Intelligent Choice of the Right Pet Dog (A Case Study)
GROUP II: HOUND BREEDS
THE AFGHAN HOUND WAS DISCOVERED BY THE WESTERN WORLD IN Afghanistan and surrounding regions during the nineteenth century. The first specimens of the breed were brought to England in the latter part of that century, and the earliest known pictorial representation of an unmistakable, full-coated Afghan Hound is a drawing reproduced in some copies of a volume of letters written in India in 1809 and published in London in 1813.
Of the breed’s origin and its history before then, little is known for certain. A vast amount of research, however, has turned up no basis for the once popular belief that the Afghan Hound existed in Egypt thousands of years ago, or for the theory that the breed evolved on the steppes of Asia and represents the original sighthound.
The basic structure of the dog beneath the coat is that of a relatively sturdy coursing hound of a type which might have evolved or been created from other canine types almost anytime, anywhere. The extremely fine, longhaired coat, however, is of a sort found among animals native to high altitudes, and the desired coat pattern of contrasting short hair on the foreface, back, and dorsal surface of the tail may also be related to climate.
A problem in any study of the breed is that, like so many other breeds recognized today, the Afghan Hound represents a blending of dogs of more than one type. Some sources in Afghanistan divide the breed as found there into a half-dozen or more varieties based on locality, color, and so on. Although intermediate variations undoubtedly exist, it has been more common to speak in terms of two extremes in type—the hounds of the southern and western desert regions, which tend to be relatively rangy in build, light in color, and sparse in outer coat; and the hounds of the northern mountain regions, which tend to be more compact in structure, darker in color, and more heavily coated. These and other variations represent logical adaptations to the wide diversity of climate and terrain in the area of Afghanistan.
Among other things, this diversity in the breed—plus the diversity in the Afghan people, their culture, and their country—helps explain the apparent conflicts among accounts of how the breed was utilized in its native land. Some tell of Afghan Hounds serving as guard dogs and herd dogs, which are within the capabilities of the breed as we know it. The major role of these dogs, however, was undoubtedly that of hunting. The kings of Afghanistan maintained a kennel of hunting hounds for many generations.
The breed is primarily a coursing hound, pursuing its quarry by sight and followed by the huntsman on horseback. Because these dogs tended to outdistance the horses, the Afghan Hounds hunted on their own, without direction by the huntsman, giving rise to the independence of thought and spirit still typical of the breed.
The Afghan Hound could and quite certainly was employed to hunt whatever animals the locality provided and the huntsman wanted to hunt. In the truest coursing-hound sense, they ran down game such as mountain deer, plains antelopes, and hares wherever they might be found. They could be used to bring to bay such predators as wolves, jackals, wild dogs, and snow leopards. They were also used to flush quail and partridge for the falcon or gun. And they are the equal to any terrier for dispatching marmots, greatly prized by the mountain people for their fur and flesh.
As coursing dogs Afghan Hounds excel, not so much in straightaway speed— although they have considerable—as in the ability to traverse rough terrain swiftly and sure-footedly. This requires agility in leaping and quickness in turning, plus the stamina to maintain such a strenuous chase for as long as it may take to close on the quarry.
The first recorded appearance of the Afghan Hound in the West was in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when British officers and others returning from the Indian-Afghanistan border wars brought dogs from that area back to England, some of which were exhibited at dog shows as “Afghan Hounds.” These aroused some interest but no real enthusiasm until 1907, when Captain John Barff brought from Persia via India his dog Zardin—a typey, well-coated dog with a dark mask and a great deal of style. This, English dog fanciers decided, was what an Afghan Hound should be! There was some breeding of Afghan Hounds in Great Britain at this time, and some specimens from there or Afghanistan may have reached America before World War I.
During that war, however, the breed literally disappeared in the Western world, and the start of the Afghan Hounds we have today dates to 1920, when Major and Mrs. G. Bell Murray and Miss Jean C. Manson brought to Scotland a group of Afghan Hounds they had acquired or bred during an eight-year stay in Baluchistan, today a part of Pakistan. Most of these dogs were of the “desert” type—racy, fine headed, and light in coat. Breeding from these imports, Miss Manson, the major, and others further developed the “Bell-Murray strain” throughout the 1920s.
In 1925, Mrs. Mary Amps shipped to England the first of a group of Afghan Hounds from the kennel she had maintained in Kabul. These were mainly of the “mountain” type—sturdily built, relatively short-coupled, and more or less full-coated. From these imports—the most successful of which as a show dog and sire was the English champion Sirdar of Ghazni—Mrs. Amps and others developed what is called (from her kennel name) the “Ghazni strain.”
During the 1920s, a number of Bell-Murray Afghan Hounds were exported to the United States, and when the AKC Stud Book was opened to the breed, some of these were registered, beginning in October 1926. From two of them came the first registered American-bred Afghan Hound in 1927.
The real start of the breed in this country, however, dates to the first Ghazni imports in 1931, when Zeppo Marx and his wife brought from England a bitch, Asra of Ghazni, and a dog, Westmill Omar. Asra and Omar were later acquired by Q. A. Shaw McKean’s Prides Hill kennels in Massachusetts. McKean soon added a young English champion, Badshah of Ainsdart, a bitch of pure Bell-Murray breeding. These three—Asra, Omar, and Badshah—formed the cornerstone of the breed in America.
Although the Afghan Hound was admitted to the AKC Stud Book in 1926, there was no parent club for the breed until a group of leading fanciers met at the 1937 Westminster Kennel Club show and organized what, after a reorganization the following year, became the Afghan Hound Club of America. In 1940, the club was admitted to AKC membership and held its first specialty show.
There being no parent club in 1926, the AKC had adopted a standard which was an expanded version of one then in use by an English breed club. This standard, in turn, was little more than a description of Zardin written some twenty years earlier. One of the first tasks assigned to the AHCA, therefore, was the drafting of a “clarified standard.” A new and quite original standard was drafted and approved by the AHCA membership without dissent in 1948 and adopted by the AKC later that year.
Much of the Afghan Hound’s popularity here has been generated by the breed’s spectacular qualities as a show dog. The Afghan Hound also excels in lure coursing, and although its tendency to think for itself makes for something less than perfect precision in executing set exercises and commands, the breed has also done well in obedience work.
Over and beyond their success in such fields, however, Afghan Hounds are prized and loved by their owners as companions and members of the family. With its highly individual personality and with its coat which requires regular care and grooming, it is not the breed for all would-be dog owners, but where the dog and owner combination is right, there is no animal which can equal the Afghan Hound as a pet.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AFGHAN HOUND
General Appearance—The Afghan Hound is an aristocrat, his whole appearance one of dignity and aloofness with no trace of plainness or coarseness. He has a straight front, proudly carried head, eyes gazing into the distance as if in memory of ages past. The striking characteristics of the breed—exotic, or “Eastern,” expression, long silky topknot, peculiar coat pattern, very prominent hipbones, large feet, and the impression of a somewhat exaggerated bend in the stifle due to profuse trouserings—stand out clearly, giving the Afghan Hound the appearance of what he is, a king of dogs, that has held true to tradition throughout the ages.
Head—The head is of good length, showing much refinement, the skull evenly balanced with the foreface. There is a slight prominence of the nasal bone structure causing a slightly Roman appearance, the center line running up over the foreface with little or no stop, falling away in front of the eyes so there is an absolutely clear outlook with no interference; the underjaw showing great strength, the jaws long and punishing; the mouth level, meaning that the teeth from the upper jaw and lower jaw match evenly, neither overshot nor undershot. This is a difficult mouth to breed. A scissors bite is even more punishing and can be more easily bred into a dog than a level mouth, and a dog having a scissors bite, where the lower teeth slip inside and rest against the teeth of the upper jaw, should not be penalized. The occipital bone is very prominent. The head is surmounted by a topknot of long silky hair. Ears—The ears are long, set approximately on level with outer corners of the eyes, the leather of the ear reaching nearly to the end of the dog’s nose, and covered with long silky hair. Eyes—The eyes are almond-shaped (almost triangular), never full or bulgy, and are dark in color. Nose— Nose is of good size, black in color. Faults—Coarseness; snipiness; overshot or undershot; eyes round or bulgy or light in color; exaggerated Roman nose; head not surmounted by topknot.
Neck—The neck is of good length, strong and arched, running in a curve to the shoulders which are long and sloping and well laid back. Faults—Neck too short or too thick; a ewe neck; a goose neck; a neck lacking in substance.
Body—The back line appearing practically level from the shoulders to the loin. Strong and powerful loin and slightly arched, falling away toward the stern, with the hipbones very pronounced; well ribbed and tucked up in flanks. The height at the shoulders equals the distance from the chest to the buttocks; the brisket well let down, and of medium width. Faults—Roach back, swayback, goose rump, slack loin; lack of prominence of hipbones; too much width of brisket, causing interference with elbows.
Tail—Tail set not too high on the body, having a ring, or a curve on the end; should never be curled over, or rest on the back, or be carried sideways; and should never be bushy.
Legs—Forelegs are straight and strong with great length between elbow and pastern; elbows well held in; forefeet large in both length and width; toes well arched; feet covered with long thick hair; fine in texture; pasterns long and straight; pads of feet unusually large and well down on the ground. Shoulders have plenty of angulation so that the legs are well set underneath the dog. Too much straightness of shoulder causes the dog to break down in the pasterns, and this is a serious fault. All four feet of the Afghan Hound are in line with the body, turning neither in nor out. The hind feet are broad and of good length; the toes arched, and covered with long thick hair; hindquarters powerful and well muscled, with great length between hip and hock; hocks are well let down; good angulation of both stifle and hock; slightly bowed from hock to crotch. Faults—Front or back feet thrown outward or inward; pads of feet not thick enough; or feet too small; or any other evidence of weakness in feet; weak or broken down pasterns; too straight in stifle; too long in hock.
Coat—Hindquarters, flanks, ribs, forequarters, and legs well covered with thick, silky hair, very fine in texture; ears and all four feet well feathered; from in front of the shoulders; and also backwards from the shoulders along the saddle from the flanks and the ribs upwards, the hair is short and close, forming a smooth back in mature dogs— this is a traditional characteristic of the Afghan Hound. The Afghan Hound should be shown in its natural state; the coat is not clipped or trimmed; the head is surmounted (in the full sense of the word) with a topknot of long, silky hair—that is also an outstanding characteristic of the Afghan Hound. Showing of short hair on cuffs on either front or back legs is permissible. Fault—Lack of shorthaired saddle in mature dogs.
Height—Dogs, 27 inches, plus or minus one inch; bitches, 25 inches, plus or minus one inch.
Weight—Dogs, about 60 pounds; bitches, about 50 pounds.
Color—All colors are permissible, but color or color combinations are pleasing; white markings, especially on the head, are undesirable.
Gait—When running free, the Afghan Hound moves at a gallop, showing great elasticity and spring in his smooth, powerful stride. When on a loose lead, the Afghan can trot at a fast pace; stepping along, he has the appearance of placing the hind feet directly in the footprints of the front feet, both thrown straight ahead. Moving with head and tail high, the whole appearance of the Afghan Hound is one of great style and beauty.
Temperament—Aloof and dignified, yet gay. Faults—Sharpness or shyness.
Approved September 14, 1948
THE BASENJI, POPULARLY KNOWN AS THE “BARKLESS DOG,” IS ONE OF THE oldest breeds. The first specimens were brought from the source of the Nile as presents to the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Later, when the civilization of Egypt declined and fell, the Basenji lapsed into obscurity. It was, however, still valued and preserved in its native Central Africa, where it was highly prized for its intelligence, speed, hunting power, and silence.
Centuries later an English explorer rediscovered the Basenji and a pair were brought to England in 1895. Unfortunately, these little dogs contracted distemper and shortly thereafter died. Aside from that abortive attempt to make the breed known, the “outside” world in general did not hear of the Basenji until 1937, when it was successfully introduced to England. At the same time, a pair were brought to America by Mrs. Byron Rogers, of New York City. Unfortunately for America, this pair and a litter of puppies produced from mating these specimens contracted distemper. All died except the older male dog, Bois.
In 1941 a young female Basenji was brought from Africa to Boston; Alexander Phemister, of Kingston, Massachusetts, obtained her and shortly afterward also acquired Bois. The young female, Congo, and Bois, both African-bred, were mated, resulting in the first litter of Basenji puppies to be raised to maturity in America. Later, other Basenjis were imported from the Canadian kennels of Dr. A.R.B. Richmond, and still others were brought over from England.
Dog lovers all over the country became interested in this breed—so old, yet so new in America—and later purchased young specimens as foundation breeding stock. The Basenji Club of America was formed in 1942 and accepted the breed standard as drawn up by the Basenji Club of England. In 1943, the American Kennel Club accepted the breed for registration in the AKC Stud Book, and approved the standard. Within a few months, there were 59 Basenjis registered. Several dedicated Basenji breeders went to the Congo/Zaire in 1987 and 1988 and brought back new stock, with the goal of increasing the very limited gene pool.
The Basenji is about the size and build of a Fox Terrier. The first impression one gets of a Basenji is that he is a proud little dog, and then one is impressed with his beauty, grace, and intelligence. In fact, he has often been compared to a little deer.
The coat of the Basenji is one of his most beautiful features. Appropriate to its native tropical climate, the coat is short and fine and shines in the sun. In colder countries the coat tends to become more coarse, but it never loses its brilliant luster. Other distinctive features include the lack of bark; the forehead deeply furrowed with wrinkles; the prick ears; the dark, intelligent, far-seeing eyes; and the tail curled forward to one side.
The Basenji’s intelligence and courage stands proven by his use in his native habitat. The natives use him for pointing, retrieving, for driving game into nets, and for hunting wounded quarry. He is also used for hunting the reed rats—vicious long-toothed creatures weighing from 12 to 20 pounds—and here his silence is a particularly valuable asset.
Those in America as well as England, Europe, and Australia who have had the opportunity to know the little Basenji have found him to be an interesting companion. He is a fascinating and endearing fellow, full of play, curious and active. His fastidious, dainty habits, such as cleaning himself all over as does a cat and his lack of doggy odor, are assets in a house dog.
The Basenji’s distinctive sound of happiness fairly thrills one, yet it is a sound hard to describe. It is somewhere between a chortle and a yodel. He is usually very happy when he makes it and one can’t help but share the happiness with him.
For uncounted thousands of years the Basenji survived as a hunting dog. Great importance must have been given to intelligence and adaptability, for the dogs often worked out of sight of the hunters. At times the Basenji can still be quite independent and aloof. It is alert and careful with strangers, open and calm with friends, loving and solicitous with children. When meeting strangers, Basenjis prefer to make the first overtures and should not be approached from behind. Although not high-strung, the Basenji should be an alert, active, curious dog.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BASENJI
General Appearance—The Basenji is a small, short haired hunting dog from Africa. It is short backed and lightly built, appearing high on the leg compared to its length. The wrinkled head is proudly carried on a well arched neck and the tail is set high and curled. Elegant and graceful, the whole demeanor is one of poise and inquiring alertness. The balanced structure and the smooth musculature enables it to move with ease and agility. The Basenji hunts by both sight and scent. Characteristics—The Basenji should not bark but is not mute. The wrinkled forehead, tightly curled tail and swift, effortless gait (resembling a racehorse trotting full out) are typical of the breed. Faults—Any departure from the following points must be considered a fault, and the seriousness with which the fault is regarded is to be in exact proportion to its degree.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Ideal height for dogs is 17 inches and bitches 16 inches. Dogs 17 inches and bitches 16 inches from front of chest to point of buttocks. Approximate weight for dogs, 24 pounds and bitches, 22 pounds. Lightly built within this height to weight ratio.
Head—The head is proudly carried. Eyes—Dark hazel to dark brown, almond shaped, obliquely set and farseeing, rims dark. Ears—Small, erect and slightly hooded, of fine texture and set well forward on top of head. The skull is flat, well chiseled and of medium width, tapering toward the eyes. The foreface tapers from eye to muzzle with a perceptible stop. Muzzle shorter than skull, neither coarse nor snipy, but with rounded cushions. Wrinkles appear upon the forehead when ears are erect, and are fine and profuse. Side wrinkles are desirable, but should never be exaggerated into dewlap. Wrinkles are most noticeable in puppies, and because of lack of shadowing, less noticeable in blacks, tricolors and brindles. Nose—Black greatly desired. Teeth—Evenly aligned with a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck of good length, well crested and slightly full at base of throat. Well set into shoulders. Topline—Back level. Body—Balanced with a short back, short coupled and ending in a definite waist. Ribs moderately sprung, deep to elbows and oval. Slight forechest in front of point of shoulder. Chest of medium width. Tailis set high on topline, bends acutely forward and lies well curled over to either side.
Forequarters—Shoulders moderately laid back. Shoulder blade and upper arm of approximately equal length. Elbows tucked firmly against brisket. Legs straight with clean fine bone, long forearm and well defined sinews. Pasterns of good length, strong and flexible. Feet—Small, oval and compact with thick pads and well arched toes. Dewclaws are usually removed.
Hindquarters—Medium width, strong and muscular, hocks well let down and turned neither in nor out, with long second thighs and moderately bent stifles. Feet—Same as in “Forequarters.”
Coat and Color—Coat short and fine. Skin very pliant.
Color—Chestnut red; pure black; tricolor (pure black and chestnut red); or brindle (black stripes on a background of chestnut red); all with white feet, chest and tail tip. White legs, blaze and collar optional. The amount of white should never predominate over primary color. Color and markings should be rich, clear and well-defined, with a distinct line of demarcation between the black and red of tricolors and the stripes of brindles.
Gait—Swift, tireless trot. Stride is long, smooth, effortless and the topline remains level. Coming and going, the straight column of bones from shoulder joint to foot and from hip joint to pad remains unbroken, converging toward the centerline under the body. The faster the trot, the greater the convergence.
Temperament—An intelligent, independent, but affectionate and alert breed. Can be aloof with strangers.
Approved May 8, 1990
Effective June 28, 1990
SINCE THE 1950S THE BASSET HOUND HAS EMERGED FROM RELATIVE OBSCURITY to become one of the most publicized and characterized breeds. Actually, the Basset Hound is an old, aristocratic breed. Originally of French lineage, it has flourished for centuries in Europe, primarily in France and Belgium, where it was used chiefly for the slow trailing of rabbits, hares, deer, and any other game that can be trailed on foot or taken to ground.
The foremost use of the Basset Hound in the United States is for the hunting of rabbits, but it is possible to train them for hunting other game such as raccoons and for the trailing, flushing, and retrieving of wounded pheasants and other game birds. The Basset is a sturdy, accurate trailer; his tongue is loud and distinctive. The shortness of his legs and his tight, close coat makes him particularly useful in dense cover. In trailing ability, the accuracy of his nose makes him second only to the Bloodhound. His slow-going ways and appealing, clownish appearance belie great intelligence.
Gentle in disposition, the Basset is agreeable to hunting in packs as well as singly. Medium as to size, loyal and devoted to his master and family, not requiring extensive coat care or trimming, considered an “easy keeper”—these attributes make the Basset an ideal family pet and housedog.
The first mention of the word basset as applied to a breed of dog appears to have been in an early text on hunting written by Fouilloux in 1585. This book is illustrated with what is considered the first drawing of a Basset, a woodcut showing a sportsman going out in his charette de chasse accompanied by his “badger dog,” and Fouilloux gives advice on training the dogs for the purpose of badger hunting.
It is thought that the friars of the French Abbey of St. Hubert were instrumental in selective breeding from various other strains of French hounds to produce a lower-set, hence slower-moving dog that could be followed on foot. The word basset, derived from the French adjective bas, means a “low thing” or “dwarf.” Since hunting was a royal pastime in medieval France, it is not surprising that many of the thoroughly efficient small hounds found their way into the kennels of the aristocracy, only to be dispersed with the changing lifestyle brought on by the Revolution. But the breed was not lost, and we find them mentioned again by M. Blaze in his 1850 sporting book Le Chasseur. About the same time, in his book Chiens de Chasse, M. Robert wrote: “The Basset will hunt all animals, even boar and wolf, but he is especially excellent for the chasse à tir (shooting with the aid of hounds) of rabbits and hares.”
By the mid-nineteenth century, the two largest breeders of Bassets in France were producing dogs of slightly different type, especially in head and eye, the two types being identified by the names of their respective breeders. M. Lane’s hounds were broader of skull and shorter of ear, with a rounder and more prominent eye. They were generally lemon and white in marking and had a tendency to knuckling. Count Le Couteulx produced hounds that had more narrow heads, more doming in topskull, a softer, more sunken eye, with prominent jaw and a down-faced look that created more facial expression. The more glamorous tricolors of the Le Couteulx hounds made them preferred.
In 1866, Lord Galway imported a pair of French Bassets of the Le Couteulx type to England. The following year a mating of these two produced a litter of five pups, but as there was no public exposure of them, no interest in the breed was stirred. It was not until 1874, when Sir Everett Millais imported from France the hound Model, that real activity with the breed began in England. For his support of the breed and continued drive on a breeding program within his own kennel as well as cooperation with breeding programs established by Lord Onslow and George Krehl, Millais has to be considered the “father of the breed” in England. He first exhibited a Basset at an English dog show in 1875, but it was not until he helped make up a large entry for the Wolverhampton show in 1880 that a great deal of public attention was drawn to the breed. A few years later, further interest was created when Queen Alexandra kept Basset Hounds in the royal kennels.
