Intelligent Choice of the Right Pet Dog (A Case Study)
GROUP VII: HERDING BREEDS
AUSTRALIAN CATTLE DOG
AUSTRALIANS OWE A GREAT DEBT TO ALL THOSE INVOLVED IN THE development of the Australian Cattle Dog, for without it the beef industry of Australia would undoubtedly have had great difficulty in growing into the important business it has become.
During the early colonization of Australia, the population was mainly confined to what is now the Sydney metropolitan area, the landholdings were relatively small, and the distances involved in taking stock to market were not very far. The stock contained on these properties were used to seeing men and dogs around them, and so were rather quiet and controllable. Working dogs that were brought out from other countries by the early settlers, although suffering a bit from the warmer climate, are believed to have worked these quiet cattle satisfactorily.
Eventually, settlers began spreading. In 1813, vast grazing lands were opened up to the west. Here, landholdings were often hundreds and even thousands of square miles, and were mostly unfenced. Cattle turned loose on these properties became wild and uncontrollable.
The most popular dog used by the early drovers and cattle owners was a working dog breed brought out from England known as the Smithfield. It was a big, black, square-bodied bobtail dog, with a long, rough coat and a white frill around the neck. The head was shaped like a wedge, with long saddle-flap ears, and the dog had a very cumbersome gait. Like the other working dogs of that time, the Smithfield found the high temperature, rough terrain, and long distances to market more than it could handle. These early working dogs all had a trait of barking and heading while working stock. This is desirable for working sheep and even acceptable with quiet cattle, but made the wild stock on the big cattle stations stampede and run off their condition.
It soon became obvious that a dog with more stamina, that would work quietly but more forcefully, was needed to get the wild cattle to the sale yards in Sydney. Around 1830, a drover named Timmins tried crossing the Smithfield with a native breed, the Dingo, with the aim of producing a silent working dog with more stamina. The progeny from this mating were red, bobtail dogs, which were named Timmins Biters. Unlike the Smithfield, these dogs were silent workers but proved to be too headstrong, and severe with their biting. Although this crossbreed was used for a while, it gradually died out. Other crossbreeding was tried, such as the Rough Collie–Bull Terrier cross, but all these proved to be unsuccessful for working cattle.
In the year 1840, a landowner named Thomas Hall imported a pair of smooth-haired, blue merle Highland Collies from Scotland. They were good workers, but barked and headed. Hall crossed progeny from this pair with the Dingo, which produced silent workers that became known as Hall’s Heelers. The color of the dogs from this cross was either red or blue merle, with most of them having pricked ears and a Dingo-shaped head with brown eyes, and were generally of the Dingo type. Hall’s dogs were a big improvement on any other available working dogs and became much sought after by cattlemen.
Another landowner, George Elliott, in Queensland, was also experimenting with Dingo-blue merle Collie crosses. Elliott’s dogs produced some excellent workers. Cattlemen were impressed with the working ability of these dogs, and purchased pups from them as they became available. Two brothers, Jack and Harry Bagust, of Canterbury in Sydney, purchased some of these dogs and set about improving on them.
Their first step was to cross a bitch with a fine imported Dalmatian dog. This cross changed the merle to red or blue speckle. The pups were born white, developing their coloring at about three weeks of age. The Bagusts’ purpose in this cross was to instill the love of horses and faithfulness to master into their dogs. These characteristics were obtained and made these Bagust dogs useful for minding the drover’s horse and gear, but some of the working ability was lost. Admiring the working ability of the Black and Tan Kelpie, which is a sheepdog, the Bagusts experimented in crossing them with their speckle dogs.
The result was a compact active dog, identical in type and build to the Dingo, only thicker set and with peculiar markings found on no other dog in the world. The blue dogs had black patches around the eyes, with black ears and brown eyes, with a small white patch in the middle of the forehead. The body was dark blue, evenly speckled with a lighter blue, having the same tan markings on legs, chest, and head as the Black and Tan Kelpie. The red dogs had dark red markings instead of black, with an all-over even red speckle.
