted one class for “Welsh or Old English Wire Haired Black and Tan Terriers.” Even to this day the color of the Welsh is as it was more than a hundred years ago.
In other respects, also, the Welsh Terrier has changed very slightly. He is, as he was then, a sporting dog extensively used in Wales for hunting otter, fox, and badger, and he possesses the characteristic gameness that one naturally looks for in such a dog. Although game, he is not quarrelsome; in fact, he is well mannered and easy to handle.
The first record of Welsh Terriers having a classification of their own in England was in 1884–85 at Carnavon, where there were twenty-one entries. But even at this time it was not uncommon for dogs to be shown as Old English Terriers and also as Welsh Terriers. As late as 1893, Dick Turpin, a well-known show dog of those days, continued in this dual role.
Welsh Terriers were first brought to this country by Prescott Lawrence in 1888, when he imported a dog and a bitch and showed them at Madison Square Garden in the Miscellaneous class. No other Welsh, however, were imported for some time. But, about 1901, classification was offered for Welsh at Westminster and four or five dogs were shown; from then on their popularity has steadily increased.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE WELSH TERRIER
General Appearance—The Welsh Terrier is a sturdy, compact, rugged dog of medium size with a coarse wire-textured coat. The legs, underbody and head are tan; the jacket black (or occasionally grizzle). The tail is docked to length meant to complete the image of a “square dog” approximately as high as he is long. The movement is a terrier trot typical of the long-legged terrier. It is effortless, with good reach and drive. The Welsh Terrier is friendly, outgoing to people and other dogs, showing spirit and courage. The “Welsh Terrier expression” comes from the set, color and position of the eyes combined with the use of the ears.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Males are about 15 inches at the withers, with an acceptable range between 15 and 151⁄2. Bitches may be proportionally smaller. Twenty pounds is considered an average weight, varying a few pounds depending on the height of the dog and the density of bone. Both dog and bitch appear solid and of good substance.
Head—The entire head is rectangular. The eyes are small, dark brown and almond-shaped, well set in the skull. They are placed fairly far apart. The size, shape, color and position of the eyes give the steady, confident but alert expression that is typical of the Welsh Terrier. The ears are V-shaped, small, but not too thin. The fold is just above the topline of the skull. The ears are carried forward close to the cheek with the tips falling to, or toward, the outside corners of the eyes when the dog is at rest. The ears move slightly up and forward when at attention. Skull—The foreface is strong with powerful, punishing jaws. It is only slightly narrower than the backskull. There is a slight stop. The backskull is of equal length to the foreface. They are on parallel planes in profile. The backskull is smooth and flat (not domed) between the ears. There are no wrinkles between the ears. The cheeks are flat and clean (not bulging).
The muzzleis one-half the length of the entire head from tip of nose to occiput. The foreface in front of the eyes is well made up. The furnishings on the foreface are trimmed to complete without exaggeration the total rectangular outline. The muzzle is strong and squared off, never snipy. The nose is black and squared off. The lips are black and tight. A scissors bite is preferred, but a level bite is acceptable. Either one has complete dentition. The teeth are large and strong, set in powerful, vise-like jaws.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is of moderate length and thickness, slightly arched and sloping gracefully into the shoulders. The throat is clean with no excess of skin.
The topline is level.
The body shows good substance and is well ribbed up. There is good depth of brisket and moderate width of chest. The loin is strong and moderately short. The tail is docked to a length approximately level (on an imaginary line) with the occiput, to complete the square image of the whole dog. The root of the tail is set well up on the back. It is carried upright.
Forequarters—The front is straight. The shoulders are long, sloping and well laid back. The legs are straight and muscular with upright and powerful pasterns. The feet are small, round, and catlike. The pads are thick and black. The nails are strong and black; any dewclaws are removed.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are strong and muscular with well-developed second thighs and the stifles well bent. The hocks are moderately straight, parallel and short from joint to ground. The feet should be the same as in the forequarters.
Coat—The coat is hard, wiry, and dense with a close-fitting thick jacket. There is a short, soft undercoat. Furnishings on muzzle, legs and quarters are dense and wiry.
Color—The jacket is black, spreading up onto the neck, down onto the tail and into the upper thighs. The legs, quarters and head are clear tan. The tan is a deep reddish color, with slightly lighter shades acceptable. A grizzle jacket is also acceptable.
Gait—The movement is straight, free and effortless, with good reach in front, strong drive behind, with feet naturally tending to converge toward a median line of travel as speed increases.
Temperament—The Welsh Terrier is a game dog—alert, aware, spirited—but at the same time, is friendly and shows self control. Intelligence and desire to please are evident in his attitude. A specimen exhibiting an overly aggressive attitude, or shyness, should be penalized.