In the United States, it is thought that George Washington was the owner of Basset Hounds presented to him as a gift by the Marquis de Lafayette after the American Revolution. In 1883 and 1884, English importations were made by American fanciers of the breed. In 1884, Westminster Kennel Club held a class for the Basset Hound and the English import Nemours made his debut before the American public. After subsequent entries at Eastern shows, he completed his championship at Boston in 1886. The American Kennel Club registered its first Basset Hounds in 1885.
Gradually the breed began to find favor. By the 1920s, Gerald Livingston was making multiple importations for his Kilsyth Kennels on Long Island. About the same time, Erastus Tefft brought over to his kennels a number of English Bassets, drawing heavily from the Walhampton Pack. Carl Smith imported two French Bassets, one a French champion. Bassets were being seen regularly at larger shows.
Further attention was drawn to the breed when the February 27, 1928, cover of Time magazine carried the picture of a Basset puppy. The accompanying story was a write-up of the 52nd annual Westminster show at Madison Square Garden as if it were attended and observed by the puppy.
In 1935, a national parent breed club was organized in the United States, the Basset Hound Club of America. The club holds annual national shows that bring together the various fields of activity for this capable breed: conformation, field trialing, pack hunting, obedience, and tracking.
By the 1950s, the Basset Hound was synonymous with TV’s “Cleo” to Americans, and in England cartoonist Alex Graham’s “Fred Basset” was an almost human Everyman. But the dependable and multipurpose qualities of the breed can never be completely obscured behind a droll facade.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BASSET HOUND
General Appearance—The Basset Hound possesses in marked degree those characteristics which equip it admirably to follow a trail over and through difficult terrain. It is a short-legged dog, heavier in bone, size considered, than any other breed of dog, and while its movement is deliberate, it is in no sense clumsy. In temperament it is mild, never sharp or timid. It is capable of great endurance in the field and is extreme in its devotion.
Head—The head is large and well proportioned. Its length from occiput to muzzle is greater than the width at the brow. In overall appearance the head is of medium width. The skullis well domed, showing a pronounced occipital protuberance. A broad flat skull is a fault. The length from nose to stop is approximately the length from stop to occiput. The sides are flat and free from cheek bumps. Viewed in profile the top lines of the muzzle and skull are straight and lie in parallel planes, with a moderately defined stop. The skin over the whole of the head is loose, falling in distinct wrinkles over the brow when the head is lowered. A dry head and tight skin are faults. The muzzleis deep, heavy, and free from snipiness. The noseis darkly pigmented, preferably black, with large wide-open nostrils. A deep liver-colored nose conforming to the coloring of the head is permissible but not desirable. The teethare large, sound, and regular, meeting in either a scissors or an even bite. A bite either overshot or undershot is a serious fault. The lipsare darkly pigmented and are pendulous, falling squarely in front and, toward the back, in loose hanging flews. The dewlapis very pronounced. The neckis powerful, of good length, and well arched. The eyes are soft, sad, and slightly sunken, showing a prominent haw, and in color are brown, dark brown preferred. A somewhat lighter-colored eye conforming to the general coloring of the dog is acceptable but not desirable. Very light or protruding eyes are faults. The earsare extremely long, low set, and when drawn forward, fold well over the end of the nose. They are velvety in texture, hanging in loose folds with the ends curling slightly inward. They are set far back on the head at the base of the skull and, in repose, appear to be set on the neck. A high set or flat ear is a serious fault.
Forequarters—The chestis deep and full with prominent sternum showing clearly in front of the legs. The shouldersand elbows are set close against the sides of the chest. The distance from the deepest point of the chest to the ground, while it must be adequate to allow free movement when working in the field, is not to be more than one-third the total height at the withers of an adult Basset. The shoulders are well laid back and powerful. Steepness in shoulder, fiddle fronts, and elbows that are out, are serious faults. The forelegsare short, powerful, heavy in bone, with wrinkled skin. Knuckling over of the front legs is a disqualification. The paw is massive, very heavy with tough heavy pads, well rounded and with both feet inclined equally a trifle outward, balancing the width of the shoulders. Feet down at the pastern are a serious fault. The toes are neither pinched together nor splayed, with the weight of the forepart of the body borne evenly on each. The dewclaws may be removed.
Body—The rib structure is long, smooth, and extends well back. The ribs are well sprung, allowing adequate room for heart and lungs. Flatsidedness and flanged ribs are faults. The topline is straight, level, and free from any tendency to sag or roach, which are faults.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are very full and well rounded, and are approximately equal to the shoulders in width. They must not appear slack or light in relation to the overall depth of the body. The dog stands firmly on its hind legs showing a well-let-down stifle with no tendency toward a crouching stance. Viewed from behind, the hind legs are parallel, with the hocks turning neither in nor out. Cowhocks or bowed legs are serious faults. The hind feet point straight ahead. Steep, poorly angulated hindquarters are a serious fault. The dewclaws, if any, may be removed.
Tail—The tail is not to be docked, and is set in continuation of the spine with but slight curvature, and carried gaily in hound fashion. The hair on the underside of the tail is coarse.
Size—The height should not exceed 14 inches. Height over 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade is a disqualification.
Gait—The Basset Hound moves in a smooth, powerful, and effortless manner. Being a scenting dog with short legs, it holds its nose low to the ground. Its gait is absolutely true with perfect coordination between the front and hind legs, and it moves in a straight line with hind feet following in line with the front feet, the hocks well bent with no stiffness of action. The front legs do not paddle, weave, or overlap, and the elbows must lie close to the body. Going away, the hind legs are parallel.
Coat—The coat is hard, smooth, and short, with sufficient density to be of use in all weather. The skin is loose and elastic. A distinctly long coat is a disqualification.
Color—Any recognized hound color is acceptable and the distribution of color and markings is of no importance.
Height of more than 15 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade.
Knuckled over front legs.
Distinctly long coat.
Approved January 14, 1964
THE ORIGIN OF THE BEAGLE IS LOST IN THE MISTS OF ANCIENT DAYS AND NO research, it seems, can ever bring its true history to light. Several well-known beaglers have written their opinions on the origin of the breed, and the following remarks are by Captain J. Otho Paget, of Melton Mowbray, England, who was, perhaps, the dean of all beaglers.
According to Xenophon there were hounds that hunted by scent in his day and the Romans acquired many of the sports of ancient Greece. There were, however, in England, packs of hounds before the time of the Romans and it is on record that Pwyll, Prince of Wales, a contemporary of King Arthur, had a special breed of white hounds of great excellence. Wales, to this day is still celebrated for its hounds, generally of a light color. Admirers of shooting dogs, setters, spaniels and other kinds, have asserted that these animals were used in building up the hound. By exercise of a little thought it will seem that this must be wrong and that in fact it is the other way about. The hound was the original progenitor of all sporting dogs, and the two distinct breeds would be the “Gaze” or “Greyhound” that hunted by sight alone, and the hound, probably the Bloodhound, that relied entirely on its nose. By the time of good Queen Bess, nearly every country gentleman in England kept a pack of hounds of some sort and hunted the animal of his choice. The fox was not at that time an honored beast of the chase. Hounds in those days seem to have been divided into two classes, the large and the small. The large sort were called “Buck Hounds” and hunted the deer, and the smaller variety were called “Beagles” from the French “Begle” and were hunted on hare.
Coming down to the middle of the eighteenth century, we find fox hunting popular with the younger generations, who wanted something quicker and more exhilarating than watching hounds puzzling out the intricate windings of a hare. The Foxhound was undoubtedly evolved from a mixture of Buck Hound and Beagle. By this time the vagaries of breeders had produced two distinct types of hare-hunting hounds, one of which was called the Southern Hound and the other the North Country Beagle. The former was slow and ponderous, with long ears and deep voice, while the other was the exact opposite. According to a writer of that day the North Country Beagle was nimble and vigorous and did his business as furiously “as Jehu himself could wish him.”
At mid-nineteenth century, Parson Honeywood got together a good pack and showed some excellent sport in Essex. His pack marks the beginning of the modern Beagle, and nearly every well-known pack of subsequent date owed its origin to that inheritance. We can accept it as true that the Beagle is one of the oldest breeds in history and, with the Bloodhound and perhaps the Otterhound, closest to the original breed of hounds.
In the United States little hunting hounds called Beagles were popular in the antebellum South, but they were more of the type of straight-legged Bassets or Dachshunds with weaker heads than the Basset. They were mostly white with few dark markings and were said to be snappy, tireless hunters, full of vim and quick at a turn, but not handsome in outline. The importations of General Richard Rowett, of Carlinsville, Illinois, in the 1860s are the turning point in the history of the American strain, or strains, of Beagle. They brought to this country an acquisition of canine beauty little thought of by the huntsman. From what packs in England General Rowett obtained his hounds is not known.
About 1880, Mr. Arnold, of Providence, Rhode Island, imported a pack from the Royal Rock Beagles in the North of England, and this also had a good deal of influence on the development of American Beagles. In 1896, James L. Kernochan imported a pack from England. From then on a great many high-class hounds were brought over.
In 1888, the National Beagle Club was formed and held the first field trial. From that time on field trials carrying championship points sprang up all over the United States, and as many more clubs were sanctioned to hold informal trials. At all these, packs are run in single classes for hounds 13 to 15 inches in height and classes for those under 13 inches, and at the national trials the pack classes are an important feature. There are single classes, called derbies, for young hounds and all-age classes for large and small dogs and bitches. At the national there are, in addition to these single classes, four pack classes which, of course, cannot be run against each other at the same time, as are the hounds in the single classes. Each pack is hunted separately and scored by the judges.
In addition to the regular all-breed AKC shows, almost all the field-trial clubs conduct specialty shows in connection with their events, and in addition to this again, there are hound shows limited to the various breeds of hounds.
Those who are interested in hunting Beagles as a pack generally enjoy hunting the larger hares, rather than cottontail rabbits. Hares do not go to ground and spoil a hunt, and they give much longer, straighter, and faster runs. The white hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is found in northern swamps and provides excellent sport for a pack, but these hares will not do well when imported to other communities and disappear immediately.
There are thousands of people all over the United States who keep a few Beagles and hunt them individually. In addition, there are many packs recorded with the National Beagle Club. They are all hunted in the legitimate manner with a regular hunt staff, in hunt liveries, with their own distinctive colored collar and accessories.
The height limit of a Beagle in the United States is 15 inches and in England 16 inches. Hounds above this height cannot be entered in field trials or shows.
The soft brown eyes of the Beagle betray his warm personality but do not instantly reveal his admirable courage and stamina. The latter qualities are especially important while the Beagle is at work in the field, but in the home no gentler, more trustworthy friend could be found.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BEAGLE
Head—The skull should be fairly long, slightly domed at occiput, with cranium broad and full. Ears—Ears set on moderately low, long, reaching when drawn out nearly, if not quite, to the end of the nose; fine in texture, fairly broad—with almost entire absence of erectile power—setting close to the head, with the forward edge slightly inturning to the cheek—rounded at tip. Eyes—Eyes large, set well apart—soft and houndlike—expression gentle and pleading; of a brown or hazel color. Muzzle— Muzzle of medium length—straight and square-cut—the stop moderately defined. Jaws—Level. Lips free from flews; nostrils large and open. Defects—A very flat skull, narrow across the top; excess of dome, eyes small, sharp and terrier-like, or prominent and protruding; muzzle long, snipy or cut away decidedly below the eyes, or very short. Roman-nosed, or upturned, giving a dish-face expression. Ears short, set on high or with a tendency to rise above the point of origin.
Body—NeckandThroat—Neck rising free and light from the shoulders strong in substance yet not loaded, of medium length. The throat clean and free from folds of skin; a slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, may be allowable. Defects— A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed “throatiness.”
Shoulders and Chest—Shoulders sloping—clean, muscular, not heavy or loaded—conveying the idea of freedom of action with activity and strength. Chest deep and broad, but not broad enough to interfere with the free play of the shoulders. Defects—Straight, upright shoulders. Chest disproportionately wide or with lack of depth.
Back, Loin and Ribs—Back short, muscular and strong. Loin broad and slightly arched, and the ribs well sprung, giving abundance of lung room. Defects—Very long or swayed or roached back. Flat, narrow loin. Flat ribs.
Forelegs and Feet—Forelegs—Straight, with plenty of bone in proportion to size of the hound. Pasterns short and straight. Feet—Close, round and firm. Pad full and hard. Defects—Out at elbows. Knees knuckled over forward, or bent backward. Forelegs crooked or Dachshund like. Feet long, open or spreading.
Hips, Thighs, Hind Legs and Feet—Hips and thighs strong and well muscled, giving abundance of propelling power. Stifles strong and well let down. Hocks firm, symmetrical and moderately bent. Feet close and firm. Defects—Cowhocks, or straight hocks. Lack of muscle and propelling power. Open feet.
Tail—Set moderately high; carried gaily, but not turned forward over the back; with slight curve; short as compared with size of the hound; with brush. Defects—A long tail. Teapot curve or inclined forward from the root. Rat tail with absence of brush.
Coat—A close, hard, hound coat of medium length. Defects—A short, thin coat, or of a soft quality.
Color—Any true hound color.
General Appearance—A miniature Foxhound, solid and big for his inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the hound that can last in the chase and follow his quarry to the death.
SCALE OF POINTS
Varieties—There shall be two varieties:
Thirteen Inch—Which shall be for hounds not exceeding 13 inches in height.
Fifteen Inch—Which shall be for hounds over 13 but not exceeding 15 inches in height.
Any hound measuring more than 15 inches shall be disqualified.
PACKS OF BEAGLESSCORE OF POINTS FOR JUDGING
Levelness of Pack—The first thing in a pack to be considered is that they present a unified appearance. The hounds must be as near to the same height, weight, conformation and color as possible.
Individual Merit of the Hounds—Is the individual bench-show quality of the hounds. A very level and sporty pack can be gotten together and not a single hound be a good Beagle. This is to be avoided.
Manners—The hounds must all work gaily and cheerfully, with flags up— obeying all commands cheerfully. They should be broken to heel up, kennel up, follow promptly and stand. Cringing, sulking, lying down to be avoided. Also, a pack must not work as though in terror of master and whips. In Beagle packs it is recommended that the whip be used as little as possible.
Appointments—Master and whips should be dressed alike, the master or huntsman to carry horn—the whips and master to carry light thong whips. One whip should carry extra couplings on shoulder strap.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SHOW LIVERY
Black velvet cap, white stock, green coat, white breeches or knickerbockers, green or blackstockings, white spats, black or dark brown shoes. Vest and gloves optional. Ladies should turn outexactly the same except for a white skirt instead of white breeches.
Approved September 10, 1957
BLACK AND TAN COONHOUND
THE BLACK AND TAN COONHOUND IS ONE OF THE FEW TRULY AMERICAN breeds. It was developed in the Deep South by hunters who blended the unique traits of several early hound breeds.
While wealthy landowners were conducting organized fox hunts with imported pedigreed hounds, settlers were developing their own trailing hounds for the purpose of putting meat on the table and running off varmints that threatened crops and livestock. These pioneers were more concerned with performance than appearance. Nevertheless, a distinct type of hound emerged from crosses among various lines of accomplished hunting dogs. Dedicated hunters developed a medium-sized hound capable of independently locating and tracking its own prey, following cold trails for long distances when necessary—with joyful, beautiful voices all during the chase. Combining powerful scenting ability with great stamina and fierce desire to hunt, today’s Black and Tan has been used across North America on many types of game, including raccoons, bobcat, cougar, deer, elk, wild boar, and even bear. The breed works equally well whether hunting alone or with a pack, on open level ground or in the most rugged terrain.
The Black and Tan once again demonstrated its exceptional versatility as rural hunting areas have given way to urban development in recent years. Always a devoted companion and family dog, in many instances this breed has adapted remarkably well to city life and become a willing participant in all aspects of human activity. From jogging companion to camping buddy, vocal watchdog to tender babysitter, marathon runner to couch potato, the Coonhound is most content when included in the family’s daily routine.
As good a pet as a Black and Tan can be, his keen hunting instinct warrants special consideration. As a rule, all exercise must be either on lead or in a securely fenced area. Even the best-trained hound can give in to the irresistible urge to chase an errant cat, squirrel, or deer—a chase that can go for miles or lead into the path of a car. The Black and Tan’s bugling call is music to the hunter but can be quite a disturbance in a residential neighborhood.
In 1945, the Black and Tan became the first coonhound breed fully recognized by the American Kennel Club. Since then, the breed has proven to be a worthy competitor in all types of AKC events. In the conformation ring, numerous Black and Tans have been successful at the highest levels, receiving Hound Group and Best in Show awards. The breed’s willingness to please has led to success in the obedience ring. The Companion Dog title is quite attainable, and advanced titles are routinely earned by hounds and dedicated owners. Exceptional scenting ability makes tracking tests a natural venue for these hounds, although they can be distracted when the track crosses a path left by small furry game. Coonhounds are enthusiastic participants in agility and rally, enjoying the opportunity to work as a team with their owners.
The Black and Tan is exceptionally tolerant of children but is equally happy as the only family pet or one of several. Aside from routine attention to teeth, nails, and ears, there is little special grooming required other than bathing. A Black and Tan Coonhound’s combination of independent spirit and loyal dedication can make him an ideal addition to a household that appreciates these qualities.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BLACK AND TAN COONHOUND
General Appearance—The Black and Tan Coonhound is first and fundamentally a working dog, a trail and tree hound, capable of withstanding the rigors of winter, the heat of summer, and the difficult terrain over which he is called upon to work. Used principally for trailing and treeing raccoon, the Black and Tan Coonhound runs his game entirely by scent. The characteristics and courage of the Coonhound also make him proficient on the hunt for deer, bear, mountain lion and other big game. Judges are asked by the club sponsoring the breed to place great emphasis upon these facts when evaluating the merits of the dog. The general impression is that of power, agility and alertness. He immediately impresses one with his ability to cover the ground with powerful rhythmic strides.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Sizemeasured at the shoulder—males 25 to 27 inches; females 23 to 25 inches. Oversized dogs should not be penalized when general soundness and proportion are in favor. Penalize undersize. Proportion—Measured from the point of shoulder to the buttocks and from withers to ground the length of body is equal to or slightly greater than the height of the dog at the withers. Height is in proportion to general conformation so that dog appears neither leggy nor close to the ground. Substance—Considering their job as a hunting dog, the individual should exhibit moderate bone and good muscle tone. Males are heavier in bone and muscle tone than females.
Head—The head is cleanly modeled. From the back of the skull to the nose the head measures from 9 to 10 inches in males and from 8 to 9 inches in females. Expressionis alert, friendly and eager. The skin is devoid of folds. Nostrils well open and always black. The flews are well developed with typical hound appearance. Penalize excessive wrinkles. Eyesare from hazel to dark brown in color, almost round and not deeply set. Penalize yellow or light eyes. Earsare low set and well back. They hang in graceful folds, giving the dog a majestic appearance. In length they extend naturally well beyond the tip of the nose and are set at eye level or lower. Penalize ears that do not reach the tip of the nose and are set too high on the head. Skulltends toward oval outline. Medium stop occurring midway between occiput bone and nose. Viewed from profile the line of the skull is on a practically parallel plane to the foreface or muzzle. Teethfit evenly with scissors bite. Penalize excessive deviation from scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is muscular, sloping, medium length. The skin is devoid of excess dewlap. The back is level, powerful and strong. The dog possesses full, round, well sprung ribs, avoiding flatsidedness. Chest reaches at least to the elbows. The tailis strong, with base slightly below level of backline, carried free and when in action at approximately right angle to back.
Forequarters—Powerfully constructed shoulders. The forelegs are straight, with elbows turning neither in nor out; pasterns strong and erect. Feetare compact, with well knuckled, strongly arched toes and thick, strong pads. Penalize flat or splayed feet.
Hindquarters—Quarters are well boned and muscled. From hip to hock long and sinewy, hock to pad short and strong. Stifles and hocks well bent and not inclining either in or out. When standing on a level surface, the hind feet are set back from under the body and the leg from pad to hock is at right angles to the ground. Fault—Rear dewclaws.
Coat—The coat is short but dense to withstand rough going.
Color—As the name implies, the color is coal black with rich tan markings above eyes, on sides of muzzle, chest, legs and breeching, with black pencil markings on toes. Penalize lack of rich tan markings, excessive areas of tan markings, excessive black coloration. Faults— White on chest or other parts of body is highly undesirable, and a solid patch of white which extends more than one inch in any direction is a disqualification.
Gait—When viewed from the side, the stride of the Black and Tan Coonhound is easy and graceful with plenty of reach in front and drive behind. When viewed from the front the forelegs, which are in line with the width of the body, move forward in an effortless manner, but never cross. Viewed from the rear the hocks follow on a line with the forelegs, being neither too widely nor too closely spaced, and as the speed of the trot increases the feet tend to converge toward a centerline or single track indicating soundness, balance and stamina. When in action, his head and tail carriage is proud and alert; the topline remains level.
Temperament—Even temperament, outgoing and friendly. As a working scent hound, must be able to work in close contact with other hounds. Some may be reserved but never shy or vicious. Aggression toward people or other dogs is most undesirable.
Note—Inasmuch as this is a hunting breed, scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered faults.