Only the pups closest to the ideal were kept, and these became the forebears of the present-day Australian Cattle Dog. The working ability of the Bagusts’ dogs was outstanding, retaining the quiet heeling ability and stamina of the Dingo with the faithful protectiveness of the Dalmatian. As the word spread of the ability of these dogs to work cattle, they became keenly sought after by property owners and drovers. The blue-colored dogs proved to be more popular, and became known as Blue Heelers. These cattle dogs became indispensable to the owners of the huge cattle runs in Queensland, where they were given the name tag of Queensland Heelers or Queensland Blue Heelers.
After the Black and Tan Kelpie cross, no other infusion of breeds was practiced with any success. The breeders of the day concentrated on breeding for working ability, type, and color. In 1893 Robert Kaleski took up breeding the Blue Heelers, and he began showing them in 1897.
Kaleski drew up his standard for the Cattle Dog and also for the Kelpie and Barb in 1902. He based the Cattle Dog standard around the Dingo type, believing that this was the type naturally evolved to suit the conditions of this country. Even today the resemblance to the Dingo is evident, except for the color of the blues and the speckle in the reds. After much opposition from careless breeders, Kaleski finally had his standard endorsed by them and all the leading breeders of the time. He then submitted his standard to the Cattle and Sheep Dog Club of Australia and the original Kennel Club of New South Wales for their approval. The standard was approved in 1903.
The breed became known as the Australian Heeler, then later the Australian Cattle Dog, which is now accepted throughout Australia as the official name for this breed. Even today, though, some people can be heard calling them Blue Heelers or Queensland Heelers.
The Australian Cattle Dog was accepted for registration by the American Kennel Club on May 1, 1980, and became eligible to be shown in the Working Group on September 1, 1980. It was transferred to the newly formed Herding Group on January 1, 1983.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AUSTRALIAN CATTLE DOG
General Appearance—The general appearance is that of a strong, compact, symmetrically built working dog, with the ability and willingness to carry out his allotted task however arduous. Its combination of substance, power, balance and hard muscular condition must convey the impression of great agility, strength and endurance. Any tendency to grossness or weediness is a serious fault.
Characteristics—As the name implies the dog’s prime function, and one in which he has no peer, is the control and movement of cattle in both wide open and confined areas. Always alert, extremely intelligent, watchful, courageous and trustworthy, with an implicit devotion to duty making it an ideal dog.
Temperament—The Cattle Dog’s loyalty and protective instincts make it a self-appointed guardian to the Stockman, his herd and his property. Whilst naturally suspicious of strangers, must be amenable to handling, particularly in the Show ring. Any feature of temperament or structure foreign to a working dog must be regarded as a serious fault.
Head and Skull—The head is strong and must be in balance with other proportions of the dog and in keeping with its general conformation. The broad skull is slightly curved between the ears, flattening to a slight but definite stop. The cheeks muscular, neither coarse nor prominent with the underjaw strong, deep and well developed. The foreface is broad and well filled in under the eyes, tapering gradually to form a medium length, deep, powerful muzzle with the skull and muzzle on parallel planes. The lips are tight and clean. Nose black.
Eyes—The eyes should be of oval shape and medium size, neither prominent nor sunken and must express alertness and intelligence. A warning or suspicious glint is characteristic when approached by strangers. Eye color, dark brown.
Ears—The ears should be of moderate size, preferably small rather than large, broad at the base, muscular, pricked and moderately pointed neither spoon nor bat eared. The ears are set wide apart on the skull, inclining outwards, sensitive in their use and pricked when alert, the leather should be thick in texture and the inside of the ear fairly well furnished with hair.
Mouth—The teeth, sound, strong and evenly spaced, gripping with a scissor-bite, the lower incisors close behind and just touching the upper. As the dog is required to move difficult cattle by heeling or biting, teeth which are sound and strong are very important.
Neck—The neck is extremely strong, muscular, and of medium length broadening to blend into the body and free from throatiness.
Forequarters—The shoulders are strong, sloping, muscular and well angulated to the upper arm and should not be too closely set at the point of the withers. The forelegs have strong, round bone, extending to the feet and should be straight and parallel when viewed from the front, but the pasterns should show flexibility with a slight angle to the forearm when viewed from the side. Although the shoulders are muscular and the bone is strong, loaded shoulders and heavy fronts will hamper correct movement and limit working ability.