Any deviation from the foregoing should be considered a fault; the seriousness of the fault depending upon the extent of the deviation.
Approved August 10, 1993
Effective September 29, 1993
WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIER
BY MOST NOTABLE AUTHORITIES, THE TERRIERS OF SCOTLAND—WHICH include the West Highland along with the Scottish, Cairn, Skye, and Dandie Dinmont—are branches of the same tree. The Westie’s actual origin, cloaked within the mists of the Scottish hills, may well trace to the early seventeenth century. The West Highland Terrier may be derived from those “earth-dogges” that James I sent from Argyllshire to a friend in France. Artwork of the mid-Victorian era clearly depicts breed representatives.
The Kennel Club (England) recognized the breed’s current name in November 1906. Before then, the dog was known by several names, including Roseneath Terrier, from the Duke of Argyll’s estate of the same name, and Poltalloch Terrier, after the Malcolm home. Colonel Edward Donald Malcolm (1837–1930), generally credited with developing this robust terrier, attributed this distinction to his father, John Malcolm (1805–1893), and grandfather Neill Malcolm (1769–1837). Colonel Malcolm claimed his contribution was obtaining a place for the breed on the show bench.
Under its modern name, the West Highland was first exhibited at the 1904 Scottish Kennel Club show, although classes for dogs described as “white” were held as early as 1896. The breed was first shown in the United States in 1906, under the then-current Roseneath designation. The name changed to West Highland White Terrier on May 31, 1909, and classes for the breed have been held under that name ever since.
The exact date that the first West Highland was imported is unknown, but it was probably during 1905. Initial AKC registrations fell under the Roseneath name. A bitch, Sky Lady, whelped in England in 1906, became the first of the breed to be registered as a West Highland.
The West Highland is all terrier, with large amounts of Scottish spunk, determination, and devotion crammed into a small body. They are indeed all that can be desired of a pet: faithful, understanding, and devoted, while still gay and lighthearted. Outdoors they are good hunters, exhibiting speed, cunning, and great intelligence. As the breed standard says, the true Highlander is “possessed with no small amount of self-esteem.”
One reason West Highland White Terriers are such delightful little dogs is their hardiness. They need no pampering; they love to romp and play, and they enjoy a nice walk. Since by nature Westies will run after anything that moves, the breed does best in a fenced area or on a leash.
This faithful but independent terrier can excel in a variety of canine sports and activities. Still true to their original purpose, they have the instinct to go to ground in either a natural or artificial setting. An excellent nose and boundless determination make West Highlands good trackers. Their enthusiasm, energy, and happy attitude serve them well in agility trials. Under the tutelage of a trainer using modern, inductive methods, the extremely intelligent Westie will do well in obedience competition. In addition, their small size and delight in traveling and meeting new people contribute to their successful participation in therapy-dog programs.
A Westie shown in conformation competition must be properly trained for the ring. The breed requires considerable grooming, with such skill perfected over time. The West Highland’s outer coat is hard and stiff and should be kept so by a grooming regimen that includes regular stripping of the coat and an occasional bath. For the companion-dog owner, a few minutes daily spent brushing and combing, as well as professional grooming every six to eight weeks, keeps this terrier in nice condition.
While the highly intelligent, independent, and energetic Westie is not the right dog for every person or family, with time, diligence, and patience, prospective owners can find the right puppy or adult to suit their lifestyle.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIER
General Appearance—The West Highland White Terrier is a small, game, well-balanced hardy looking terrier, exhibiting good showmanship, possessed with no small amount of self-esteem, strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, with a straight back and powerful hindquarters on muscular legs, and exhibiting in marked degree a great combination of strength and activity. The coat is about two inches long, white in color, hard, with plenty of soft undercoat. The dog should be neatly presented, the longer coat on the back and sides, trimmed to blend into the shorter neck and shoulder coat. Considerable hair is left around the head to act as a frame for the face to yield a typical Westie expression.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The ideal size is eleven inches at the withers for dogs and ten inches for bitches. A slight deviation is acceptable. The Westie is a compact dog, with good balance and substance. The body between the withers and the root of the tail is slightly shorter than the height at the withers. Short-coupled and well boned. Faults—Over or under height limits. Fine boned.
Head—Shaped to present a round appearance from the front. Should be in proportion to the body.