A solid patch of white which extends more than one inch in any direction.
Approved December 11, 1990
Effective January 30, 1991
WHEN CLAUDIUS AELIANUS, OR AELIAN, WROTE HIS FAMOUS HISTORIA Animalium in the third century A.D., he mentioned in especially glowing terms a hound unrivaled for scenting powers, possessed of such great determination that he would not leave the trail until he had his quarry. Thus the early Italian scholar gives us a picture of the dog known today as the Bloodhound, a breed improved considerably in appearance but which still retains its peculiarly intensified ability to follow the faintest scent.
There is little known of Bloodhound origins, but some authorities say the breed was known throughout the ancient Mediterranean. It is the oldest race of hounds that hunt by scent, indicating, of course, that selective breeding over many centuries has made it outwardly changed from the breed the ancients extolled. Yet, its characteristics are so distinctive that cynologists can trace it through the centuries.
The Bloodhound made its appearance in Europe long before the Crusades, the first specimens being brought from Constantinople. There were two strains, black and white. The blacks were the famed St. Huberts of the eighth century, while the whites later became known as the Southern Hounds. It was from the black stock that importations were made to England. Both varieties have played big parts in the development of other hounds and hound-type dogs.
In the twelfth century, when even bishops rode to hounds, dignitaries of the church were among the foremost in fostering the development of the Bloodhound. A number of high ecclesiastics maintained packs, and the kennel was an important part of every monastery. To them goes a great deal of the credit for keeping the strain clean. In fact, so much care was taken in the breeding of this hound that it came to be called the “blooded hound,” meaning aristocratic.
Nearly four centuries later that noted English physician and dog lover John Caius gives us a different explanation of the name, but his description is interesting:
. . . The larger class remain to be mentioned; these too have drooping lips and ears, and it is well known that they follow their prey not only while alive but also after death when they have caught the scent of blood. For whether the beasts are wounded alive and slip out of the hunter’s hands, or are taken dead out of the warren (but with a profusion of blood in either case), these hounds perceive it at once by smell and follow the trail. For that reason they are properly called Sanguinaraii.
Frequently, however, an animal is stolen, and owing to the cleverness of thieves there is no effusion of blood; but even so they are clever enough to follow dry human footsteps for a huge distance, and can pick a man out of a crowd however large, pressing on through the densest thickets, and they will still go on even though they have to swim across a river. When they arrive at the opposite bank, by a circular movement, they find out which way a man has gone, even if at first they do not hit on the track of the thief.
The purebred Bloodhound is one of the most docile of all breeds. His trailing is more for his own sport than for anything else. Unlike the police-trained dog, he does not apprehend the man he is trailing. The Bloodhound’s task ends once he has followed the trail to its termination. But so accurate is he in following a trail that his evidence has been accepted in a court of law.
Some of the great Bloodhounds of the United States have brought about more convictions for police departments than the best human detectives. One dog was credited with more than 600 actual convictions. The famous hound Nick Carter (b. 1899) picked up a trail that was 105 hours old and followed it to a subsequent conviction. This record has since been more than doubled. Owners have proven that a good Bloodhound can be a show champion and a working man-trailer, and the law officers of the National Police Bloodhound Association and volunteer search-and-rescue clubs throughout the country utilize him in his traditional work. The breed’s stamina and determination are apparent in the great distances it will travel. Several specimens have followed human quarry for more than 50 miles, and one led the detectives 138 miles—all with success.
In obedience, Bloodhounds are quick to learn but may prove obstinate unless taught to enjoy this type of work. Many have earned their Companion Dog degrees, and a few have gone on to Companion Dog Excellent and Utility.
Bloodhounds have been exhibited in the United States almost from the beginning of organized dog shows in America. The American Bloodhound Club, a national breed organization, enables fanciers to conduct specialty shows nationwide.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BLOODHOUND
General Character—The Bloodhound possesses, in a most marked degree, every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by scent (Sagaces). He is very powerful, and stands over more ground than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds.
Height—The mean average height of adult dogs is 26 inches, and of adult bitches 24 inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches, and bitches from 23 inches to 25 inches; but, in either case, the greater height is to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also combined.
Weight—The mean average weight of adult dogs, in fair condition, is 90 pounds, and of adult bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain the weight of 110 pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights are to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) that quality and proportion are also combined.
Expression—The expression is noble and dignified, and characterized by solemnity, wisdom and power.
Temperament—In temperament he is extremely affectionate, neither quarrelsome with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his master.
Head—The head is narrow in proportion to its length, and long in proportion to the body, tapering but slightly from the temples to the end of the muzzle, thus (when viewed from above and in front) having the appearance of being flattened at the sides and of being nearly equal in width throughout its entire length. In profile the upper outline of the skull is nearly in the same plane as that of the foreface. The length from end of nose to stop (midway between the eyes) should be not less than that from stop to back of occipital protuberance (peak). The entire length of head from the posterior part of the occipital protuberance to the end of the muzzle should be 12 inches, or more, in dogs, and 11 inches, or more, in bitches. Skull—The skull is long and narrow, with the occipital peak very pronounced. The brows are not prominent, although, owing to the deep-set eyes, they may have that appearance. Foreface—The foreface is long, deep, and of even width throughout, with square outline when seen in profile. Eyes—The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, the lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape, in consequence of the lower lids being dragged down and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes correspond with the general tone of color of the animal, varying from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel color is, however, to be preferred, although very seldom seen in liver-and-tan hounds. Ears—The ears are thin and soft to the touch, extremely long, set very low, and fall in graceful folds, the lower parts curling inward and backward. Mouth—A scissors bite is preferred, level bite accepted.
Wrinkle—The head is furnished with an amount of loose skin, which in nearly every position appears superabundant, but more particularly so when the head is carried low; the skin then falls into loose, pendulous ridges and folds, especially over the forehead and sides of the face. Nostrils—The nostrils are large and open. Lips, Flews, andDewlap—In front the lips fall squarely, making a right angle with the upper line of the foreface; whilst behind they form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued into the pendant folds of loose skin about the neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very pronounced. These characters are found, though to a lesser degree, in the bitch.
Neck, Shoulders and Chest—The neck is long, the shoulders muscular and well sloped backwards; the ribs are well sprung; and the chest well let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel.
Legs and Feet—The forelegs are straight and large in bone, with elbows squarely set; the feet strong and well knuckled up; the thighs and second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular; the hocks well bent and let down and squarely set.
Back and Loin—The back and loins are strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. Stern—The stern is long and tapering, and set on rather high, with a moderate amount of hair underneath.
Gait—The gait is elastic, swinging and free, the stern being carried high, but not too much curled over the back.
Color—The colors are black and tan, liver and tan, and red; the darker colors being sometimes interspersed with lighter or badger-colored hair, and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount of white is permissible on chest, feet and tip of stern.
Approved January 9, 1996
Effective February 29, 1996
THE BORZOI, KNOWN HERE BEFORE 1936 AS THE RUSSIAN WOLFHOUND, IS a sighthound dependent on his extreme speed, agility, and courage to pursue, overtake, and hold quarry. Today these beautiful and intelligent dogs are as at home in our living rooms as they are in the field.
With a history clouded by the misty past of Czarist Russia, we know the dogs were bred by the Russian aristocracy for hundreds of years. There are, in fact, accounts of hunting expeditions of several Mongol rulers from the time of the conqueror Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century, in which long hounds were mentioned as principal coursing dogs. In Russia, the precursors of the Borzoi were thought to be of several different types including the long-coated, smooth-faced bearhound of early Russia; the coursing hounds of the Tatars; the Owtchar, a tall Russian sheepdog; as well as other ancient sighthound types. Whatever the Borzoi origin, by 1260 the coursing of hare for sport is mentioned in connection with the Court of the Grand Duke of Novgorod, and in 1650 the first Borzoi standard was written (reportedly it did not differ greatly from the standard of today). From the time of Ivan the Terrible in the mid-1500s to the abolition of serfdom in 1861, hunting with Borzoi was the national sport of the aristocracy.
Great rural estates, thousands of acres in extent, with hundreds of serfs, were given over to the breeding and training of, and hunting with, Borzois. In fact, it is difficult today to even imagine the grand scale and magnificence to which the gentle Borzoi is heir. Before 1861, and to a lesser extent after that time up to the Russian Revolution in 1917, the time, effort, and money expended on these “hunts,” as they were called, is surely unequaled in the development of any breed.
Dmitri Walzoff, writing in his 1912 monograph on the Perchino Hunt, says a special hunting train used to transport the people, horses, dogs, tents, kitchens, and carriages to a hunting ground consisted of forty freight cars, one first- and one second-class passenger car, with the grand duke and guests arriving on another special train. The hunting party itself would consist of more than a hundred Borzoi, as many foxhounds, and as many people to assist. Often all the horses of a hunt were matched, as well as the leashes of the Borzoi and the foxhound packs. Once the team arrived at the spot where wolves were known to be, plans were drawn, preparations made, and the hunting commenced. The beaters accompanying a pack of foxhounds would dislodge the game, most notably the wolf, from the forest into the open field where awaiting them at a respectable distance were the mounted huntsmen, each with a trio of Borzoi consisting of a bitch and two dogs. When game was sighted, the dogs were slipped by the huntsman. With the Borzoi in pursuit of the wolf, and the mounted huntsmen in pursuit of the Borzoi, a hair-raising ride ensued, and if the wolf did not escape, the Borzoi were required to capture, pin, and hold the creature until the arrival of the huntsmen. The approved style was for the huntsmen to leap headlong into the fray, gag and bind the wolf, after which the wolf was often set free—surely wiser and much more wary for the next time. A moving account of such a hunt can be read in Tolstoy’s War and Peace (Book II, Part 4, Chapter 3).
From after the Napoleonic Wars to the abolition of serfdom, there was a period of uncertainty which seemed to result in many experimental outcrosses in the breed. By 1873, only a few Borzoi of the old type existed, and in that year the Imperial Association was formed to protect and promote this ancient type. This association is of great interest to the present-day Borzoi fancier as many bloodlines of Borzoi in America today, if not most, can be traced back to breeders who were its members. Most notable among these was the Grand Duke Nicholas, uncle to the Czar and field marshal of the Russian armies. Second in importance was Artem Boldareff, a wealthy landowner. With these two men in the foreground, members of the association found, bred, and protected the old-type Borzoi. And it is to their hunts at Perchino and Woronzova that many of today’s Borzoi owe their heritage.
As far as is known, the first Borzoi that came to America was brought over from England in 1889 by William Wade, of Hulton, Pennsylvania. This hound, purchased from Freeman Lloyd, was a bitch named Elsie, described in The EnglishStockkeeper as “nothing much to look at, being small, light and weedy, with no bone, straight back, very curly tail and too much bent in stifles.”
The first American to visit Russia and import Borzoi directly from that country (including two who became AKC champions) was C. Steadman Hanks, of Massachusetts, who established the Seacroft Kennels in the 1890s.
Beginning in 1903, Joseph B. Thomas (acting for the Valley Farm Kennels) made three trips to Russia, the importations from which were to play a very important part in the establishment of American Borzoi bloodlines. Included in these importations were Borzoi from the Perchino Kennels owned by the Grand Duke Nicholas, and from the Woronzova Kennels owned by Artem Boldareff.
The Borzoi today remains largely unchanged from his Russian ancestors, both in terms of his appearance, his quiet, gentle nature, and his abilities. He is a mainstay of the AKC lure coursing program. His intelligence and easy training have resulted in many obedience titles. While the hunt has been the primary purpose of the Borzoi, his beauty and temperament were also always of prime importance. He was always a companion par excellence and the amourment of the salon. Today, this noble breed easily finds its way to the heart of its owner and, while the circumstances of the breed have changed from those of Czarist Russia, Borzoi remain true aristocrats.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BORZOI
General Appearance—The Borzoi was originally bred for the coursing of wild game on more or less open terrain, relying on sight rather than scent. To accomplish this purpose, the Borzoi needed particular structural qualities to chase, catch and hold his quarry. Special emphasis is placed on sound running gear, strong neck and jaws, courage and agility, combined with proper condition. The Borzoi should always possess unmistakable elegance, with flowing lines, graceful in motion or repose. Males, masculine without coarseness; bitches, feminine and refined.
Head—Skull slightly domed, long and narrow, with scarcely any perceptible stop, inclined to be Roman-nosed. Jaws long, powerful and deep, somewhat finer in bitches but not snippy. Teeth strong and clean with either an even or a scissors bite. Missing teeth should be penalized. Nose large and black.
Ears—Small and fine in quality, lying back on the neck when in repose with the tips when thrown back almost touching behind occiput; raised when at attention.
Eyes—Set somewhat obliquely, dark in color, intelligent but rather soft in expression; never round, full nor staring, nor light in color; eye rims dark; inner corner midway between tip of nose and occiput.
Neck—Clean, free from throatiness; slightly arched, very powerful and well set on.
Shoulders—Sloping, fine at the withers and free from coarseness or lumber.
Chest—Rather narrow, with great depth of brisket.
Ribs—Only slightly sprung, but very deep, giving room for heart and lung play.
Back—Rising a little at the loins in a graceful curve.
Loins—Extremely muscular, but rather tucked up, owing to the great depth of chest and comparative shortness of back and ribs.
Forelegs—Bones straight and somewhat flattened like blades, with the narrower edge forward. The elbows have free play and are turned neither in nor out. Pasterns strong.
Feet—Hare-shaped, with well-arched knuckles, toes close and well padded.
Hindquarters—Long, very muscular and powerful with well bent stifles; somewhat wider than the forequarters; strong first and second thighs; hocks clean and well let down; legs parallel when viewed from the rear.
Dewclaws—Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed; dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed.
Tail—Long, set on and carried low in a graceful curve.
Coat—Long, silky (not woolly), either flat, wavy or rather curly. On the head, ears and front of legs it should be short and smooth; on the neck the frill should be profuse and rather curly. Feather on hindquarters and tail, long and profuse, less so on chest and back of forelegs.
Color—Any color, or combination of colors, is acceptable.
Size—Mature males should be at least 28 inches at the withers and mature bitches at least 26 inches at the withers. Dogs and bitches below these respective limits should be severely penalized; dogs and bitches above the respective limits should not be penalized as long as extra size is not acquired at the expense of symmetry, speed and staying quality. Range in weight for males from 75 to 105 pounds and for bitches from 15 to 20 pounds less.
Gait—Front legs must reach well out in front with pasterns strong and springy. Hackneyed motion with mincing gait is not desired nor is weaving and crossing. However, while the hind legs are wider apart than the front, the feet tend to move closer to the center line when the dog moves at a fast trot. When viewed from the side there should be a noticeable drive with a ground-covering stride from well-angulated stifles and hocks. The overall appearance in motion should be that of effortless power, endurance, speed, agility, smoothness and grace.
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Borzoi. Any deviation from the above described dogmust be penalized to the extent of the deviation, keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.
Approved June 13, 1972
DACHSHUND IS A GERMAN WORD MEANING “BADGER DOG” (DACHS, “BADGER”; hund, “dog”). In medieval books on hunting, dogs possessing the tracking skills of hounds and the proportions and temperament of terriers, and that were used to follow badgers to earth, were called badger-dogs or dachs-hunds. This terminology is similar to the use of the description “rabbit dog” for dogs of various sorts used to hunt rabbits.
Illustrations from the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries show badgers hunted by dogs with elongated bodies, short legs, and houndlike ears. Some had the bent front legs of the Basset, some had the heads of terriers, and some had indications of smooth and long coats. These illustrations were made before the days of photography, and woodcuts do not lend themselves to fine reproductions of dog anatomy or coat distinctions. At best, the pictures and descriptive words can be interpreted with certainty only to define the functions of dogs used to hunt badgers.
The preponderance of available evidence indicates that selective breeding separated smooth and longhaired coats long before there were recorded registrations. Documented history has established that the wirehaired coat was produced for protection against brier and thorn by breeding in harsh, wiry terrier coats and then breeding out incompatible conformation characteristics. Early in the seventeenth century, Dachshund became the name for a breed with smooth and longhaired coat varieties. Since 1890, wirehairs have been registered as the third variety. Early on, German breeders barred registration of dogs resulting from crossbreeding coat varieties. Although coat variety crossing is permitted in the United States, it is not done as a matter of course.
The badger was a formidable adversary, at twenty-five to forty pounds. Badger dogs needed strength and stamina, keenness and courage, both above and below ground. Therefore, dogs weighing thirty to thirty-five pounds were not uncommon. Packs of Dachshunds were often used against wild boar. As time went on, the breed was adapted for hunting other game. A smaller sixteen-to-twenty-two-pound Dachshund proved effective against foxes and for trailing wounded deer. Still smaller twelve-pound Dachshunds were used for ermine, weasel, and hare. Today, in the United States, miniatures compete in a conformation class division for “11 pounds and under at 12 months of age and older.” Weight of standard Dachshunds is usually between sixteen and thirty-two pounds.
A German Standard describing Dachshund breed type was set in 1879, and registration of Dachshunds was included in an all-breed studbook, the DeutscheHunde-Stammbuch, before the German Dachshund Club or Deutsche Teckelklub was founded in 1888. Since World War II, management of the breed has reverted to the Deutsche Teckelklub and the Gebrauchsteckelklub. Before the war, the balance between breeding for hunting and conformation advanced the breed for twenty-five years. After the war, hunting was emphasized, and this produced a more terrierlike conformation.
In this country, those prewar objectives have continued to direct the breed standard. Field trials under AKC rules were instituted in 1935, promoting hunting ability, exemplary conformation, and temperament.
In 1885, eleven Dachshunds were included in AKC Stud Book, Vol. II. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Dachshunds rapidly gained in popularity. The Dachshund Club of America was founded in 1895, and by 1914 Dachshunds were among the top ten breeds exhibited at the Westminster Kennel Club show. With the start of World War I, the association between Dachshunds and Germany resulted in an abrupt reversal of fortune for the breed in America. During this time, German breeding stock became almost nonexistent. Fortunately, there were dedicated individuals under whose guidance Dachshund breeding was reestablished in the United States. The popularity of the breed reemerged and extends to the present day, with Dachshunds consistently among the top ten breeds registered.
Not many Dachshunds are used for hunting in the United States, but understanding the function, origin, and development of the breed helps us appreciate the elegant, streamlined proportions and adds significance to application of the breed standard. Dachshunds are participating in field trials and earthdog tests in great numbers, aptly demonstrating keen hunting instincts and utilizing their go-to-ground hunting ability.
Dachshunds are small enough to live in a house or an apartment, yet sturdy enough for street, suburb, or country. Outdoors, Dachshunds are hardy, vigorous, and tireless. Indoors, they are affectionate and responsive, companionable in restful moods, hilarious in play, eager to please, and alert in announcing strangers. The breed offers three coat varieties, as well as standard and miniature sizes in each coat. In addition to the familiar red or black-and-tan colors, Dachshunds come in several patterns and other colors.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE DACHSHUND
General Appearance—Low to ground, long in body and short of leg with robust muscular development, the skin is elastic and pliable without excessive wrinkling. Appearing neither crippled, awkward, nor cramped in his capacity for movement, the Dachshund is well-balanced with bold and confident head carriage and intelligent, alert facial expression. His hunting spirit, good nose, loud tongue and distinctive build make him well-suited for below-ground work and for beating the bush. His keen nose gives him an advantage over most other breeds for trailing.
Note—Inasmuch as the Dachshund is a hunting dog, scars from honorable wounds shall not be considered a fault.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Bred and shown in two sizes, standard and miniature, miniatures are not a separate classification but compete in a class division for “11 pounds and under at 12 months of age and older.” Weight of the standard size is usually between 16 and 32 pounds.
Head—Viewed from above or from the side, the head tapers uniformly to the tip of the nose. The eyes are of medium size, almond-shaped and dark-rimmed, with an energetic, pleasant expression; not piercing; very dark in color. The bridge bones over the eyes are strongly prominent. Wall eyes, except in the case of dappled dogs, are a serious fault. The ears are set near the top of the head, not too far forward, of moderate length, rounded, not narrow, pointed, or folded. Their carriage, when animated, is with the forward edge just touching the cheek so that the ears frame the face. The skull is slightly arched, neither too broad nor too narrow, and slopes gradually with little perceptible stop into the finely formed, slightly arched muzzle. Black is the preferred color of the nose. Lips are tightly stretched, well covering the lower jaw. Nostrils well open. Jaws opening wide and hinged well back of the eyes, with strongly developed bones and teeth. Teeth— Powerful canine teeth; teeth fit closely together in a scissors bite. An even bite is a minor fault. Any other deviation is a serious fault.
Neck—Long, muscular, clean-cut, without dewlap, slightly arched in the nape, flowing gracefully into the shoulders.
Trunk—The trunk is long and fully muscled. When viewed in profile, the back lies in the straightest possible line between the withers and the short very slightly arched loin. A body that hangs loosely between the shoulders is a serious fault. Abdomen— Slightly drawn up.