Body—The length of the body from the point of the breast bone, in a straight line to the buttocks, is greater than the height at the withers, as 10 is to 9. The topline is level, back strong with ribs well sprung and carried well back not barrel ribbed. The chest is deep, muscular and moderately broad with the loins broad, strong and muscular and the flanks deep. The dog is strongly coupled.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are broad, strong and muscular. The croup is rather long and sloping, thighs long, broad and well developed, the stifles well turned and the hocks strong and well let down. When viewed from behind, the hind legs, from the hocks to the feet, are straight and placed parallel, neither close nor too wide apart.
Feet—The feet should be round and the toes short, strong, well-arched and held close together. The pads are hard and deep, and the nails must be short and strong.
Tail—The set on of tail is moderately low, following the contours of the sloping croup and of length to reach approximately to the hock. At rest it should hang in a very slight curve. During movement or excitement the tail may be raised, but under no circumstances should any part of the tail be carried past a vertical line drawn through the root. The tail should carry a good brush.
Gait/Movement—The action is true, free, supple and tireless and the movement of the shoulders and forelegs is in unison with the powerful thrust of the hindquarters. The capability of quick and sudden movement is essential. Soundness is of paramount importance and stiltiness, loaded or slack shoulders, straight shoulder placement, weakness at elbows, pasterns or feet, straight stifles, cow or bow hocks, must be regarded as serious faults. When trotting the feet tend to come closer together at ground level as speed increases, but when the dog comes to rest he should stand four square.
Coat—The coat is smooth, a double coat with a short dense undercoat. The outercoat is close, each hair straight, hard, and lying flat, so that it is rain-resisting. Under the body, to behind the legs, the coat is longer and forms near the thigh a mild form of breeching. On the head (including the inside of the ears), to the front of the legs and feet, the hair is short. Along the neck it is longer and thicker. A coat either too long or too short is a fault. As an average, the hairs on the body should be from 2.5 to 4 centimeters (approx. 1–1.5 inches) in length.
Color (Blue)—The color should be blue, blue-mottled or blue speckled with or without other markings. The permissible markings are black, blue or tan markings on the head, evenly distributed for preference. The forelegs tan midway up the legs and extending up the front to breast and throat, with tan on jaws; the hindquarters tan on inside of hind legs, and inside of thighs, showing down the front of the stifles and broadening out to the outside of the hind legs from hock to toes. Tan undercoat is permissible on the body providing it does not show through the blue outer coat. Black markings on the body are not desirable.
Color (Red Speckle)—The color should be of good even red speckle all over, including the undercoat (neither white nor cream), with or without darker red markings on the head. Even head markings are desirable. Red markings on the body are permissible but not desirable.
Dogs 46–51 centimeters (approx. 18–20 inches) at withers
Bitches 43–48 centimeters (approx. 17–19 inches) at withers
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
Approved January 11, 1999
Effective February 24, 1999
ALTHOUGH THERE ARE MANY THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE AUSTRALIAN Shepherd, the modern breed developed exclusively in the United States. It probably originated in the Basque region of the Pyrenees Mountains, between Spain and France, but was dubbed the Australian Shepherd because of its association with Basque shepherds who came to the United States from Australia in the 1800s.
As with most working breeds, the Australian Shepherd was initially called by many names, including Spanish Shepherd, Pastor Dog, Bob-Tail, Blue Heeler, New Mexican Shepherd, and California Shepherd.
The Australian Shepherd’s popularity rose rapidly with the boom in Western-style horse riding after World War II. The breed became known to the general public through appearances in rodeos, horse shows, movies, and television programs. Its inherent versatility and trainability made it a useful asset on farms and ranches.
Ranchers continued to develop the breed, maintaining the adaptability, keen intelligence, strong herding instincts, and eye-catching appearance that originally won its admirers. As a herder, the Australian Shepherd is a loose- to medium-eyed dog. (“Eye” is a general term used to describe the way a dog controls stock with its gaze.) It will watch an entire group of animals, but not with an intense gaze. Some dogs use more eye in situations where added power is required to move stubborn or balky animals, while holding off on single animals, as in the shed.