Expression—Piercing, inquisitive, pert. Eyes—Widely set apart, medium in size, almond shaped, dark brown in color, deep-set, sharp and intelligent. Looking from under heavy eyebrows, they give a piercing look. Eye rims are black. Faults—Small, full or light colored eyes. Ears—Small, carried tightly erect, set wide apart, on the top outer edge of the skull. They terminate in a sharp point, and must never be cropped. The hair on the ears is trimmed short and is smooth and velvety, free of fringe at the tips. Black skin pigmentation is preferred. Faults—Round-pointed, broad, large, ears set closely together, not held tightly erect, or placed too low on the side of the head.
Skull—Broad, slightly longer than the muzzle, not flat on top but slightly domed between the ears. It gradually tapers to the eyes. There is a defined stop, eyebrows are heavy. Faults—Long or narrow skull. Muzzle—Blunt, slightly shorter than the skull, powerful and gradually tapering to the nose, which is large and black. The jaws are level and powerful. Lip pigment is black. Faults—Muzzle longer than skull. Nose color other than black. Bite—The teeth are large for the size of the dog. There must be six incisor teeth between the canines of both lower and upper jaws. An occasional missing premolar is acceptable. A tight scissors bite with upper incisors slightly overlapping the lower incisors or level mouth are equally acceptable. Faults—Teeth defective or misaligned. Any incisors missing or several premolars missing. Teeth overshot or undershot.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Muscular and well set on sloping shoulders. The length of neck should be in proportion to the remainder of the dog. Faults—Neck too long or too short. Topline—Flat and level, both standing and moving. Faults—High rear, any deviation from above. Body—Compact and of good substance. Ribs deep and well arched in the upper half of rib, extending at least to the elbows, and presenting a flattish side appearance. Back ribs of considerable depth, and distance from last rib to upper thigh as short as compatible with free movement of the body. Chest very deep and extending to the elbows, with breadth in proportion to the size of the dog. Loin short, broad and strong. Faults—Back weak, either too long or too short. Barrel ribs, ribs above elbows. Tail—Relatively short, with good substance, and shaped like a carrot. When standing erect it is never extended above the top of the skull. It is covered with hard hair without feather, as straight as possible, carried gaily but not curled over the back. The tail is set on high enough so that the spine does not slope down to it. The tail is never docked. Faults—Set too low, long, thin, carried at half-mast or curled over back.
Forequarters—Angulation, Shoulders—Shoulder blades are well laid back and well knit at the backbone. The shoulder blade should attach to an upper arm of moderate length, and sufficient angle to allow for definite body overhang. Faults—Steep or loaded shoulders. Upper arm too short or too straight. Legs—Forelegs are muscular and well boned, relatively short, but with sufficient length to set the dog up so as not to be too close to the ground. The legs are reasonably straight, and thickly covered with short hard hair. They are set in under the shoulder blades with definite body overhang before them. Height from elbow to withers and elbow to ground should be approximately the same. Faults—Out at elbows, light bone, fiddle-front. Feet—Forefeet are larger than the hind ones, are round, proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded; they may properly be turned out slightly. Dewclaws may be removed. Black pigmentation is most desirable on pads of all feet and nails, although nails may lose coloration in older dogs.
Hindquarters—Angulation—Thighs are very muscular, well angulated, not set wide apart, with hock well bent, short, and parallel when viewed from the rear. Legs— Rear legs are muscular and relatively short and sinewy. Faults—Weak hocks, long hocks, lack of angulation. Cowhocks. Feet—Hind feet are smaller than front feet, and are thickly padded. Dewclaws may be removed.
Coat—Very important and seldom seen to perfection. Must be double-coated. The head is shaped by plucking the hair, to present the round appearance. The outer coat consists of straight hard white hair, about two inches long, with shorter coat on neck and shoulders, properly blended and trimmed to blend shorter areas into furnishings, which are longer on stomach and legs. The ideal coat is hard, straight and white, but a hard straight coat which may have some wheaten tipping is preferable to a white fluffy or soft coat. Furnishings may be somewhat softer and longer but should never give the appearance of fluff. Faults—Soft coat. Any silkiness or tendency to curl. Any open or single coat, or one which is too short.
Color—The color is white, as defined by the breed’s name. Faults—Any coat color other than white. Heavy wheaten color.
Gait—Free, straight and easy all around. It is a distinctive gait, not stilted, but powerful, with reach and drive. In front the leg is freely extended forward by the shoulder. When seen from the front the legs do not move square, but tend to move toward the center of gravity. The hind movement is free, strong and fairly close. The hocks are freely flexed and drawn close under the body, so that when moving off the foot the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force. Overall ability to move is usually best evaluated from the side, and topline remains level. Faults—Lack of reach in front, and/or drive behind. Stiff, stilted or too wide movement.
Temperament—Alert, gay, courageous and self-reliant, but friendly. Faults—Excess timidity or excess pugnacity.