Forequarters—For effective underground work, the front must be strong, deep, long and cleanly muscled. Forequarters in detail: Chest—The breastbone is strongly prominent in front so that on either side a depression or dimple appears. When viewed from the front, the thorax appears oval and extends downward to the mid-point of the forearm. The enclosing structure of well-sprung ribs appears full and oval to allow, by its ample capacity, complete development of heart and lungs. The keel merges gradually into the line of the abdomen and extends well beyond the front legs. Viewed in profile, the lowest point of the breast line is covered by the front leg. ShoulderBlades—Long, broad, well-laid back and firmly placed upon the fully developed thorax, closely fitted at the withers, furnished with hard yet pliable muscles. Upper Arm— Ideally the same length as the shoulder blade and at right angles to the latter, strong of bone and hard of muscle, lying close to the ribs, with elbows close to the body, yet capable of free movement. Forearm— Short; supplied with hard yet pliable muscles on the front and outside, with tightly stretched tendons on the inside and at the back, slightly curved inwards. The joints between the forearms and the feet (wrists) are closer together than the shoulder joints, so that the front does not appear absolutely straight. Knuckling over is a disqualifying fault. Feet—Front paws are full, tight, compact, with well-arched toes and tough, thick pads. They may be equally inclined a trifle outward. There are five toes, four in use, close together with a pronounced arch and strong, short nails. Front dewclaws may be removed.
Hindquarters—Strong and cleanly muscled. The pelvis, the thigh, the second thigh, and the metatarsus are ideally the same length and form a series of right angles. From the rear, the thighs are strong and powerful. The legs turn neither in nor out. Metatarsus—Short and strong, perpendicular to the second thigh bone. When viewed from behind, they are upright and parallel. Feet—Hind Paws—Smaller than the front paws with four compactly closed and arched toes with tough, thick pads. The entire foot points straight ahead and is balanced equally on the ball and not merely on the toes. Rear dewclaws should be removed. Croup—Long, rounded and full, sinking slightly toward the tail. Tail—Set in continuation of the spine, extending without kinks, twists, or pronounced curvature, and not carried too gaily.
Gait—Fluid and smooth. Forelegs reach well forward, without much lift, in unison with the driving action of hind legs. The correct shoulder assembly and well-fitted elbows allow the long, free stride in front. Viewed from the front, the legs do not move in exact parallel planes, but incline slightly inward to compensate for shortness of leg and width of chest. Hind legs drive on a line with the forelegs, with hocks (metatarsus) turning neither in nor out. The propulsion of the hind leg depends on the dog’s ability to carry the hind leg to complete extension. Viewed in profile, the forward reach of the hind leg equals the rear extension. The thrust of correct movement is seen when the rear pads are clearly exposed during rear extension. Feet must travel parallel to the line of motion with no tendency to swing out, cross over, or interfere with each other. Short, choppy movement, rolling or high-stepping gait, close or overly wide coming or going are incorrect. The Dachshund must have agility, freedom of movement, and endurance to do the work for which he was developed.
Temperament—The Dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault.
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THREE COAT
The Dachshund is bred with three varieties of coat: (1) Smooth; (2) Wirehaired; (3) Longhaired, and is shown in two sizes: standard and miniature. All three varieties and both sizes must conform to the characteristics already specified. The following features are applicable for each variety.
Smooth Dachshund—Coat—Short, smooth and shining. Should be neither too long nor too thick. Ears not leathery. Tail—Gradually tapered to a point, well but not too richly haired. Long sleek bristles on the underside are considered a patch of strong-growing hair, not a fault. A brush tail is a fault, as is also a partly or wholly hairless tail.
Color of Hair—Although base color is immaterial, certain patterns and basic colors predominate. One-colored Dachshunds include red (with or without a shading of interspersed dark hairs or sable) and cream. A small amount of white on the chest is acceptable, but not desirable. Nose and nails—black.
Two-colored Dachshunds include black, chocolate, wild boar, gray (blue) and fawn (Isabella), each with tan markings over the eyes, on the sides of the jaw and underlip, on the inner edge of the ear, front, breast, inside and behind the front legs, on the paws and around the anus, and from there to about one-third to one-half of the length of the tail on the underside. Undue prominence or extreme lightness of tan markings is undesirable. A small amount of white on the chest is acceptable but not desirable. Nose and nails—in the case of black dogs, black; for chocolate and all other colors, dark brown, but self-colored is acceptable.
Dappled Dachshunds—The “single” dapple pattern is expressed as lighter-colored areas contrasting with the darker base color, which may be any acceptable color. Neither the light nor the dark color should predominate. Nose and nails are the same as for one and two-colored Dachshunds. Partial or wholly blue (wall) eyes are as acceptable as dark eyes. A large area of white on the chest of a dapple is permissible.
A “double” dapple is one in which varying amounts of white coloring occur over the body in addition to the dapple pattern. Nose and nails: as for one and two-color Dachshunds; partial or wholly self-colored is permissible.
Brindle is a pattern (as opposed to a color) in which black or dark stripes occur over the entire body although in some specimens the pattern may be visible only in the tan points.
Wirehaired Dachshund—Coat—With the exception of jaw, eyebrows, and ears, the whole body is covered with a uniform tight, short, thick, rough, hard, outer coat but with finer, somewhat softer, shorter hairs (undercoat) everywhere distributed between the coarser hairs. The absence of an undercoat is a fault. The distinctive facial furnishings include a beard and eyebrows. On the ears the hair is shorter than on the body, almost smooth. The general arrangement of the hair is such that the wirehaired Dachshund, when viewed from a distance, resembles the smooth. Any sort of soft hair in theouter coat, wherever found on the body, especially on the top of the head, is a fault. The same is true of long, curly, or wavy hair, or hair that sticks out irregularly in all directions. Tail— Robust, thickly haired, gradually tapering to a point. A flag tail is a fault. Color of Hair— While the most common colors are wild boar, black and tan, and various shades of red, all colors are admissible. A small amount of white on the chest, although acceptable, is not desirable. Nose and nails—same as for the smooth variety.
Longhaired Dachshund—Coat—The sleek, glistening, often slightly wavy hair is longer under the neck and on the forechest, the underside of the body, the ears, and behind the legs. The coat gives the dog an elegant appearance. Short hair on the ear is not desirable. Too profuse a coat which masks type, equally long hair over the whole body, a curly coat, or a pronounced parting on the back are faults. Tail—Carried gracefully in prolongation of the spine; the hair attains its greatest length here and forms a veritable flag. Color of Hair—Same as for the smooth Dachshund. Nose and nails—same as for the smooth.
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Dachshund. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation, keeping in mind the importance of the contribution of the various features toward the basic original purpose of the breed.
Knuckling over of front legs.
Approved April 7, 1992
Effective May 27, 1992
AS THE NAME IMPLIES, THE AMERICAN FOXHOUND WAS DEVELOPED IN THE United States or, more accurately, in the original thirteen colonies and the western frontier of Kentucky and Tennessee. In 1650, Robert Brooks and his foxhounds arrived from England in the colony that became Maryland. From that time forward, this hound has been an integral part of America and of her history. Brooks’s hounds were, of course, English. Young George Washington’s original English hounds came from his patron, Lord Fairfax, around 1750, and the future first president developed his pack from these. Washington kept hounds all his life, and his records and pedigrees on the early hounds of Virginia were some of the best. In 1785, the general received a gift of several pairs of French hounds from the Marquis de Lafayette. The most notable of these hounds was named Vulcan.
In the late 1700s, Dr. Thomas Walker took some of his hounds into the Kentucky region. Later, Wash Maupin and William Walker bred two strains of hounds that had a profound effect on hunting through the centuries to the present day. Maupin crossed his hounds on one particular hound brought out of Tennessee. Known as Tennessee Lead, he was the first hound to catch a red fox in Kentucky. From this cross came the Walker Hound, which is today’s most popular strain of American Foxhound.
In 1814 two Irish hounds were imported by Bolton Jackson, of Maryland. This proved to be a most important cross, as it increased the speed of the American hound. From this cross of Irish-Maryland hounds, the Birdsong and Henry hounds of Virginia and Georgia were developed, along with the hounds of Hayden Trigg, of Kentucky.
The American Foxhound has provided generations of Americans with a sport that attracts men and women to open fields, woodlands, and river valleys. The gray fox was native to our land, and after its importation to Maryland’s Eastern Shore the red fox migrated to our warmer climes. The sport of foxhunting promoted the fox from the status of vermin to that of game animal. From Revolutionary times until the Civil War, foxhunting was the principal field sport of the gentry, and its devotees read like a who’s who of early America: from Virginia, Fairfax, Washington, Jefferson, the Lees, and the Custises. (Virginia, the birthplace of American Foxhounds, was also the birthplace of eight American presidents.) From Maryland, we acknowledge Robert Brooks, Charles Carroll, John Stuart Skinner, the Dorseys, and the Hammonds.
One can follow the history of the United States by reading the stories and biographies of the men who hunted the fox and continued to move a little farther west across the mountains. The independence of thought and determination that one finds in American Foxhounds are the same admirable qualities found in the American people, from our nation’s earliest times to the present day.
Today, American Foxhounds are still used as night hunters, as field trial hounds, and as pack hounds for hunt clubs. It is probably one of the most popular hound breeds in the country. When not hunting, their temperament and laid-back personality make them ideal family pets. Not only will they tolerate toddlers nicely but also they have the boundless energy to roughhouse and explore the great outdoors with older children and lovers of nature. The Foxhound is an easy hound to keep, requiring only proper feeding, regular exercise, and minimal grooming.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AMERICAN FOXHOUND
Head—Skull—Should be fairly long, slightly domed at occiput, with cranium broad and full. Ears—Ears set on moderately low, long, reaching when drawn out nearly, if not quite, to the tip of the nose; fine in texture, fairly broad, with almost entire absence of erectile power—setting close to the head with the forward edge slightly inturning to the cheek—round at tip. Eyes—Eyes large, set well apart—soft and houndlike—expression gentle and pleading; of a brown or hazel color. Muzzle—Muzzle of fair length—straight and square-cut—the stop moderately defined. Defects—A very flat skull, narrow across the top; excess of dome; eyes small, sharp and terrierlike, or prominent and protruding; muzzle long and snipy, cut away decidedly below the eyes, or very short. Roman-nosed, or upturned, giving a dish-face expression. Ears short, set on high, or with a tendency to rise above the point of origin.
Body—NeckandThroat—Neck rising free and light from the shoulders, strong in substance yet not loaded, of medium length. The throat clean and free from folds of skin, a slight wrinkle below the angle of the jaw, however, is allowable. Defects—A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree termed “throatiness.”
Shoulders, Chest and Ribs—Shoulders sloping—clean, muscular, not heavy or loaded—conveying the idea of freedom of action with activity and strength. Chest should be deep for lung space, narrower in proportion to depth than the English hound—28 inches (girth) in a 23-inch hound being good. Well-sprung ribs—back ribs should extend well back—a three-inch flank allowing springiness.
Back and Loins—Back moderately long, muscular and strong. Loins broad and slightly arched. Defects—Very long or swayed or roached back. Flat, narrow loins.
Forelegs and Feet—Forelegs—Straight, with fair amount of bone. Pasterns short and straight. Feet—Fox-like. Pad full and hard. Well-arched toes. Strong nails. Defects— Straight, upright shoulders, chest disproportionately wide or with lack of depth. Flat ribs. Out at elbow. Knees knuckled over forward, or bent backward. Forelegs crooked. Feet long, open or spreading.
Hips, Thighs, Hind Legs and Feet—Hips and thighs, strong and muscled, giving abundance of propelling power. Stifles strong and well let down. Hocks firm, symmetrical and moderately bent. Feet close and firm. Defects—Cowhocks, or straight hocks. Lack of muscle and propelling power. Open feet.
Tail—Set moderately high; carried gaily, but not turned forward over the back; with slight curve; with very slight brush. Defects—A long tail, Teapot curve or inclined forward from the root. Rat tail, entire absence of brush.
Coat—A close, hard, hound coat of medium length. Defects—A short thin coat, or of a soft quality.
Height—Dogs should not be under 22 or over 25 inches. Bitches should not be under 21 or over 24 inches measured across the back at the point of the withers, the hound standing in a natural position with his feet well under him.
SCALE OF POINTS
FOXHUNTING IN THE UNITED STATES IS ALMOST CONTEMPORANEOUS WITH the sport in Great Britain. The foxhound with which we are dealing is known in the United States in dog shows and elsewhere as the English Foxhound, though why it should be so designated any more than a fox terrier should be called an English Fox Terrier, is hard to understand. The English Foxhound has been bred along careful lines for over 150 years. The studbooks published by the Masters of Foxhounds Association (England) date before 1800, and it is an easy matter for any owner of any English Foxhound to trace its pedigree. The breeding of foxhounds in England has always been in the hands of masters of hounds, who kept the most careful records of their breeding operations.
For the benefit of those who may be interested in knowing how long the English Foxhound in his pure state has been in the United States, we find that there are records which establish that the first Lord Fairfax imported hounds from England in 1738, and there are unauthenticated records of even earlier importations. The English Foxhound Stud Book of America, published by the Masters of Foxhounds Association of America, dates its earliest entries to 1890, but there are earlier records which would incline one to the belief that there were many earlier importations. Certainly the blood of the Genesee Valley pack must date at least twenty years before that time, records having been kept of it with fair accuracy ever since.
In England, as in America, these hounds have always been used for foxhunting as followed in the English fashion of riding to hounds. There have been over 250 packs of hounds in Great Britain, all of which used English Hounds, while in America we have over a hundred packs, of which not over 10 percent use hounds which would be eligible for the English Foxhound Stud Book, although the blood has been freely mixed with the American Foxhound.
In appearance the English hound is far stouter than his American cousin, and perhaps no better description of his general appearance can be given than to quote a passage from Cuthbert Bradley’s Reminiscences of Frank Gillard, in which he describes Belvoir Gambler ’85, one of the greatest hounds ever bred:
Although Belvoir Gambler cannot be bred from rule of thumb, the proportions of this remarkable Foxhound are worth preserving as an example of what symmetry should be. Standing twenty-three inches at the shoulder, from the extreme point of his shapely shoulders to the outer curve of his well-fumed quarters, he measured twenty-seven and a half inches in length whilst from elbow to ground his height was only twelve inches. Possessing great depth of rib and room round the heart, he girthed thirty-one inches, and his arm below was eight and a quarter inches round. Below the knee he measured eight and a quarter inches of solid bone, while round the thigh he spanned full nine and a quarter inches. The extended neck was ten inches from cranium to shoulder and the head ten inches and a half long. His color was of the richest, displaying all of the beautiful “Belvoir tan,” and his head had that brainy appearance expressive of the highest intelligence. Gambler might have inspired that earnest poet, Cannon Kingsley, when he described the modern Foxhound, “The result of nature not limited, but developed by high civilization. Next to an old Greek statue there are few such combinations of grace and strength as in a fine Foxhound.”
Although the tendency today is to breed hounds a little bigger, the above description cannot be equaled.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE ENGLISH FOXHOUND
Head—Should be of full size, but by no means heavy. Brow pronounced, but not high or sharp. There should be a good length and breadth, sufficient to give in a dog hound a girth in front of the ears of fully 16 inches. The nose should be long (41⁄2 inches) and wide, with open nostrils. Ears set on low and lying close to the cheeks. Most English hounds are “rounded” which means that about 11⁄2 inches is taken off the end of the ear. The teeth must meet squarely, either a pig-mouth (overshot) or undershot being a disqualification.
Neck—Must be long and clean, without the slightest throatiness, not less than 10 inches from cranium to shoulder. It should taper nicely from shoulders to head, and the upper outline should be slightly convex.
The Shoulders should be long and well clothed with muscle, without being heavy, especially at the points. They must be well sloped, and the true arm between the front and the elbow must be long and muscular, but free from fat or lumber. ChestandBackRibs—The chest should girth over 31 inches in a 24-inch hound, and the back ribs must be very deep.
Back and Loin—Must both be very muscular, running into each other without any contraction between them. The couples must be wide, even to raggedness, and the topline of the back should be absolutely level, the Sternwell set on and carried gaily but not in any case curved over the back like a squirrel’s tail. The end should taper to a point and there should be a fringe of hair below. The Hindquartersor propellers are required to be very strong, and as endurance is of even greater consequence than speed, straight stifles are preferred to those much bent as in a Greyhound. Elbowsset quite straight, and neither turned in nor out are a sine qua non. They must be well let down by means of the long true arm above mentioned.
Legs and Feet—Every Master of Foxhounds insists on legs as straight as a post, and as strong; size of bone at the ankle being especially regarded as all important. The desire for straightness had a tendency to produce knuckling-over, which at one time was countenanced, but in recent years this defect has been eradicated by careful breeding and intelligent adjudication, and one sees very little of this trouble in the best modern Foxhounds. The bone cannot be too large, and the feet in all cases should be round and catlike, with well-developed knuckles and strong horn, which last is of the greatest importance.
Color and Coat—Not regarded as very important, so long as the former is a good “hound color,” and the latter is short, dense, hard, and glossy. Hound colors are black, tan, and white, or any combination of these three, also the various “pies” compounded of white and the color of the hare and badger, or yellow, or tan. The Symmetry of the Foxhound is of the greatest importance, and what is known as “quality” is highly regarded by all good judges.
SCALE OF POINTS
Pig-mouth (overshot) or undershot.
SWIFT AS A RAY OF LIGHT, GRACEFUL AS A SWALLOW, AND WISE AS SOLOMON:
This poetically describes this breed of great antiquity that can be traced to the varying terrains of almost every country on every continent. This was the type of dog the ancients knew, and from time immemorial it has been a symbol of aristocracy. The first evidence of the Greyhound appears in Egyptian tombs, about 2900 to 2751 B.C., where carvings portray dogs of unmistakable Greyhound type. Centuries later, both Greeks and Romans favored Greyhounds and hunted an assortment of game with them. Greyhounds were adaptable enough to be successful in each new environment, and thus the breed spread throughout the ancient world. Hunt scenes on tapestries, in illuminated manuscripts, and in paintings portray packs of Greyhounds in pursuit of large and small game: deer, stag, rabbit, fox, and the occasional bear and boar. Royalty kept large kennels of hunting Greyhounds and had special favorites as pets. Portraits of royal families posing with beloved Greyhounds grace many castles in Europe.
When there were no longer enormous estates, royal hunts, and forests reserved for the exclusive use of nobility, it was natural that the Greyhound’s most popular quarry was the one that was also the most prevalent. Hare coursing became increasingly popular in Elizabethan England, where fanciers have organized such events for over two centuries. In these coursing events, dogs are matched against each other and against the hare, testing speed, agility, and endurance in the open field.
Europeans brought Greyhounds with them to the New World long before 1776, and by the 1800s they were being used on wild game in the American West. Most of today’s show Greyhounds descend from English and European coursing dogs imported during the 1900s.
The ancients knew what we still know today: Greyhounds make delightful companions. Centuries as treasured companions have produced a sweet, personable, and tractable nature. They are affectionate with their families and friends. The way they have been kept through the centuries have made them, like many hounds, a pack breed. Greyhounds thrive in the company of other dogs and often dislike being solitary.
Though generally quiet by nature, they need daily exercise including long walks or a good run to stay in optimum condition, both physically and mentally. To deny Greyhounds their heritage of running is to deny their very reason for existence. Greyhounds are members of the sighthound family and have a passion for galloping, as well as keen instinct for the chase. They are best kept where they have the opportunity to run, especially with others that can play games at high speed. A safely fenced yard is a must for this breed.
They can live harmoniously with cats or smaller dogs, but this may require some training. Greyhounds can be good with children, but they should also be able to remove themselves if they tire and prefer peace and quiet. Like most hounds, they can have an independent air that should be acknowledged and respected. Essentially, Greyhounds are more interested in doing something with you than for you.
Greyhounds are a natural breed; they need no cropping or special trimming. Grooming their short, fine coat is as simple as routine brushing with a soft bristle brush or rubber curry in addition to bathing when needed. With no body fat or heavy coat, the breed is best suited as a house dog. Because they are athletes, Greyhounds can be subject to sports injuries, such as pulled muscles, broken toes, or split pads, and their fine, taut skin can be prone to tears and lacerations. Their long, whiplike tails can split or break from impact.
Greyhounds were among the first breeds registered with the AKC, appearing in the 1885 second edition of the Stud Book. They were also among the earliest breeds exhibited at American dog shows, and in 1877 the first Westminster Kennel Club show catalog included an entry of eighteen Greyhounds. The invention of the mechanical lure led to the pari-mutuel dog-racing industry in the 1920s. Racing Greyhounds have been adapted to racing at top speed in a single direction around an oval track. They have a separate registry under the auspices of the National Greyhound Association.
There are many activities to enjoy with today’s traditional Greyhounds, including competition in the conformation show ring. Coursing trials are exciting and appeal to their instincts and desire for the chase. Greyhounds are independent by nature, but they are very clever and can be fun to train in obedience for those with patience and a sense of humor. They are active, lively, and nimble enough to enjoy agility training and competition. Best of all, though, is the joy of a Greyhound’s calm, sweet, and sunny presence in daily family life.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE GREYHOUND
Head—Long and narrow, fairly wide between the ears, scarcely perceptible stop, little or no development of nasal sinuses, good length of muzzle, which should be powerful without coarseness. Teeth very strong and even in front.
Ears—Small and fine in texture, thrown back and folded, except when excited, when they are semi-pricked.
Neck—Long, muscular, without throatiness, slightly arched, and widening gradually into the shoulder.
Shoulders—Placed as obliquely as possible, muscular without being loaded.