The Aussie (as the breed is nicknamed) is a truly versatile dog. It is so sound minded that it easily adapts to various situations. Today, the Australian Shepherd serves humanity in every imaginable way: as working ranch dogs, guide dogs for the blind, hearing dogs for the deaf, therapy dogs, drug detectors, and search-and-rescue dogs.
The breed is not registered in Australia as a native breed, although Australian Shepherds have been recorded by other registries since the 1950s. The United States Australian Shepherd Association works hard to maintain the breed true to type in its land of origin. The breed entered the AKC Stud Book in 1991 and entered the Herding Group in January 1993.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD
General Appearance—The Australian Shepherd is an intelligent working dog of strong herding and guarding instincts. He is a loyal companion and has the stamina to work all day. He is well balanced, slightly longer than tall, of medium size and bone, with coloring that offers variety and individuality. He is attentive and animated, lithe and agile, solid and muscular without cloddiness. He has a coat of moderate length and coarseness. He has a docked or natural bobbed tail.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The preferred height for males is 20–23 inches, females 18–21 inches. Quality is not to be sacrificed in favor of size. Proportion— Measuring from the breastbone to rear of thigh and from top of the withers to the ground the Australian Shepherd is slightly longer than tall. Substance—Solidly built with moderate bone. Structure in the male reflects masculinity without coarseness. Bitches appear feminine without being slight of bone.
Head—The Head is clean-cut, strong and dry. Overall size should be in proportion to the body. The muzzle is equal in length or slightly shorter than the back skull. Viewed from the side the topline of the back skull and muzzle form parallel planes, divided by a moderate, well-defined stop. The muzzle tapers little from base to nose and is rounded at the tip.
Expression—Showing attentiveness and intelligence, alert and eager. Gaze should be keen but friendly. Eyes are brown, blue, amber or any variation or combination thereof, including flecks and marbling. Almond shaped, not protruding nor sunken. The blue merles and blacks have black pigmentation on eye rims. The red merles and reds have liver (brown) pigmentation on eye rims. Ears are triangular, of moderate size and leather, set high on the head. At full attention they break forward and over, or to the side as a rose ear. Prick ears and hanging ears are severe faults.
Skull—Top flat to slightly domed. It may show a slight occipital protuberance. Length and width are equal. Moderate well-defined stop. Muzzle tapers little from base to nose and is rounded at the tip. Nose—Blue merles and blacks have black pigmentation on the nose (and lips). Red merles and reds have liver (brown) pigmentation on the nose (and lips). On the merles it is permissible to have small pink spots; however, they should not exceed 25% of the nose on dogs over one year of age, which is a serious fault.Teeth—A full complement of strong white teeth should meet in a scissors bite or may meet in a level bite. Disqualifications—Undershot. Overshot greater than 1⁄8 inch. Loss of contact caused by short center incisors in an otherwise correct bite shall not be judged undershot. Teeth broken or missing by accident shall not be penalized.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck is strong, of moderate length, slightly arched at the crest, fitting well into the shoulders. Topline—Back is straight and strong, level and firm from withers to hip joints. The croup is moderately sloped. Chest is not broad but is deep with the lowest point reaching the elbow. The ribs are well sprung and long, neither barrel chested nor slab-sided. The underline shows a moderate tuck-up. Tail is straight, docked or naturally bobbed, not to exceed four inches in length.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Shoulder blades are long, flat, fairly close set at the withers and well laid back. The upper arm, which should be relatively the same length as the shoulder blade, attaches at an approximate right angle to the shoulder line with forelegs dropping straight, perpendicular to the ground. Legs straight and strong. Bone is strong, oval rather than round. Pastern is medium length and very slightly sloped. Front dewclaws may be removed. Feet are oval, compact with close knit, well arched toes. Pads are thick and resilient.
Hindquarters—The width of the hindquarters is equal to the width of the forequarters at the shoulders. The angulation of the pelvis and upper thigh corresponds to the angulation of the shoulder blade and upper arm, forming an approximate right angle. Stifles are clearly defined, hock joints moderately bent. The hocks are short, perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other when viewed from the rear. Rear dewclaws must be removed. Feet are oval, compact with close knit, well arched toes. Pads are thick and resilient.