Forelegs—Perfectly straight, set well into the shoulders, neither turned in nor out, pasterns strong.
Chest—Deep, and as wide as consistent with speed, fairly well-sprung ribs.
Back—Muscular and broad.
Loins—Good depth of muscle, well arched, well cut up in the flanks.
Hindquarters—Long, very muscular and powerful, wide and well let down, well-bent stifles. Hocks well bent and rather close to ground, wide but straight fore and aft.
Feet—Hard and close, rather more hare than catfeet, well knuckled up with good strong claws.
Tail—Long, fine and tapering with a slight upward curve.
Coat—Short, smooth and firm in texture.
Weight—Dogs, 65 to 70 pounds; bitches 60 to 65 pounds.
SCALE OF POINTS
PROBABLY THE OLDEST WORK ON HARE HUNTING IS THE FAMOUS ESSAY BY the Greek historian Xenophon in about 400 B.C., and with that as a basis, hare hunting has been a favorite subject of the greatest authorities on the dog for the past 2,300 years. But there is a striking unanimity of doubt concerning the direct ancestors of this old breed of scent hound.
The Harrier, as he exists today, was unknown in Xenophon’s time, although he describes two types of hounds that were used with equal success in the early hunting of the hare. One he calls the Castorean, the favorite of the demigod Castor. The other is designated as the fox-breed, which is explained as a product of the fox and the dog. On the other hand, Xenophon has listed the qualities of a hound suitable for the purposes, and they bear amazing similarity to the desirable points of modern times.
This early treatise on hunting is no fragmentary remnant of a scholarly mind, but one of the most definite and minute portrayals of a sport that ever has been written. Perhaps the only real difference between the way the Greeks hunted the hare and the manner accepted in England and other countries is that in 400 B.C. the hares were driven into nets. This practice would bring great censure on hunters of today. Still, sportsmanship was given some consideration in ancient times, for Xenophon says: “In tracking the hare, no delay should be made, for it is sportsman-like, as well as a proof of fondness for exertion, to use every means to capture the animals speedily.”
Even the great English authority on all breeds, Stonehenge, was a little mystified by the origin of the Harrier. The theory he advances rather cautiously is that it springs from the old Southern Hound, with an infusion of a little Greyhound blood.
Undoubtedly the Southern Hound has played a great part in the development of all scenthound breeds in the British Isles, yet there is little or no mention of the origin of this basic breed. The most logical supposition appears to be that it was brought to England by the Normans, for hunting is of great antiquity on the Continent.
The first pack of Harriers in England was the Penistone, established by Sir Elias de Midhope in 1260. These Harriers were held together for at least five hundred years, and it is recorded that in the fourteenth, seventeenth, and the eighteenth centuries, the masters were supplied by the Wilsons of Broomhead Hall. Hunting the hare has always had great popularity in the British Isles, and in some ways enjoyed greater favor than foxhunting. One great cause of its popularity was that a pack of Harriers could be followed on foot. This enlisted the interest of many, and among the hundred-odd packs that hunted regularly in England, many were scratch packs. A scratch pack was made up of hounds owned by various individuals—thus bringing the sport down to the level of the poorer man. However, horses are used in most cases today.
In support of the Norman origin of this and other hound breeds, there has been an interesting bit of information supplied by Wynn in regard to the word harrier.He shows that this may have come from the Norman harier, denoting Saxon raches, or hounds. Further, harier was used down to 1750 for all hounds, not necessarily hare-hounds. And back in 1570, Dr. Caius mentioned stag- and fox-harriers.
The studbooks for Harriers published by the association of Masters of Harriers and Beagles (AMHB in England) began in March 1891 and continues to this day. In America, the Harrier has been present as long as any other scent hound and has been used for hunting since Colonial times. Being one of the oldest British breeds, the Harrier in 1885 became the fourth hound breed to be registered by the American Kennel Club.
Although their origin is that of a hunting pack hound, today they are equally at home in the conformation ring, in performance events, and as family companions.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE HARRIER
General Appearance—Developed in England to hunt hare in packs, Harriers must have all the attributes of a scenting pack hound. They are very sturdily built with large bone for their size. They must be active, well balanced, full of strength and quality, in all ways appearing able to work tirelessly, no matter the terrain, for long periods. Running gear and scenting ability are particularly important features. The Harrier should, in fact, be a smaller version of the English Foxhound.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—19 to 21 inches for dogs and bitches, variation of one inch in either direction is acceptable. Proportionis off-square. The Harrier is slightly longer from point of shoulder to rump than from withers to ground. Substance—Solidly built, full of strength and quality. The breed has as much substance and bone as possible without being heavy or coarse.
Head—The head is in proportion to the overall dog. No part of the head should stand out relative to the other parts. The expression is gentle when relaxed, sensible yet alert when aroused. Eyesare medium size, set well apart, brown or hazel color in darker dogs, lighter hazel to yellow in lighter dogs, though darker colors are always desired. Earsare set on low and lie close to the cheeks, rounded at the tips.
The skull is in proportion to the entire animal, with good length and breadth and a bold forehead. The stopis moderately defined. The muzzlefrom stop to tip of nose is approximately the same length as the skull from stop to occiput. The muzzle is substantial with good depth, and the lipscomplete the square, clean look of the muzzle, without excess skin or flews. A good noseis essential. It must be wide, with well opened nostrils. Teeth meet in a scissors biteor they may be level. Overshot or undershot bites faulted to the degree of severity of the misalignment.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis long and strong with no excess skin or throatiness, sweeping smoothly into the muscling of the forequarters. The toplineis level. Back muscular with no dip behind the withers or roach over the loin. Body— Chest deep, extending to the elbows, with well sprung ribs that extend well back, providing plenty of heart and lung room. The ribs should not be so well sprung that they interfere with the free, efficient movement of the front assembly. The loin is short, wide and well muscled.
The tail is long, set on high and carried up from 12 o’clock to 3 o’clock, depending on attitude. It tapers to a point with a brush of hair. The tail should not be curled over the back.
Forequarters—Moderate angulation, with long shoulders sloping into the muscles of the back, clean at the withers. The shoulders are well clothed with muscle without being excessively heavy or loaded, giving the impression of free, strong action. Elbows are set well away from the ribs, running parallel with the body and not turning outwards. Good straight legs with plenty of bone running well down to the toes, but not overburdened, inclined to knuckle over very slightly but not exaggerated in the slightest degree. Feetare round and catlike, with toes set close together turning slightly inwards. The pads are thick, well developed and strong.
Hindquarters—Angulation in balance with the front assembly, so that rear drive is in harmony with front reach. Well developed muscles, providing strength for long hours of work, are important. Endurance is more important than pure speed, and as such, the stifles are only moderately angulated. Feet point straight ahead, are round and catlike with toes set close together, and thick, well developed pads.
Coat—Short, dense, hard and glossy. Coat texture on the ears is finer than on the body. There is a brush of hair on the underside of the tail.
Color—Any color, not regarded as very important.
Gait—Perfect coordination between the front and hind legs. Reach and drive are consistent with the desired moderate angulation. Coming and going, the dog moves in a straight line, evidencing no sign of crabbing. A slight toeing-in of the front feet is acceptable. Clean movement coming and going is important, but not nearly as important as side gait, which is smooth, efficient and ground-covering.
Temperament—Outgoing and friendly, as a working pack breed, Harriers must be able to work in close contact with other hounds. Therefore, aggressiveness towards other dogs cannot be tolerated.
Approved December 13, 1988
Effective February 1, 1989
IBIZAN HOUND HISTORY IS TRACEABLE TO APPROXIMATELY 3400 B.C. THE glory that was ancient Egypt was a most fitting setting for this regal hound, owned and hunted by the pharaohs.
Numerous artifacts found in the tombs of the pharaohs now reinforce the existence of such a dog in those long-past times. Hemako, who reigned in the period of the First Dynasty (3100–2700 B.C.), was buried near Saggara. When this site was unearthed many artifacts were uncovered, one of which was a carved dish bearing the image of the Ibizan. These dogs, which are also referred to as Galgo Hounds, are quite distinct in their appearance; therefore, no other could be mistaken as being represented. Nevermat of the Fourth Dynasty, who lived at approximately 2600 B.C., Tutankhamen of the Eighteenth Dynasty, and the Ptolemies of the Thirtieth and final Dynasty, all have tombs which have yielded further proof of the hound’s ancient and proud heritage. Cleopatra was an ardent devotee of the Galgo, and her reign was the twilight of the pharaohs’ time in Egypt.
The tomb of Tutankhamen proved a treasure trove when discovered in 1922. Anubis, “The Watchdog of the Dead,” a long-honored deity, was well represented by a full-sized true-to-life statue, which is the identical duplicate of the Ibizan Hound of today. This marvelously preserved piece of carved statuary was coated with resins and varnishes. The eyes are of obsidian (a volcanic variety of rock that has a very glassy look and is deep black) and are rimmed with gold leaf, as are the insides of the ears. Anubis also bears a beautiful collar of gold, but time had not deteriorated his beauty nor the fact that the original model could only have been the Greyhound-type, prick-eared, sickle-tailed dog now known as the Ibizan. It was originally thought that the jackal had been the original model, this miscalculation due to the fact that the Ibizan was extinct in its land of origin at the time of these numerous discoveries.
We can but surmise the movement of the breed from Egypt to the island from which it now derives its name. The hardy sea-traders of Phoenicia were well traveled in those days and had entree to many lands. It is thought that they are basically responsible for the survival of this breed. It was the Phoenicians who discovered the island now known as Ibiza in the eighth or ninth century B.C. Now belonging to Spain, Ibiza has been ruled and conquered by many—Egyptians, Chaldeans, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs. Roman coins bear the head of an Ibizan Hound, and Hasdrubal once ruled this land. Conejera, a member of this Balearic grouping, was a small off island also which claims historical fame by being the birthplace of the famed Hannibal. It is said that the Ibizan Hound was the dog which accompanied him with his mighty elephants on that long trek over the Alps.
This breed has survived even the hard life that the Ibizan group of islands has imposed on it. Only the fittest could survive, as food is scarce, and the islanders used these dogs to assist in providing the necessary food to sustain their lives. As a result, these dogs have learned to hunt with great skill, tenacity, and patience. The owners of these hounds also culled their litters diligently, for only the strongest and most perfect specimens could survive the hardships. We must give our thanks to those early owners and breeders, for through their dedication we have seen a breed travel through centuries unmarked by numerous problems evident in many other breeds. These animals are as strong, fit, and vigorous today as they were in the days of the pharaohs.
The first Ibizans reached the United States in mid-1956, imported by Colonel and Mrs. Seoane, of Rhode Island. Hannibal (Stop) and Certera (Tanit) created quite a stir, and soon it was known that the first litter would arrive in the fall. Eight pups were the result of the first breeding and the four males and four females (Asuncion, Malchus V, Denia, Heulalia, Granada, Mago, Gisco, and Sertorius), along with several other imports and their parents, form the foundations of the breed here.
Over the years the breed has flourished in this country. Ibizans are respected by all who have come into intimate contact with them as lively companions, pets, watchdogs, hunters, and friends. They lend themselves well to family life and the ever-changing American lifestyles. Their temperament is excellent, and their health has proven superior. Structurally they are extremely strong and resilient. The Ibizan Hound Club of the United States has been most stringent in impressing upon owners and breeders the importance of fully retaining the fine qualities of this dog first and foremost, and has kept its pledge to preserve it true to form.
The Ibizan Hound was admitted to AKC Stud Book registration effective October 1, 1978, and became eligible for show competition January 1, 1979.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE IBIZAN HOUND
General Appearance—The Ibizan’s clean-cut lines, large prick ears and light pigment give it a unique appearance. A hunting dog whose quarry is primarily rabbits, this ancient hound was bred for thousands of years with function being of prime importance. Lithe and racy, the Ibizan possesses a deerlike elegance combined with the power of a hunter. Strong, without appearing heavily muscled, the Ibizan is a hound of moderation. With the exception of the ears, he should not appear extreme or exaggerated.
In the field the Ibizan is as fast as top coursing breeds and without equal in agility, high jumping and broad jumping ability. He is able to spring to great heights from a standstill.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The height of dogs is 231⁄2 inches to 271⁄2 inches at the withers. Bitches are 221⁄2 to 26 inches at the withers. There is no preference for size within this range. Sizes slightly over or under the norms are not to be regarded as demerits when other qualities are good. Weight—Average weight of dogs is 50 pounds; bitches, 45 pounds. Proportion—Slightly longer than tall. Substance—The Ibizan possesses clean, fine bone. The muscling is strong, yet flat, with no sign of heaviness.
Head—Long and narrow in the form of a sharp cone truncated at its base. Finely chiseled and extremely dry fleshed. Expression—The Ibizan has an elegant, deer-like look. The eyes are oblique and small, ranging in color from clear amber to caramel. The rims are the color of the nose and are fully or partially pigmented. The appearance of the eye is intelligent, alert and inquisitive. The ears are large, pointed, and natural. On alert the ear should never droop, bend, or crease. Highly mobile, the ear can point forward, sideways, or be folded backward, according to mood. On alert, the lowest point of the base is at level of the eye. On frontal examination, the height of the ear is approximately 21⁄2 times that of the widest point of the base. Skull—Long and flat, prominent occipital bone, little defined stop; narrow brow. The muzzleis elongated, fine, and slender with a very slight Roman convex. The length from the eyes to point of nose is equal to the distance from eyes to occiput. The muzzle and skull are on parallel planes. The nose is prominent, extending beyond the lower jaw. It is of a rosy flesh color, never black or liver, and tends to harmonize with that of the coat. Pigment is solid or butterfly. Nostrils are open. Lipsare thin and tight and the color of the nose. Flews are tight and dry fleshed. Bite—The teeth are perfectly opposed in a scissors bite; strong and well set.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis long, slender, slightly arched and strong, yet flat muscled. The topline, from ears to tail, is smooth and flowing. The backis level and straight. Body—The chest is deep and long with the breastbone sharply angled and prominent. The ribs are slightly sprung. The brisket is approximately 21⁄2 inches above the elbow. The deepest part of the chest, behind the elbow, is nearly to or to the elbow. The abdomen is well tucked up, but not exaggerated. The loinis very slightly arched, of medium breadth and well muscled. The croupis very slightly sloping. The tailis set low, highly mobile, and reaches at least to the hock. It is carried in a sickle, ring, or saber position, according to the mood and individual specimen.
Forequarters—Angulationis moderate. The shouldersare elastic but never loose with moderate breadth at the withers. The shoulder blades are well laid back. At the point oftheshoulderthey join to a rather upright upper arm. The elbowis positioned in front of the deepest part of the chest. It is well held in but not so much as to restrict movement. Legs—The forearms are very long, strong, straight, and close, lying flat on the chest and continuing in a straight line to the ground. Bone is clean and fine. The pasternsare strong and flexible, slightly sloping, with well developed tendons. Dewclaw removal is optional. Feet—Hare-foot. The toes are long, closed and very strong. Interdigital spaces are well protected by hair. Pads are durable. Nails are white.
Hindquarters—Angulationis moderate with the hindquarters being set under the body. Legs—The thighs are very strong with flat muscling. The hocks are straight when viewed from the rear. Bone is clean and fine. There are no rear dewclaws. The feetare as in front.
Coat—There are two types of coat; both untrimmed. Short—Shortest on head and ears and longest at back of the thighs and under the tail. Wire–hairedcan be from one to three inches in length with a possible generous mustache. There is more hair on the back, back of thighs, and tail. Both types of coat are hard in texture and neither coat is preferable to the other.
Color—White or red (from light, yellowish-red called “lion” to deep red), solid or in any combination. No color or pattern is preferable to the other. Disqualifyany color other than white or red.
Gait—An efficient, light and graceful single tracking movement. A suspended trot with joint flexion when viewed from the side. The Ibizan exhibits smooth reach in front with balanced rear drive, giving the appearance of skimming over the ground.
Temperament—The Ibizan Hound is even-tempered, affectionate and loyal. Extremely versatile and trainable, he makes an excellent family pet, and is well suited to the breed ring, obedience, tracking and lure coursing. He exhibits a keen, natural hunting instinct with much determination and stamina in the field.
Disqualification—Any color other than white or red.
Approved September 11, 1989
Effective November 1, 1989
EARLY IRISH LITERATURE ABOUNDS WITH REFERENCES TO THESE DOGS, INTER-CHANGEABLY called Irish dogs, Big Dogs of Ireland, Greyhounds (or Grehounds) of Ireland, Wolf dogs of Ireland, or Great Hounds of Ireland. Irish Wolfhound is the modern name.
The breed was known in Rome by A.D. 391, when the Roman consul received seven of them as a gift, which “all Rome viewed with wonder.” Through the ensuing centuries, Irish Wolfhounds inspired poets and authors. In 1790, an anonymous sportsman wrote: “The Irish Greyhound is the largest of dog kind and its appearance the most beautiful. He is about 3 feet high, somewhat like a Greyhound, but more robust. His aspect is mild, his disposition is peaceable yet his strength is so great that in combat the Mastiff or Bulldog is far from being equal to him.”
Wolfhounds were coveted for their hunting prowess, particularly in pursuing the wolf and the gigantic Irish elk, which stood six feet at the shoulder. With the disappearance of these animals from Ireland, and excessive exportation of dwindling Wolfhound ranks, the breed almost became extinct.
In 1862, Captain George A. Graham, a Scotsman in the British army, gathered the remaining specimens and restored the breed. Twenty-three years later, under his supervision, the first breed standard was written. Meeting this standard remains the goal every conscientious breeder strives to attain.
The Irish Wolfhound is a large, rough-coated, browed, and bearded hound built on galloping lines. Whether lying by a modern hearth, galloping in a meadow, romping on a fenced lawn or along a beach, it is easy to imagine Wolfhounds as the prominent figures they once were in the Middle Ages.
Because of their great size and the amount of exercise essential to their well-being, the Irish Wolfhound should not be acquired without serious forethought. The ideal home is one with sufficient fenced property to accommodate the galloping nature of this athletic sighthound.
Most Irish Wolfhounds bred in this century have enjoyed private homes where their quiet manners, gentle nature, and comfortable sense of companionship have flourished. The Irish Wolfhound does best when human companionship is the core of daily life. Wolfhounds do not thrive in a harsh, demanding environment or respond well to loud, abrasive treatment. At maturity, despite their size, the typical Wolfhound is a calm, dignified, and responsive presence within the home. That is not to say Wolfhounds need no management, for a large, unruly animal can be unpleasant for family and visitors alike. Early training for basic manners is essential.
Though alert, Irish Wolfhounds are not suspicious by nature and will usually assume visitors are friends. Though courageous, they are not aggressive. Aggressive behavior would be atypical of the breed and should never be encouraged in a dog of this size. A kind nature makes the typical Wolfhound totally unsuited to be a guard dog. As an incidental function, their very appearance is a formidable deterrent to intruders, but they are more likely to serenade the moon than bark at noises and people.
A Wolfhound puppy takes a year or more to mature, and left to its own devices can demolish a room per hour and injure itself in the process. Six-month-old Irish Wolfhounds weigh about 100 pounds, yet are not through teething, nor are their body functions ready for prolonged containment.
An occasional Irish Wolfhound is successfully raised and kept under less than ideal conditions by owners who have the wish, will, and stamina to provide extensive leash walking and cope with sidewalks, traffic, close neighbors, and pedestrians. The hygienic responsibility of owners with giant breeds is awesome. Typically, Irish Wolfhounds have only the kindest intentions toward children. Common sense, however, precludes the mingling of a small child and a large dog without supervision.
A completely natural breed, Wolfhound ears are uncropped, and tails are undocked. No part of the breed should appear styled, clipped, or scissored. Their typically harsh coats can be well maintained by regular brushing and plucking to tidy them up a bit.
Bringing their natural qualities to perfection is the goal of responsible, modern-day breeders. Some Irish Wolfhounds are entered in dog shows, where they compete based on physical excellence in relation to the official breed standard. Most owners, however, have a hound simply for the pleasure of their company. Although the chase is not a Wolfhound preoccupation, we must never forget it is their natural sport. The sight of them in characteristic gallop, swiftly covering the ground, is exhilarating and leaves no doubt of their need to exercise this birthright. Lure coursing, therefore, is great adventure and sport for Irish Wolfhounds. It gives them an opportunity to run full out harmlessly and chase an inanimate object without the risk encountered in hunting their natural prey, the wolf.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE IRISH WOLFHOUND
General Appearance—Of great size and commanding appearance, the Irish Wolfhound is remarkable in combining power and swiftness with keen sight. The largest and tallest of the galloping hounds, in general type he is a rough-coated, Greyhound-like breed; very muscular, strong though gracefully built; movements easy and active; head and neck carried high, the tail carried with an upward sweep with a slight curve towards the extremity. The minimum height and weight of dogs should be 32 inches and 120 pounds; of bitches, 30 inches and 105 pounds; these to apply only to hounds over 18 months of age. Anything below this should be debarred from competition. Great size, including height at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the desideratum to be aimed at, and it is desired to firmly establish a race that shall average from 32 to 34 inches in dogs, showing the requisite power, activity, courage and symmetry.
Head—Long, the frontal bones of the forehead very slightly raised and very little indentation between the eyes. Skull, not too broad. Muzzle, long and moderately pointed. Ears, small and Greyhound-like in carriage.
Neck—Rather long, very strong and muscular, well arched, without dewlap or loose skin about the throat.
Chest—Very deep. Breast, wide.
Back—Rather long than short. Loins arched.
Tail—Long and slightly curved, of moderate thickness, and well covered with hair.
Belly—Well drawn up.
Forequarters—Shoulders, muscular, giving breadth of chest, set sloping. Elbows well under, neither turned inwards nor outwards.
Leg—Forearm muscular, and the whole leg strong and quite straight.
Hindquarters—Muscular thighs and second thigh long and strong as in the Greyhound, and hocks well let down and turning neither in nor out.
Feet—Moderately large and round, neither turned inwards nor outwards. Toes, well arched and closed. Nails, very strong and curved.
Hair—Rough and hard on body, legs and head; especially wiry and long over eyes and underjaw.
Color and Markings—The recognized colors are gray, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, or any other color that appears in the Deerhound.
Too light or heavy a head, too highly arched frontal bone; large ears and hanging flat to the face;short neck; full dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken or hollow or quite straight back;bent forelegs; overbent fetlocks; twisted feet; spreading toes; too curly a tail; weak hindquarters anda general want of muscle; too short in body. Lips or nose liver-colored or lacking pigmentation.
LIST OF POINTS IN ORDER OF MERIT
Typical. The Irish Wolfhound is a rough-coated Greyhound-like breed, the tallest of the coursing hounds and remarkable in combining power and swiftness.
Great size and commanding appearance.
Movements easy and active.
Head, long and level, carried high.
Forelegs, heavily boned, quite straight; elbows well set under.
Thighs long and muscular; second thighs, well muscled, stifles nicely bent.
Coat, rough and hard, especially wiry and long over eyes and under jaw.
Body, long, well-ribbed up, with ribs well sprung, and great breadth across hips.
Loins arched, belly well drawn up.
Ears, small, with Greyhound-like carriage.
Feet, moderately large and round; toes, close, well arched.
Neck, long, well arched and very strong.
Chest, very deep, moderately broad.
Shoulders, muscular, set sloping.
Tail, long and slightly curved.
Note—The above in no way alter the Standard of Excellence, which must in all cases be rigidly adhered to; they simply give the various points in order of merit. If in any case they appear at variance with Standard of Excellence, it is the latter which is correct.
Approved September 12, 1950
COMRADE TO THE VIKINGS, GUARDIAN OF LONELY FARMS AND SAETERS, HERDER of flocks and defender from wolves and bear, a hunter always and roamer with hardy men, the Norwegian Elkhound comes down to us through more than six millennia with all his Nordic traits untainted, a fearless dog and friendly, devoted to man and the chase. We read of him in sagas, we find his remains by the side of his Viking master along with the Viking’s weapons—sure proof of the esteem in which he was held; and in the Viste Cave at Jaeren, in western Norway, his skeleton was uncovered among the stone implements in a stratum dating from 4000 to 5000 B.C.
Selected and bred for his ability to accomplish a definite purpose, the Elkhound achieved his distinctive type by natural methods. No form was imposed upon him; he was not squeezed into a preconceived standard; his structure and rare beauty, like those of the Thoroughbred horse, were evolved from the tests of performance. Every physical characteristic is the expression of a need. His compactness, his muscled robustness, his squareness, his width and depth are true expressions of nature’s requirements for a dog that would hunt day after day, all day long, in rugged country, where stamina counts more than extreme speed.
For though the Elkhound has become known and loved chiefly, perhaps, for his engaging and sensitive qualities as a comrade of man and his reliability and quickness to learn and adapt himself to any circumstances and conditions, it should never be forgotten that from first to last he has been at all times the peerless hunter of big game.
Many years ago, bear were still common in Norway, but today they are almost extinct, and the native dog’s main use is the hunting of elk. (Elk is incorrectly used in the United States for the wapiti, Cervus canadensis; our moose is a true elk.) A century ago, Captain Lloyd, an English sportsman, a mighty hunter, and a fascinating writer, devoted his leisure to the description of bear hunting in Norway; and from that time on, everyone that has seen the Elkhound work in the forests of his native land has added to his praise.
The Elkhound’s highly developed senses amount almost to intuition. It is common to read of, or—if one is fortunate—experience such incidents as seeing a seasoned dog take body scent at from two to three miles or to hear him indicating to his master by a slight whimpering that the elk has become alarmed and has begun to run, at a time when no human senses can apprehend any sign by which the hound ascertains this fact.
Equally subtle is his method of engaging a bull. Knowing well that an elk can outfoot him, he holds the animal by just enough barking to attract his attention. Even with a skillful dog, however, the elk often moves on before the hunter can get up over the steep countryside; and in that case, the dog, aware that the bull, if not excited by sound or scent, will soon pause, work silently and very carefully upwind until he is once more with his quarry. After a while, the bull, becoming angry at the small beast annoying him, begins to attack with a wide sweeping movement of the great antlers and by striking with his deadly forefeet. But now, the Elkhound, shortbacked so that he can, to use Herr Aarflot’s apt expression, “bounce like a rubber ball,” jumps nimbly in and out, while giving full and furious tongue so that his high-pitched voice will reach his master.
The Elkhound is well adapted to the hunting of any other four-footed game and soon becomes expert on lynx, mountain lion, and raccoon. Sir Henry Pottinger declares that he is also an excellent tracker of fox. The same authority states: “There is no more deadly way of approaching capercailzie, black game, and other forest birds than with a dog of the breed under discussion, held or fastened to the belt by a long leash and allowed to precede the hunter.”
The Elkhound, then, is an exceedingly versatile dog developed through constant contact with man in pursuit of game. It was not until 1877 that he began to be considered from an exhibition point of view. In that year the Norwegian Hunters’ Association held its first show, and, shortly thereafter, pedigrees, which had been handed down, were checked and traced as far back as feasible, a studbook (Norsk Hundestambak) was published, and a standard drawn up. Before that time, there had been some confusion of type owing to different developments in different parts of the country; but if we study the photograph of such a grand dog as that pillar of the studbook, known as Gamle Bamse Gram, we shall see that all the essential elements of the modern show dog were already there, requiring only a little refinement, a little emphasis.
At any rate, by the turn of the twentieth century the breed was making very rapid progress, and though there were few or no really large kennels, there were many expert breeders devoted to the Elkhound’s improvement. When the Norwegian Kennel Club (Norsk Kennelklub) inaugurated its annual shows at Oslo, the Elkhound came into his own as Norway’s great contribution to dogdom. Since then, he has been exported in ever-increasing numbers. His friendly disposition, his intelligence, his staunchness, his absolute dependability and trustworthiness, his eagerness to please, his sensitivity, and his fearless confidence have gained for him everywhere a popularity based even more on his comradely character than on his unsurpassed abilities as a hunting dog.
OFFICIAL STANDARD OF THE NORWEGIAN ELKHOUND
General Appearance—The Norwegian Elkhound is a hardy gray hunting dog. In appearance, a typical northern dog of medium size and substance, square in profile, close-coupled and balanced in proportions. The head is broad with prick ears, and the tail is tightly curled and carried over the back. The distinctive gray coat is dense and smooth lying. As a hunter, the Norwegian Elkhound has the courage, agility and stamina to hold moose and other big game at bay by barking and dodging attack, and the endurance to track for long hours in all weather over rough and varied terrain.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height at the withers for dogs is 201⁄2 inches, for bitches 191⁄2 inches. Weight for dogs about 55 pounds, for bitches about 48 pounds.
Square in profile and close coupled. Distance from brisket to ground appears to be half the height at the withers. Distance from forechest to rump equals the height at the withers. Bone is substantial, without being coarse.
Head—Headbroad at the ears, wedge shaped, strong and dry (without loose skin). Expression keen, alert, indicating a dog with great courage. Eyesvery dark brown, medium in size, oval, not protruding. Earsset high, firm and erect, yet very mobile. Comparatively small; slightly taller than their width at the base with pointed (not rounded) tips. When the dog is alert, the orifices turn forward and the outer edges are vertical. When relaxed or showing affection, the ears go back, and the dog should not be penalized for doing this during the judge’s examination.
Viewed from the side, the forehead and back of the skullare only slightly arched; the stopnot large, yet clearly defined. The muzzleis thickest at the base and, seen from above or from the side, tapers evenly without being pointed. The bridge of the noseis straight, parallel to and about the same length as the skull. Lipsare tightly closed and teethmeet in a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckof medium length, muscular, well set up with a slight arch and with no loose skin on the throat. Topline—The back is straight and strong from its high point at the withers to the root of the tail. The bodyis short and close-coupled with the rib cage accounting for most of its length. Chestdeep and moderately broad; brisket level with points of elbows; and ribs well sprung. Loinshort and wide with very little tuck-up. Tailset high, tightly curled, and carried over the centerline of the back. It is thickly and closely haired, without brush, natural and untrimmed.
Forequarters—Shoulders sloping with elbows closely set on. Legswell under body and medium in length; substantial, but not coarse, in bone. Seen from the front, the legs appear straight and parallel. Single dewclaws are normally present. Feet—Paws comparatively small, slightly oval with tightly closed toes and thick pads. Pasterns are strong and only slightly bent. Feet turn neither in nor out.
Hindquarters—Moderate angulation at stifle and hock. Thighsare broad and well muscled. Seen from behind, legs are straight, strong and without dewclaws. Feet as in front.
Coat—Thick, hard, weather resisting and smooth lying; made up of soft, dense, woolly undercoat and coarse, straight covering hairs. Short and even on head, ears, and front of legs; longest on back of neck, buttocks and underside of tail. The coat is not altered by trimming, clipping or artificial treatment. Trimming of whiskers is optional. In the show ring, presentation in a natural, unaltered condition is essential.
Color—Gray, medium preferred, variations in shade determined by the length of black tips and quantity of guard hairs. Undercoat is clear light silver as are legs, stomach, buttocks, and underside of tail. The gray body color is darkest on the saddle, lighter on the chest, mane and distinctive harness mark (a band of longer guard hairs from shoulder to elbow). The muzzle, ears and tail tip are black. The black of the muzzle shades to lighter gray over the forehead and skull.
Yellow or brown shading, white patches, indistinct or irregular markings, “sooty” coloring on the lower legs and light circles around the eyes are undesirable. Any overall color other than gray as described above, such as red, brown, solid black, white or other solid color, disqualifies.
Gait—Normal for an active dog constructed for agility and endurance. At a trot the stride is even and effortless; the back remains level. As the speed of the trot increases, front and rear legs converge equally in straight lines toward a centerline beneath the body, so that the pads appear to follow in the same tracks (single track). Front and rear quarters are well balanced in angulation and muscular development.
Temperament—In temperament, the Norwegian Elkhound is bold and energetic, an effective guardian yet normally friendly, with great dignity and independence of character.
Summary—The Norwegian Elkhound is a square and athletic member of the northern dog family. His unique coloring, weather resistant coat and stable disposition make him an ideal multipurpose dog at work or at play.
An overall color other than gray.
Approved December 13, 1988
Effective February 1, 1989
ALTHOUGH THERE ARE REFERENCES TO OTTERHOUNDS AND OTTER HUNTING during the reign of Britain’s King John (1199–1216), the dogs themselves were not described until the time of Edward II (1307–1327). Fortunately, a hunter of that era, William Twici, described the Otterhound as a “rough sort of dog, between a hound and a terrier.”
Otter hunting, never a major sport in Britain, nonetheless appears to have existed from very early times. It was first intended to stop otters from preying on fish in rivers, streams, and stocked ponds. Later, the activity became more popular because it was the only kind of hunting possible from April to September.
The actual origin of the Otterhound is unknown, but some early writers have advanced logical opinions on the subject. Stonehenge (J. H. Walsh) believed that the Otterhound’s ancestors were the Southern Hound and the Welsh Harrier. Indeed, large numbers of Otterhounds were found in Wales and in Devonshire, which was the chief stronghold of the Southern Hound. E. Buckley attributed the Otterhound’s coat to the Water Spaniel, a somewhat different type from the breed known today, and credits the Otterhound’s hardiness to the Bulldog. Other writers mention the Bloodhound, citing the domed shape of the skull and the length of the ears. In fact, as early as 1575, John Turberville made no distinction between the Bloodhound and the Otterhound in his description of otter hunting. One of the most reasonable opinions about Otterhound origin came from Marples, who noted the strong similarity between the Otterhound and the old Vendéen Hound of France. Both breeds are alike in coat and body conformation.
The heyday of the Otterhound in Britain extended from the middle to the end of the nineteenth century. During those years, as many as eighteen to twenty packs hunted regularly throughout the season. Authorities agree that the best-trained pack of Otterhounds ever hunted belonged to Squire Lomax of Clitheroe. The squire was a stickler for the fine points of game, and though the results interested him, his major concern was the manner in which his pack worked. According to legend, the pack was so well trained that Lomax’s hand signals could be given with a casual wave. His pack reached its peak of perfection about 1868.
By the mid-nineteenth century the breed was identical in appearance to the modern Otterhound, but the hunting packs of Great Britain continued to crossbreed to other hounds, including the Bloodhound, Griffon Nivernais, and foxhounds until the mid-twentieth century.
The Otterhound is a big dog, standing 24 to 27 inches tall and weighing from 75 to 115 pounds. Its hard, crisp, close coat is oily and repels water. The breed is found in many color combinations, the most common being grizzled black and tan. They are peerless swimmers, greatly aided by their webbed feet.
In Britain, the working qualities of the Otterhound breed have been emphasized to such an extent that they had never been common as benched-show specimens until the late twentieth century. Still, a few dogs from some of the great packs were customarily sent to major shows. The Carlisle and Kendal packs were noted for their show dogs.
Otterhounds made their first appearance in the United States around 1900. In 1907 they made their benched-show debut in Claremont, Oklahoma. In that same year, registrations were recorded for Hartland Moss Trooper and Hartland Statesman, both owned by H. S. Wardner, of New York City. Wardner was one of two exhibiters of the breed at the Claremont show, and he was undoubtedly America’s first Otterhound breeder.
While Otterhounds have never achieved wide popularity in the United States, their sagacity and character have earned them many steadfast friends. Their tousled appearance may not appeal to some, but their working ability and cheerful approach to life are more than adequate compensation. Though few Otterhounds now hunt, their scenting ability and determination have made them very successful as tracking dogs. In recent years, their athleticism has been used to earn advanced agility and obedience titles.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE OTTERHOUND
General Appearance—The Otterhound is a large, rough-coated hound with an imposing head showing great strength and dignity, and the strong body and long striding action fit for a long day’s work. It has an extremely sensitive nose, and is inquisitive and perseverant in investigating scents. The Otterhound hunts its quarry on land and water and requires a combination of characteristics unique among hounds—most notably a rough, double coat; and substantial webbed feet. Otterhounds should not be penalized for being shown in working condition (lean, well muscled, with a naturally stripped coat). Any departure from the following points should be considered a fault; its seriousness should be regarded in exact proportion to its degree.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Males are approximately 27 inches at the withers, and weigh approximately 115 lbs. Bitches are approximately 24 inches at the withers, and weigh approximately 80 lbs. This is not an absolute, but rather a guideline. The Otterhound is slightly rectangular in body; the length from point of shoulder to buttocks is slightly greater than the height at the withers. The Otterhound has good substance with strongly boned legs and broad muscles, without being coarse. Balance, soundness and type are of greater importance than size.
Head—The head is large, fairly narrow, and well covered with hair. The head should measure 11 to 12 inches from tip of nose to occiput in a hound 26 inches at the withers, with the muzzle and skull approximately equal in length. This proportion should be maintained in larger and smaller hounds. The expression is open and amiable. The eyes are deeply set. The haw shows only slightly. The eyes are dark, but eye color and eye rim pigment will complement the color of the hound. Dogs with black pigmented noses and eye rims should have darker eyes, while those with liver or slate pigment may have hazel eyes. The ears, an essential feature of this breed, are long, pendulous, and folded (the leading edge folds or rolls to give a draped appearance). They are set low, at or below eye level, and hang close to the head, with the leather reaching at least to the tip of the nose. They are well covered with hair. The skull (cranium) is long, fairly narrow under the hair, and only slightly domed. The stop is not pronounced. The muzzle is square, with no hint of snipiness; the jaws are powerful with deep flews. From the side, the planes of the muzzle and skull should be parallel. The nose is large, dark, and completely pigmented, with wide nostrils. The jaws are powerful and capable of a crushing grip. A scissors bite is preferred.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is powerful and blends smoothly into well laid back, clean shoulders, and should be of sufficient length to allow the dog to follow a trail. It has an abundance of hair; a slight dewlap is permissible. The topline is level from the withers to the base of tail. The chest is deep reaching at least to the elbows on a mature hound. Forechest is evident, there is sufficient width to impart strength and endurance. There should be no indication of narrowness or weakness. The well sprung, oval rib cage extends well towards the rear of the body. The loin is short, broad and strong. The tail is set high, and is long reaching at least to the hock. The tail is thicker at the base, tapers to a point, and is feathered (covered and fringed with hair). It is carried saber fashion (not forward over the back) when the dog is moving or alert, but may droop when the dog is at rest.
Forequarters—Shoulders are clean, powerful, and well sloped with moderate angulation at shoulders and elbows. Legs are strongly boned and straight, with strong, slightly sprung pasterns. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Feet—Both front and rear feet are large, broad, compact when standing, but capable of spreading. They have thick, deep pads, with arched toes; they are web-footed (membranes connecting the toes allow the foot to spread).
Hindquarters—Thighs and second thighs are large, broad, and well muscled. Legs have moderately bent stifles with well-defined hocks. Hocks are well let down, turning neither in nor out. Legs on a standing hound are parallel when viewed from the rear. Angulation front and rear must be balanced and adequate to give forward reach and rear drive. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet are as previously described.
Coat—The coat is an essential feature of the Otterhound. Coat texture and quality are more important than the length. The outer coat is dense, rough, coarse and crisp, of broken appearance. Softer hair on the head and lower legs is natural. The outer coat is two to four inches long on the back and shorter on the extremities. A water-resistant undercoat of short wooly, slightly oily hair is essential, but in the summer months may be hard to find except on the thighs and shoulders. The ears are well covered with hair, and the tail is feathered (covered and fringed with hair). A naturally stripped coat lacking length and fringes is correct for an Otterhound that is being worked. A proper hunting coat will show a hard outer coat and wooly undercoat. The Otterhound is shown in a natural coat, with no sculpturing or shaping of the coat. Faults—A soft outer coat is a very serious fault, as is a wooly textured outer coat. Lack of undercoat is a serious fault. An outer coat much longer than six inches becomes heavy when wet and is a fault. Any evidence of stripping or scissoring of coat to shape or stylize should be strongly penalized as a fault.
Color—Any color or combination of colors is acceptable. There should be no discrimination on the basis of color. The nose should be dark and fully pigmented, black, liver, or slate, depending on the color of the hound. Eye rim pigment should match the nose.
Gait—The Otterhound moves freely with forward reach and rear drive. The gait is smooth, effortless, and capable of being maintained for many miles. Characteristic of the Otterhound gait is a very loose, shambling walk, which springs immediately into a loose and very long striding, sound, active trot with natural extension of the head. The gallop is smooth and exceptionally long striding. Otterhounds single track at slow speeds. Otterhounds do not lift their feet high off the ground and may shuffle when they walk or move at a slow trot. The Otterhound should be shown on a loose lead.
Temperament—The Otterhound is amiable, boisterous and even-tempered.
Approved October 10, 1995
Effective November 30, 1995
PETIT BASSET GRIFFON VENDÉEN
THE PETIT BASSET GRIFFON VENDÉEN IS OF ANCIENT ORIGIN, A PROUD member of some twenty-eight hound breeds that even today are bred in France to serve their original purpose. The breed can be traced to the sixteenth century and to the Griffon Vendéen, a larger, more powerful ancestor. The name in French reveals much: Petit—“small,” Basset—“low to the ground,” Griffon— “rough or wire-coated,” and Vendéen—referring to the breed’s area of origin in France. In the United States, the breed is often referred to as the PBGV or Petit.
This small hunting dog has an intriguing and charming personality. First and foremost, however, the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen is a hound developed to hunt game by scent. Furthermore, their physical evolution is directly related to the environment and terrain on the western coast of France. That area, the Vendée, is characterized by thick underbrush, rocks, thorns, and brambles. This difficult terrain demanded a hardy, alert, bold, determined, intelligent hunter, with mental and physical stamina as well as a rough coat to serve as protection from the harsh elements of the environment. The desired type of hunting also required an independent personality.
Most French hounds come in large and small versions and are used for different prey. The Griffon Vendéen is the only breed to come in four distinct sizes. Each is used to hunt different game. The Grand Griffon Vendéen, twenty-five inches or more at the withers, was used for large game such as roe deer and wolf, which are hunted from horseback. The Briquet Griffon Vendéen, at approximately twenty inches tall at the withers, is next in size. Then come the two basset breeds: the Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen and the smallest, the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen. The PBGV is used to trail and drive smaller quarry, such as rabbit, hare, and sometimes even feathered game, hunted on foot in France and other European countries, as well as in the United States and Canada.
The attempt to standardize breed type was not undertaken seriously until the latter half of the nineteenth century. Until 1898, when the first official standard for Basset Griffon Français was adopted, judges made their placements without an official standard. In 1907, Paul Dezamy became the first president of the newly founded Club du Griffon Vendéen. Dezamy devised the breed’s first standard, and his family would preside over the club for three generations. Dezamy’s standard described both the Petit and Grand, which at the time came from the same litters. In 1909, a standard for the Basset Griffon Vendéen recognized two types: one standing thirty-four to thirty-eight centimeters (approximately thirteen to fifteen inches) at the shoulder, and the other thirty-eight to forty-two centimeters (fifteen to seventeen inches). The Petit was distinguished by smaller size and sometimes semi-crooked front legs. The Grand always had straight legs.
It was not until the 1950s that the Société de Venerie published a new book of standards. The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen was given an official standard of its own and thereby was considered a separate breed. But the earlier practice of interbreeding Petits and Grands made it common for offspring from the same litter to be entered, some as Petit and some as Grand, at the French Exhibition. Paul Dezamy II wrote the standard, even though he did not breed Petits. He became famous for his forty-two-centimenter Grands, referred to as “forty-two Dezamys,” and was responsible for devising both standards.
Finally, in 1975, through the efforts of Hubert Dezamy, the interbreeding of the Grand and Petit Basset was disallowed. As a result of longtime interbreeding, though, Petits today both manifest Grand and Petit characteristics and are likely to continue to do so for generations to come. For this reason, heavy emphasis is placed on type and size. It is hoped that breeders and judges will learn to recognize the features unique to a Petit so that the desired characteristics will be encouraged.
The ideal PBGVs are busy, active, alert, often vocal, and outgoing dogs that require regular daily exercise to remain at their best. They have a good voice, purposefully and freely used. As pack hounds, they get along well with other dogs and are often happiest in their company. Distinctive characteristics of the breed include a compact, casual, and unrefined appearance, featuring the definitive long eyebrows, beard, and mustache, and a strong, tapered tail carried like the blade of a saber. At heart, this breed remains a working hound whose typical active temperament is often not suitable for those desiring a calm, quiet dog.
The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen Club of America was founded at the AKC Centennial Show in 1984 to protect and promote the breed in this country. The PBGV was approved for AKC registration effective December 1, 1990, and became eligible to compete at AKC-licensed shows February 1, 1991.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PETIT BASSET GRIFFON VENDÉEN
General Appearance—The Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen is a French scent hound developed first and foremost to hunt small game over the rough and difficult terrain of the Vendéen region. To function efficiently, he must be equipped with certain characteristics. He is bold and vivacious in character; compact, tough and robust in construction. He has an alert outlook, lively bearing and a good voice freely and purposefully used.
The most distinguishing characteristics of this bold hunter are: his rough, unrefined outline; his proudly carried head, displaying definitive long eyebrows, beard, and moustache; his strong, tapered tail carried like a saber, alert and in readiness. Important to breed type is the compact, casual, rather tousled appearance, with no feature exaggerated and his parts in balance.
Any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the PBGV as in any other breed, regardless of whether they are specifically mentioned.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Both sexes should measure between 13 and 15 inches at the withers. Height of adult dogs over 15 inches or under 13 inches at the withers is a disqualification. Proportion—When viewed in profile, the body is somewhat longer than tall when measured from point of shoulder to buttocks, as compared to the height from withers to ground. Substance—Strong bone with substance in proportion to overall dog.
Head—The head is carried proudly and, in size, must be in balance with the overall dog. It is longer than its width in a ratio of approximately two to one. A coarse or overly large head is to be penalized. Expressionalert, friendly and intelligent. Eyeslarge and dark with good pigmentation, somewhat oval in shape, showing no white. The red of the lower eyelid should not show. The eyes are surmounted by long eyebrows, standing forward, but not obscuring the eyes. Earssupple, narrow and fine, covered with long hair, folding inward and ending in an oval shape. The leathers reach almost to the end of the nose. They are set on low, below the line of the eyes. An overly long or high-set ear should be penalized.
Skull domed, oval in shape when viewed from the front. It is well cut away under the eyes and has a well developed occipital protuberance. Stop clearly defined. Muzzle—The length of the muzzle from nose to stop is slightly shorter than the length from the stop to occiput. The underjaw is strong and well developed. Nose black and large, with wide nostrils. A somewhat lighter shading is acceptable in lighter colored dogs. A butterfly nose is a fault. Lips—The lips are covered by long hair forming a beard and moustache. Bite—It is preferable that the teeth meet in a scissors bite, but a level bite is acceptable.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—The neck is long and strong, without throatiness, and flows smoothly into the shoulders. Topline—The back is visibly level from withers to croup. There is a barely perceptible rise over a strong loin. Viewed in profile, the withers and the croup should be equidistant from the ground. Bodymuscular, somewhat longer than tall. Compact, casual in appearance, with no feature exaggerated and his parts in balance. Chest rather deep, with prominent sternum. Ribs moderately rounded, extending well back. Loin short, strong, and muscular. There is but little tuckup. Tailof medium length, set on high, it is strong at the base and tapers regularly. It is well furnished with hair, has but a slight curve and is carried proudly like the blade of a saber; normally pointing at about two o’clock. In a curved downward position the tip of the tail bone should reach no further than the hock joint.
Forequarters—Shoulders clean and well laid back. Upper arm approximately equal in length to the shoulder blade. Elbows close to the body. Legs—The length of leg from elbow to ground should be slightly more than one half the height from withers to ground. Viewed from the front, it is desirable that the forelegs be straight, but a slight crook is acceptable. In either case, the leg appears straight, is strong and well boned, but never coarse nor weedy. Improperly constructed front assemblies, including poor shoulder placement, short upper arms, out at elbows, lack of angulation and fiddle fronts, are all serious faults. Pasterns strong and slightly sloping. Any tendency to knuckle over is a serious fault. Dewclaws may, or may not, be removed. Feet not too long, between hare and cat foot, with hard, tight pads. The nails are strong and short.
Hindquarters—Strong and muscular with good bend of stifle. A well-defined second thigh. Hips wide, thighs well muscled. Hocks are short and well angulated, perpendicular from hock to ground. Feet are as in front, except that they must point straight ahead.
Coat—The coat is rough, long without exaggeration and harsh to the touch, with a thick shorter undercoat. It is never silky or woolly. The eyes are surmounted by long eyebrows, standing forward but not obscuring the eyes. The ears are covered by long hair. The lips are covered by long hair forming a beard and moustache. The tail is well furnished with hair. The overall appearance is casual and tousled.
The natural, casual and tousled appearance of the breed is vitally important. While some neatening is occasionally necessary, he should be shown naturally. Dogs whose coat has been altered by excessive grooming, sculpting, clipping, or by artificial means shall be so severely penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition.
Color—White with any combination of lemon, orange, black, sable, tricolor or grizzle markings, providing easy visibility in the field.
Gait—The movement should be free at all speeds. Front action is straight and reaching well forward. Going away, the hind legs are parallel and have great drive. Convergence of the front and rear legs towards his center of gravity is proportional to the speed of his movement. Gives the appearance of an active hound, capable of a full day’s hunting.
Temperament—Confident, happy, extroverted, independent yet willing to please, never timid nor aggressive.
Height, of both sexes at one year of age or older, over 15 inches or under 13 inches at thewithers is a disqualification.
Approved July 12, 2005
Effective August 31, 2005
THE PHARAOH HOUND, ONE OF THE OLDEST DOMESTICATED DOGS, TRACES his lineage to roughly 3000 B.C. Fortunately, the history of Egyptian civilization was well documented and preserved through paintings and hieroglyphics. From these we learn that this unique dog was treasured for his great hunting ability and his affinity for close family relationships.
King Tutankhamen loved to watch his graceful hound Abuwitiyuw leap with joy at the sight of a gazelle. When the hound died, he commanded the dog to be buried as would be fitting of a nobleman; he was laid in a coffin with fine linen, perfumed ointment, and incense so that he might be honored before the god Anubis. A striking model of a dog was found at the entrance to Tutankhamen’s tomb during the excavations.
Reliefs of these hounds hunting can be found in the tomb chapel of Mereruwka and in the tomb chapel of Senbi. Both the Pharaoh Hound Club of England and the Pharaoh Hound Club of America use as their emblem the dog depicted on the tomb of Antefa II, Eleventh Dynasty, about 3000 B.C. The dogs are described in a translation of a letter of the Nineteenth Dynasty: “The red, long-tailed dog goes at night into the stalls of the hills, he is better than the long-faced dog. He makes no delay in hunting, his face glows like a god and he delights to do his work.” This “blushing” trait has not been lost through the ages. It is beautiful to see a Pharaoh Hound glow with excitement or happiness—the nose and ears fuming a deep rose color, and the lovely amber eyes further enriched with a deep rose hue.
It seems reasonably certain that the origins of this dog lie in Egypt and they were carried by Phoenician traders to the island of Malta well before the birth of Christ. The breeders of Malta maintained a purity of breed type over a period of 2,000 years, for the dog today still closely resembles his Egyptian forebears.
In Malta, the Pharaoh Hound was bred to hunt rabbit and only the best hunters were used in selective breeding programs. The high esteem in which these dogs have been held was evidenced in 1979, when a silver coin bearing the likeness of a standing Pharaoh Hound was minted to commemorate the occasion of the dog being declared the national dog of Malta.
Pharaoh Hounds were apparently first imported into England in the early 1930s, but records are inconclusive. In 1963, Pauline Block, who had become an admirer of the breed while living in Malta, returned home to England with Bahri of Twinley. This Pharaoh Hound was the first to be shown in England at the Hound Show at Alexandria Palace in London.
In 1967 Mrs. Ruth Taft Harper brought the first Pharaoh Hound to the United States. It was a bitch secured with the help of Mrs. Block and her husband, General Adam Block. The first litter of Pharaoh Hounds was whelped in the United States in 1970. Another of the earliest champions of the breed in America was Rita Laventhall Sacks, who imported Pharaohs from England and Malta to enrich the gene pool.
The American Kennel Club admitted Pharaoh Hounds into the Miscellaneous class in January 1979. Then, effective August 1, 1983, the breed was recognized for registration in the AKC Stud Book, and on January 1, 1984, became eligible to compete in the Hound Group.
The Pharaoh Hound gives a striking impression of elegance, power, and grace. He is intelligent, friendly, and affectionate. His great speed combined with his alertness and agility give him a marked keenness for hunting both by sight and by scent.
An outstanding feature of the breed is their haunting, beautiful amber eyes. Their nose, eye rims, and lips are flesh-colored, blending with the coat. Many Pharaoh Hounds display a marvelous trait of smiling, showing their pearly white scissors bite. They are particularly fond of children and never lose their fondness for romping and playing, as they crave human attention. Their short, glossy coats tend to make them most enjoyable as house dogs, and another desirable feature is that they have no doggy odor, even when wet. Their willingness to please allows them to be trained swiftly, which makes them excellent candidates for hunting, obedience, and coursing.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PHARAOH HOUND
General Appearance—General Appearance is one of grace, power and speed. The Pharaoh Hound is medium sized, of noble bearing with hard clean-cut lines— graceful, well balanced, very fast with free easy movement and alert expression.
The following description is that of the ideal Pharaoh Hound. Any deviation from the below described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height—Dogs 23 inches–25 inches. Bitches 21 inches–24 inches. All-over balance must be maintained. Length of body from breast to haunch bone slightly longer than height of withers to ground. Lithe.
Head—Alert expression. Eyes amber colored, blending with coat; oval, moderately deep set with keen intelligent expression. Ears medium high set, carried erect when alert, but very mobile, broad at the base, fine and large. Skull long, lean and chiseled. Only slight stop. Foreface slightly longer than the skull. Top of the skull parallel with the foreface representing a blunt wedge. Nose flesh colored, blending with the coat. No other color. Powerful jaws with strong teeth. Scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck long, lean and muscular with a slight arch to carry the head on high. Clean throat line. Almost straight topline. Slight slope from croup to root of tail. Body lithe. Deep brisket almost down to point of elbow. Ribs well sprung. Moderate tuck-up. Tail medium set—fairly thick at the base and tapering whip-like, reaching below the point of hock in repose. Well carried and curved when in action. The tail should not be tucked between the legs. A screw tail is a fault.
Forequarters—Shoulders long and sloping and well laid back. Strong without being loaded. Elbows well tucked in. Forelegs straight and parallel. Pasterns strong. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet neither cat nor hare but strong, well knuckled and firm, turning neither in nor out. Paws well padded.
Hindquarters—Strong and muscular. Limbs parallel. Moderate sweep of stifle. Well developed second thigh. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—Short and glossy, ranging from fine and close to slightly harsh with no feathering. Accident blemishes should not be considered as faults.
Color—Ranging from tan/rich, tan/chestnut with white markings allowed as follows: White tip on tail strongly desired. White on chest (called “the Star”). White on toes and slim white snip on centerline of face permissible. Flecking or other white undesirable, except for any solid white spot on the back of neck, shoulder, or any part of the back or sides of the dog, which is a disqualification.
Gait—Free and flowing; the head should be held fairly high and the dog should cover the ground well without any apparent effort. The legs and feet should move in line with the body; any tendency to throw the feet sideways, or a high stepping “hackney” action is a definite fault.
Temperament—Intelligent, friendly, affectionate and playful. Alert and active. Very fast with a marked keenness for hunting, both by sight and scent.
Any solid white spot on the back of neck, shoulder, or any part of the back or sides of thedog.
Approved May 10, 1983
Reformatted April 3, 1989
THE FIRST PICTURES OF AFRICAN DOGS WERE MADE ALL OVER SOUTHERN Africa thousands of years ago in the caves of the San (Bushmen), the region’s oldest existing people. The Bushmen obtained their dogs from the nomadic, pastoralist Khoi people (known by the Dutch as the Hottentot) and from Bantu-speaking agriculturalists. The Khoi originated in the north and migrated southward with dogs, which they also obtained from Bantu-speaking people.
Many of the Khoi and Bushmen dogs were jackal-like in appearance, approximately forty pounds, reddish brown or tan in color, with a distinguishing ridge that ran along their backs. These dogs hunted, herded, and protected the Khoi’s cattle, goats, and sheep from wild predators, such as jackal, hyena, leopard, and lion. They were particularly faithful when their masters were threatened by such predators and were therefore highly valued and sought after.
In 1652 Jan van Riebeck, a Dutch merchant, landed in South Africa. As early as 1685 European settlers were bartering their cattle for Khoi dogs to which they bred Mastiffs, Great Danes, Bloodhounds, Pointers, Staghounds, Irish Wolfhounds, and Greyhounds, among others. These Dutch, German, and French settlers intermarried and became Boers, with their own Afrikaans language. The Boers (Afrikaans for farmers) needed a dog that was resistant to local diseases; able to thrive in spite of extreme temperatures, limited water, rough bush, and relentless ticks; and an extraordinarily brave and cunning hunter, all while being a loyal family dog. Mating European breeds to native ridged Khoi hunting stock, the Boers produced unique dogs that hunted by both sight and scent and were devoted family guardians.
Through such interbreeding came the next generation of the Ridgeback ancestry, including the Steekbaard (“prickly beard”) and Vuilbaard (“dirty beard” or “wooly beard”) Afrikaans farm dogs. These evolved into the Boerhounds (“farmer’s dog”), which became distinct and were found, with their noticeable ridge, on almost every farm.
To escape British rule of the Cape Colony, many Boers moved north in the 1830s and took their dogs with them. In 1873, the Reverend Charles Helm began his trek north and passed through the Naauwpoort area, which had a concentrated source of ridged dogs belonging to a displaced population of Khoi and Bushmen. Helms acquired two Greyhound-type bitches of these ridged dogs in 1875 and continued his trek.
It was in Rhodesia where renowned big-game hunter Cornelius Van Rooyen, a farmer at Plumtree in Southern Rhodesia, used the Helms dogs and selectively bred them with his own to produce a hunter with courage, intelligence, and the natural tendency to hold lion at bay. His pack included Greyhounds, Irish Terriers, English Pointers, Bulldogs, Rough Collies, Great Danes, and mixes thereof. The ridged dogs became known as Van Rooyen’s Lion Dogs. They used their unique ability for tracking and then holding lions at bay, relying on a protective instinct activated when threatened by lion and leopard. This trait was unique among dogs and contributed greatly to the success of these fearless hunters, whose distinctive ridge became a trademark passed on from their very beginnings.
By the 1920s, there were so many different variations of the Lion Dogs that a meeting was held under the leadership of Francis Richard Barnes to elucidate the most desirable points of the breed. These points became the basis for the current standard, adopted in 1922 and virtually unchanged to this day. Dogs meeting the standard criteria came to be known as Rhodesian Ridgebacks. Today, the Rhodesian Ridgeback is the national dog of South Africa and is depicted on the emblem of the Kennel Club of the Union of Southern Africa.
The breed was introduced into England in the 1930s and America soon after. In both countries, it gained recognition in the 1950s and quickly attracted admirers. The AKC conferred official recognition upon the breed in 1955. On March 9, 1971, the AKC formally admitted the Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of the United States. In 1992, the breed received recognition as a sighthound eligible to compete in AKC coursing trials.
The Rhodesian Ridgeback is not only a keen and versatile hunter but also a loyal guardian. It is good with children, especially protective of those in its family, but might be too rambunctious in play for small children. The Ridgeback is strong willed and powerful; some can become domineering. Reserved with strangers, the Ridgeback can, if not properly socialized, be aggressive toward strange dogs and animals.
The Ridgeback is athletic. It loves to run and needs daily mental and physical exercise to keep from becoming bored. Ridgebacks have strong prey drive—which means, basically, if they see it, they go for it! When off leash, Ridgebacks should be in a fenced-in area.
Moderate exercise programs can be started after the age of twelve months, if the dog is in good physical condition and not exercised in excessive heat. Harder exercise should wait until the age of eighteen months, to allow proper bone and joint development. The Ridgeback is a family member and house dog, and prefers sleeping indoors and dividing time between the house and yard during the day. Grooming is minimal, consisting only of occasional bathing and brushing the coat to remove dead hair, and regular nail trimming, which should begin in puppyhood.
(The writings of Sian Hall, including her book Dogs of Africa, have been a helpful source in this history of the Rhodesian Ridgeback.)
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE RHODESIAN RIDGEBACK
General Appearance—The Ridgeback represents a strong, muscular and active dog, symmetrical and balanced in outline. A mature Ridgeback is a handsome, upstanding and athletic dog, capable of great endurance with a fair (good) amount of speed. Of even, dignified temperament, the Ridgeback is devoted and affectionate to his master, reserved with strangers. The peculiarity of this breed is the ridge on the back. The ridge must be regarded as the characteristic feature of the breed.
Size, Proportion, Substance—A mature Ridgeback should be symmetrical in outline, slightly longer than tall but well balanced. Dogs—25 to 27 inches in height; Bitches—24 to 26 inches in height. Desirable weight: Dogs—85 pounds; Bitches—70 pounds.
Head—Should be of fair length, the skull flat and rather broad between the ears and should be free from wrinkles when in repose. The stop should be reasonably well defined. Eyes—Should be moderately well apart and should be round, bright and sparkling with intelligent expression, their color harmonizing with the color of the dog. Ears—Should be set rather high, of medium size, rather wide at the base and tapering to a rounded point. They should be carried close to the head. Muzzle— Should be long, deep and powerful. The lips clean, closely fitting the jaws. Nose—Should be black, brown or liver, in keeping with the color of the dog. No other colored nose is permissible. A black nose should be accompanied by dark eyes, a brown or liver nose with amber eyes. Bite— Jaws level and strong with well-developed teeth, especially the canines or holders. Scissors bite preferred.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck should be fairly strong and free from throatiness. The chest should not be too wide, but very deep and capacious, ribs moderately well sprung, never rounded like barrel hoops (which would indicate want of speed). The back is powerful and firm with strong loins which are muscular and slightly arched. The tail should be strong at the insertion and generally tapering towards the end, free from coarseness. It should not be inserted too high or too low and should be carried with a slight curve upwards, never curled or gay.
Forequarters—The shoulders should be sloping, clean and muscular, denoting speed. Elbows close to the body. The forelegs should be perfectly straight, strong and heavy in bone. The feet should be compact with well-arched toes, round, tough, elastic pads, protected by hair between the toes and pads. Dewclaws may be removed.
Hindquarters—In the hind legs the muscles should be clean, well defined and hocks well down. Feet as in front.
Coat—Should be short and dense, sleek and glossy in appearance but neither woolly nor silky.
Color—Light wheaten to red wheaten. A little white on the chest and toes permissible but excessive white there, on the belly or above the toes is undesirable.
Ridge—The hallmark of this breed is the ridge on the back which is formed by the hair growing in the opposite direction to the rest of the coat. The ridge must be regarded as the characteristic feature of the breed. The ridge should be clearly defined, tapering and symmetrical. It should start immediately behind the shoulders and continue to a point between the prominence of the hips and should contain two identical crowns (whorls) directly opposite each other. The lower edge of the crowns (whorls) should not extend further down the ridge than one third of the ridge.
Disqualification: Ridgelessness. Serious Fault: One crown (whorl) or more than two crowns (whorls).
Gait—At the trot, the back is held level and the stride is efficient, long, free and unrestricted. Reach and drive expressing a perfect balance between power and elegance. At the chase, the Ridgeback demonstrates great coursing ability and endurance.
Temperament—Dignified and even tempered. Reserved with strangers.
SCALE OF POINTS
Approved August 11, 1992
Effective September 30, 1992
THE SALUKI IS PERHAPS THE OLDEST KNOWN DOMESTICATED DOG BREED, SAID to be as old as the earliest known civilization. Historians identified the Saluki as a distinct breed and type as long ago as 329 B.C., when Alexander the Great invaded India. This claim is based on hounds depicted in the earliest carvings, which look more like Salukis than any other breed. They have Greyhound-type bodies with long-leathered ears; some are smooth coated and some with feathering, just as we have today. Similar hound images appear on the Egyptian tombs of 2100 B.C. More recent excavations of the still-older Sumerian empire, estimated at 7000 to 6000 B.C., have unearthed carvings with striking resemblance to the Saluki.
The Saluki was declared sacred and called the “noble one” given by Allah for people’s amusement and benefit, despite the Islamic teaching that dogs are unclean and unfit to touch anything that Moslems touch. This permitted Moslems to eat the meat brought down in the chase.
Salukis were the only dog of the time allowed to sleep on the carpets in the sheikh’s tent. In Egypt, these dogs were held in such great esteem that their bodies were often mummified along with the pharaohs themselves. The remains of numerous specimens have been found in the ancient tombs of the Upper Nile region. It is claimed that whenever one sees the word dog in the Bible, it means Saluki.
Desert tribes were nomadic. Therefore, the Saluki’s habitat was the region stretching from the Caspian Sea to the Sahara, including Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia. Naturally, the types in this vast area varied somewhat, mostly in size and coat. The Arabian-bred Saluki was smaller than the Persian-bred, with less furnishings in the feathered variety.
Salukis were brought into England in 1840. The first imports included a bitch owned by Sir Hamilton Smith, a dog placed in the Regents Park Zoological Gardens, and a dog owned by the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth. They were known as Persian Greyhounds, since these three came from Persia. In the twentieth century, England learned more about Salukis from army officers stationed in the Middle East during World War I. Other specimens, either prizes of war or the gifts of friendly tribes, were brought home at that time.
It was not until 1895 that real interest in the breed developed in the West. The Honorable Florence Amherst imported the first Arabians from the kennels of Prince Abdulla in Transjordania. It is recorded that the pharaohs rode to the chase with hawks on their wrists and Salukis on lead. Because of their tremendous speed, Salukis were used by the Arabs to bring down gazelle, the fastest of antelopes. We also believe Salukis were used on jackals, foxes, and hare. A cut published in 1852 even shows a wild boar hunt in Algeria with Salukis tackling the boar! Today in England, the breed is used largely on hare. Regular coursing meets are held, with judging based on the dog’s ability to turn quickly and overtake the hare in the best possible time. Salukis hunt largely by sight, although they have a fair nose.
The sport of racing Salukis, with a mechanical rabbit and hurdles at intervals, is enjoyed in England and on the Continent. In the United States, Salukis exercise their love of the chase in lure coursing, in which an artificial lure is pulled through a simulated live game course, with hounds in pursuit. In some areas, live game coursing is permitted.
The Saluki’s sight is remarkable. Related hereditary traits are often seen in Salukis lying on the sand watching an eagle soaring for prey but paying no attention to a nearby gull. Soon after his arrival in America, one famous dog, Sarona Dhole, chased a fox and registered a kill within a few seconds after sighting the quarry.
In their native wasteland, Salukis get no pampering. They live hard, and it’s survival of the fittest. This is one reason for the breed’s strong constitution and sturdy frame, which enables it to tolerate extreme temperatures and withstand any climate. Their feet are hard and firm, and the hair between the toes is great protection. In running and dodging over the roughest terrain and rocky country, they rarely damage their pads or toes.
The Saluki’s beauty is like that of the Arabian horse, with grace and symmetry of form, and clean-cut pleasing lines, proportion, and movement. Completing the image is characteristic short, silky hair, except on ears, legs, and tail in the feathered variety. A slender, well-muscled neck, shoulder, and thigh, with arched loins, a long tail carried naturally in a curve with silky hair hanging from the underside, arched toes, and the rather long head with deep, farseeing eyes and an expression of dignity mixed with gentleness all are physical properties of this ancient breed.
Salukis come in a wide variety of colors, including white, cream, fawn, gold, red, grizzle and tan, black and tan, and tri-color (white, black, and tan). They show great attachment to their owners and are affectionate without being demonstrative. Salukis are good watchdogs, but are not aggressive. The Saluki was a well-established breed in England for many years before coming into their own in this country. It was not until November 1927 that the Saluki was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club. In 2002 the breed came full circle, with certified descendants of Salukis imported from countries of origin again becoming eligible for AKC registration.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SALUKI
Head—Long and narrow, skull moderately wide between the ears, not domed, stop not pronounced, the whole showing great quality. Nose black or liver. Ears—Long and covered with long silky hair hanging close to the skull and mobile. Eyes—Dark to hazel and bright; large and oval, but not prominent. Teeth—Strong and level.
Neck—Long, supple and well muscled.
Chest—Deep and moderately narrow.
Forequarters—Shoulders sloping and set well back, well muscled without being coarse. Forelegs—Straight and long from the elbow to the knee.
Hindquarters—Strong, hipbones set well apart and stifle moderately bent, hocks low to the ground, showing galloping and jumping power.
Loin and Back—Back fairly broad, muscles slightly arched over loin.
Feet—Of moderate length, toes long and well arched, not splayed out, but at the same time not cat-footed; the whole being strong and supple and well feathered between the toes.
Tail—Long, set on low and carried naturally in a curve, well feathered on the underside with long silky hair, not bushy.
Coat—Smooth and of a soft silky texture, slight feather on the legs, feather at the back of the thighs and sometimes with slight woolly feather on the thigh and shoulder.
Colors—White, cream, fawn, golden, red, grizzle and tan, tricolor (white, black and tan) and black and tan.
General Appearance—The whole appearance of this breed should give an impression of grace and symmetry and of great speed and endurance coupled with strength and activity to enable it to kill gazelle or other quarry over deep sand or rocky mountains. The expression should be dignified and gentle with deep, faithful, farseeing eyes. Dogs should average in height from 23 to 28 inches and bitches may be considerably smaller, this being very typical of the breed.
The Smooth Variety—In this variety the points should be the same with the exception of the coat, which has no feathering.
THE ORIGIN OF THE BREED IS OF SUCH ANTIQUITY, AND THE EARLIEST descriptive names bestowed on it so inextricably mixed, that no sound conclusion can be arrived at as to whether the Deerhound was at one time identical with the ancient Irish Wolfdog and, in the course of centuries, bred to a type better suited to hunt deer, or whether, as some writers claim, he is the descendant of the hounds of the Picts. Very early descriptive names were used to identify the purpose of the dog rather than to identify species. We find such names as Irish Wolf Dog, Scotch Greyhound, Rough Greyhound, Highland Deerhound. John Caius, in Of Englishe Dogges (1576), describing Greyhounds, wrote, “Some are of a greater sorte, some of a lesser; some are smoothe skynned and some curled, the bigger therefore are appointed to hunt the bigger beastes, the duck, the hart, the doe.”
All this is relatively unimportant when we can definitely identify the breed as Deerhounds as early as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. From there on the word deerhound has been applied to the breed, which of all dogs has been found best suited for the pursuit and killing of the deer.
At all times great value has been set on the Deerhound. The history of the breed teems with romance increasing in splendor right down through the Age of Chivalry, when no one of rank lower than an earl might possess these dogs. A leash of Deerhounds was held the fine whereby a noble lord condemned to death might purchase his reprieve. Medieval documents allude repeatedly to the delightful attributes of this charming hound, his tremendous courage in the chase, his gentle dignity in the home.
So highly has the Deerhound been esteemed that the desire for exclusive ownership has at many times endangered the continuance of the breed. As the larger beasts of the chase became extinct or rare in England and southern Scotland, the more delicate, smooth Greyhound took the place of the larger Deerhound. The Highlands of Scotland, the last territory wherein the stag remained numerous in a wild state, became the last stronghold of this breed. Here again the Highland chieftains assumed exclusive proprietorship to such an extent that it was rare to find a good specimen south of the River Forth. So severely was this policy pursued that in 1769 the breed physically and numerically ran very low. This, of course, must be attributed in great measure to the collapse of the clan system after the failed Jacobite rebellion at Culloden Moor in 1745. It was not until about 1825, when the restoration of the breed was undertaken very successfully by Archibald and Duncan McNeill (the latter afterward Lord Colonsay), that the Deerhound regained his place of preeminence and former perfection. World War I had considerable effect on the breed, as many of the large estates in Scotland and England were broken up. Although this “Royal Dog of Scotland” is represented at English shows in good numbers and to an extent at shows in this country, the Deerhound remains a rare dog of such historical interest and character that ownership should give anyone great pride of possession.
The high valuation of the Deerhound is not the result of rarity so much as the fact that as a hunter he is preeminent, with a high aggregate of desirable characteristics. He has a keen scent, which may be used in tracking, but it is that combination of strength and speed necessary to cope with the large Scottish deer (often weighing 250 pounds) that is most valued. The hounds are usually hunted singly or in pairs. Centuries of hunting as the companions and guards of Highland chieftains have given the Deerhound an insatiable desire for human companionship. For this reason the best Deerhounds are seldom raised as kennel dogs. In character the Deerhound is quiet and dignified, keen and alert, and although not aggressive, has great persistence and indomitable courage when necessary. While it might be an exaggeration to claim that the Deerhound of today is identical with the dog of early history, descriptions of which are mostly legendary, it is nevertheless a well-established fact that in type, size, and character he closely conforms to authentic records of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The hunting of antlered game with dogs is not permitted in the United States, but the Deerhound has been used very successfully on wolves, coyotes, and rabbits, and is keen to match his speed with anything that runs. As a companion the Deerhound is ideal, being tractable and easy to train and possessing the most dependable loyalty and utmost devotion to his master. The best descriptions of the breed are found in nineteenth-century British dog books.
The grace, dignity, and beauty of the Deerhound have been faithfully depicted in many of Landseer’s paintings and drawings, and Sir Walter Scott, who owned the famous Deerhound Maida, wrote many enthusiastic allusions to the breed, which he described as “the most perfect creature of Heaven.”
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SCOTTISH DEERHOUND
Head—Should be broadest at the ears, narrowing slightly to the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. The muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head should be long, the skull flat rather than round with a very slight rise over the eyes but nothing approaching a stop. The hair on the skull should be moderately long and softer than the rest of the coat. The nose should be black (in some blue fawns—blue) and slightly aquiline. In lighter colored dogs the black muzzle is preferable. There should be a good mustache of rather silky hair and a fair beard.
Ears—Should be set on high; in repose, folded back like a Greyhound’s, though raised above the head in excitement without losing the fold, and even in some cases semierect. A prick ear is bad. Big thick ears hanging flat to the head or heavily coated with long hair are bad faults. The ears should be soft, glossy, like a mouse’s coat to the touch and the smaller the better. There should be no long coat or long fringe, but there is sometimes a silky, silvery coat on the body of the ear and the tip. On all Deerhounds, irrespective of color of coat, the ears should be black or dark colored.
Neck and Shoulders—The neck should be long—of a length befitting the Greyhound character of the dog. Extreme length is neither necessary nor desirable. Deerhounds do not stoop to their work like the Greyhounds. The mane, which every good specimen should have, sometimes detracts from the apparent length of the neck. The neck, however, must be strong as is necessary to hold a stag. The nape of the neck should be very prominent where the head is set on, and the throat clean cut at the angle and prominent. Shoulders should be well sloped; blades well back and not too much width between them. Loaded and straight shoulders are very bad faults.
Tail—Should be tolerably long, tapering and reaching to within 11⁄2 inches of the ground and about 11⁄2 inches below the hocks. Dropped perfectly down or curved when the Deerhound is still, when in motion or excited, curved, but in no instance lifted out of line of the back. It should be well covered with hair, on the inside, thick and wiry, underside longer and towards the end a slight fringe is not objectionable. A curl or ring tail is undesirable.
Eyes—Should be dark—generally dark brown, brown or hazel. A very light eye is not liked. The eye should be moderately full, with a soft look in repose, but a keen, far away look when the Deerhound is roused. Rims of eyelids should be black.
Body—General formation is that of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad but not too narrow or slab-sided. Good girth of chest is indicative of great lung power. The loin well arched and drooping to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, this formation being unsuited for uphill work, and very unsightly.
Legs and Feet—Legs should be broad and flat, and good broad forearms and elbows are desirable. Forelegs must, of course, be as straight as possible. Feet close and compact, with well-arranged toes. The hindquarters drooping, and as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart. A narrow rear denotes lack of power. The stifles should be well bent, with great length from hip to hock, which should be broad and flat. Cowhocks, weak pasterns, straight stifles and splay feet are very bad faults.
Coat—The hair on the body, neck and quarters should be harsh and wiry about 3 or 4 inches long; that on the head, breast and belly much softer. There should be a slight fringe on the inside of the forelegs and hind legs but nothing approaching the “feather” of a Collie. A woolly coat is bad. Some good strains have a mixture of silky coat with the hard which is preferable to a woolly coat. The climate of the United States tends to produce the mixed coat. The ideal coat is a thick, close-lying ragged coat, harsh or crisp to the touch.
Color—Is a matter of fancy, but the dark blue-gray is most preferred. Next come the darker and lighter grays or brindles, the darkest being generally preferred. Yellow and sandy red or red fawn, especially with black ears and muzzles, are equally high in estimation. This was the color of the oldest known strains—the McNeil and Chesthill Menzies. White is condemned by all authorities, but a white chest and white toes, occurring as they do in many of the darkest-colored dogs, are not objected to, although the less the better, for the Deerhound is a self-colored dog. A white blaze on the head, or a white collar, should entirely disqualify. The less white the better but a slight white tip to the stern occurs in some of the best strains.
Height—HeightofDogs—From 30 to 32 inches, or even more if there by symmetry without coarseness, which is rare. HeightofBitches—From 28 inches upwards. There is no objection to a bitch being large, unless too coarse, as even at her greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, and therefore could not be too big for work as overbig dogs are.
Weight—From 85 to 110 pounds in dogs, and from 75 to 95 pounds in bitches.
POINTS OF THE DEERHOUND, ARRANGED IN ORDER OFIMPORTANCE
Typical—A Deerhound should resemble a rough-coated Greyhound of larger size and bone.
Movements—Easy, active and true.
As tall as possible consistent with quality.
Head—Long, level, well balanced, carried high.
Body—Long, very deep in brisket, well-sprung ribs and great breadth across hips.
Forelegs—Strong and quite straight, with elbows neither in nor out.
Thighs—Long and muscular, second thighs well muscled, stifles well bent.
Loins—Well arched, and belly well drawn up.
Coat—Rough and hard, with softer beard and brows.
Feet—Close, compact, with well-knuckled toes.
Ears—Small (dark) with Greyhound like carriage.
Eyes—Dark, moderately full.
Neck—Long, well arched, very strong with prominent nape.
Shoulders—Clean, set sloping.
Chest—Very deep but not too narrow.
Tail—Long and curved slightly, carried low.
Teeth—Strong and level.
Nails—Strong and curved.
White blaze on the head, or a white collar.
Approved March 1935
THE WHIPPET, A MEDIUM-SIZED MEMBER OF THE SIGHTHOUND FAMILY, IS Greyhound-like in appearance. Although their origin is uncertain, small Greyhound-type dogs have been depicted in art throughout the ages; the breed evolved with the English working class as a utility dog, to provide companionship, rabbits for the table, and racing sport in leisure time. Whippets came to America with British immigrants and were recognized by the AKC in 1888, ironically three years before Kennel Club (England) recognition.
Whippets, born athletes, excel at coursing and racing, but unlike Greyhound racing, Whippet racing is purely sport, not involving gambling or prize money. Whippets, one of the most popular show dogs competing in the Hound Group, are a versatile breed and can compete in agility, obedience, flyball, and Frisbee, and, with their gentle demeanor, they excel at therapy work.
Ranging in size from eighteen to twenty-two inches at the shoulder and twenty-eight to thirty-eight pounds in weight, Whippets are capable of attaining speeds of thirty-five miles per hour and are genetically programmed to run, jump, and chase. They are energetic puppies that can be destructive when bored. A properly socialized and trained puppy will mature into a well-behaved, confident competitor and companion.
Intelligent, sensitive, and affectionate, Whippets are uniquely individual in temperament. They make excellent indoor companions, but with their lean build and short, close coat they do not tolerate long exposure to extreme cold. Whippets require vigorous, safe exercise almost daily and, because they are visually oriented, if they see something interesting to chase, they will run, oblivious to danger and the calls of their owners. It is ideal to provide access and exercise in a fenced yard or take your Whippet on lead to a secure park or field.
The Whippet, extraordinarily keen when racing or on game, thrives on human contact and companionship. When treated as a member of the family, the Whippet is quiet, dignified, unobtrusive, and, above all, highly decorative on your living room furniture. Contrary to external appearances, he is by no means delicate or difficult to care for. All in all, he makes an ideal dual-purpose medium-sized dog for an owner of discrimination.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE WHIPPET
General Appearance—A medium size sighthound giving the appearance of elegance and fitness, denoting great speed, power and balance without coarseness. A true sporting hound that covers a maximum of distance with a minimum of lost motion. Should convey an impression of beautifully balanced muscular power and strength, combined with great elegance and grace of outline. Symmetry of outline, muscular development and powerful gait are the main considerations; the dog being built for speed and work, all forms of exaggeration should be avoided.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Ideal height for dogs, 19 to 22 inches; for bitches, 18 to 21 inches, measured at the highest point of the withers. More than one-half inch above or below the stated limits will disqualify. Length from forechest to buttocks equal to or slightly greater than height at the withers. Moderate bone throughout.
Head—Keen, intelligent, alert expression. Eyes large and dark. Both eyes must be of the same color. Yellow or light eyes should be strictly penalized. Blue or wall eyes shall disqualify. Fully pigmented eyelids are desirable.
Rose ears, small, fine in texture; in repose, thrown back and folded along neck. Fold should be maintained when at attention. Erect ears should be severely penalized.
Skull long and lean, fairly wide between the ears, scarcely perceptible stop. Muzzle should be long and powerful, denoting great strength of bite, without coarseness. Lack of underjaw should be strictly penalized. Nose entirely black.
Teeth of upper jaw should fit closely over teeth of lower jaw creating a scissors bite. Teeth should be white and strong. Undershot shall disqualify. Overshot one-quarter inch or more shall disqualify.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck long, clean and muscular, well arched with no suggestion of throatiness, widening gracefully into the top of the shoulder. A short thick neck, or a ewe neck, should be penalized. The back is broad, firm and well muscled, having length over the loin. The backline runs smoothly from the withers with a graceful natural arch, not too accentuated, beginning over the loin and carrying through over the croup; the arch is continuous without flatness. A dip behind shoulder blades, wheel-back, flat back, or a steep or flat croup should be penalized. Brisket very deep, reaching as nearly as possible to the point of the elbow. Ribs well sprung but with no suggestion of barrel shape. The space between the forelegs is filled in so that there is no appearance of a hollow between them. There is a definite tuck-up of the underline. The tail long and tapering, reaching to the hipbone when drawn through between the hind legs. When the dog is in motion, the tail is carried low with only a gentle upward curve; tail should not be carried higher than top of back.
Forequarters—Shoulder blade long, well laid back, with flat muscles, allowing for moderate space between shoulder blades at peak of withers. Upper arm of equal length, placed so that the elbow falls directly under the withers.
The points of the elbows should point neither in nor out, but straight back. A steep shoulder, short upper arm, a heavily muscled or loaded shoulder, or a very narrow shoulder, all of which restrict low free movement, should be strictly penalized. Forelegs straight, giving appearance of strength and substance of bone. Pasterns strong, slightly bent and flexible. Bowed legs, tied-in elbows, legs lacking substance, legs set far under the body so as to create an exaggerated forechest, weak or upright pasterns should be strictly penalized.
Both front and rear feet must be well formed with hard, thick pads. Feet more hare than cat, but both are acceptable. Flat, splayed or soft feet without thick hard pads should be strictly penalized. Toes should be long, close and well arched. Nails strong. Dewclaws may be removed.
Hindquarters—Long and powerful. The thighs are broad and muscular, stifles well bent; muscles are long and flat and carry well down toward the hock. The hocks are well let down and close to the ground. Sickle or cow hocks should be strictly penalized.
Coat—Short, close, smooth and firm in texture. Any other coat shall be a disqualification. Old scars and injuries, the result of work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice the dog’s chance in the show ring.
Gait—Low, free moving and smooth, with reach in the forequarters and strong drive in the hindquarters. The dog has great freedom of action when viewed from the side; the forelegs move forward close to the ground to give a long, low reach; the hind legs have strong propelling power. When moving and viewed from front or rear, legs should turn neither in nor out, nor should feet cross or interfere with each other. Lack of front reach or rear drive, or a short, hackney gait with high wrist action, should be strictly penalized. Crossing in front or moving too close should be strictly penalized.
Temperament—Amiable, friendly, gentle, but capable of great intensity during sporting pursuits.
More than one-half inch above or below stated height limits.
Blue or wall eyes.
Undershot, overshot one-quarter inch or more.
Any coat other than short, close, smooth and firm in texture.