Coat—Hair is of medium texture, straight to wavy, weather resistant and of medium length. The undercoat varies in quantity with variations in climate. Hair is short and smooth on the head, ears, front of forelegs and below the hocks. Backs of forelegs and britches are moderately feathered. There is a moderate mane and frill, more pronounced in dogs than in bitches. Non-typical coats are severe faults.
Color—Blue merle, black, red merle, red—all with or without white markings and/or tan (copper) points, with no order of preference. The hairline of a white collar does not exceed the point of the withers at the skin. White is acceptable on the neck (either in part or as a full collar), chest, legs, muzzle underparts, blaze on head and white extension from underpart up to four inches, measuring from a horizontal line at the elbow. White on the head should not predominate, and the eyes must be fully surrounded by color and pigment. Merles characteristically become darker with increasing age. Disqualifications—White body splashes, which means white on body between withers and tail, on sides between elbows and back of hindquarters in all colors.
Gait—The Australian Shepherd has a smooth, free and easy gait. He exhibits great agility of movement with a well-balanced, ground covering stride. Fore and hind legs move straight and parallel with the center line of the body. As speed increases, the feet (front and rear) converge toward the center line of gravity of the dog while the back remains firm and level. The Australian Shepherd must be agile and able to change direction or alter gait instantly.
Temperament—The Australian Shepherd is an intelligent, active dog with an even disposition; he is good-natured, seldom quarrelsome. He may be somewhat reserved in initial meetings. Faults—Any display of shyness, fear or aggression is to be severely penalized.
Undershot. Overshot greater than 1⁄8 inch.
White body splashes, which means white on body between withers and tail, on sides between elbows and back of hindquarters in all colors.
Approved May 14, 1991
Effective January 1, 1993
ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS THE HIGHLAND COLLIE, THE MOUNTAIN COLLIE, OR the Hairy Mou’ed Collie, the Bearded Collie is one of Britain’s oldest breeds. While some have theorized that the Beardie was around to greet the Romans when they invaded Britain in A.D. 43, the current theory is that like most shaggy-haired herding dogs, the Bearded Collie descends from the Magyar Komondor and other herding dogs of Central Europe.
As with most breeds not used by the nobility, there are few early records on this humble herdsman’s dog. The earliest known pictures of Bearded Collie types are a 1771 Gainsborough portrait of the Duke of Buccleigh and a 1772 Reynolds portrait of that peer’s wife and daughter accompanied by two dogs. With Reinagle’s more easily recognizable depiction published in Taplin’s 1803 Sportsman’s Cabinet, and a description of the breed published in an 1818 issue of Live Stock Journal, the existence of the breed as we know it was firmly established.
At the end of the Victorian era, Beardies were fairly popular in southern Scotland, both as working and show dogs. When Bearded Collie classes were offered at shows, usually in the area about Peebleshire, they were well supported. But there was then no official standard, since no breed club existed to establish one. Each judge had to adopt his own criteria. The lack of a strong breed club proved quite a misfortune. The local popularity of the breed continued until World War I, during which there were few dog shows. By the 1930s there was no kennel breeding Bearded Collies for show purposes.
That Beardies did not die out rests on their ability as workers and the devotion of the Peebleshire shepherds and drovers to the breed. They are still highly valued as sheepdogs due to their ability to turn in a good day’s work in south Scotland’s misty, rainy, and cold climate, and their adeptness on the rough, rocky ground.
The Bearded Collie’s other major use is as a drover. They work with little direction from the butchers and drovers who find them very valuable in moving troublesome cattle. The shepherds and drovers have valued Beardies to such an extent that they have been more than reluctant to sell any puppies (especially bitches) unless they could be sure the puppies would actually be worked.
After World War II, Mrs. G. O. Willison, of Bothkennar Kennels, saved the Beardie from further chance of extinction when she began to breed them for show purposes. She spearheaded the establishment of the Bearded Collie Club in Britain in 1955. After much travail, in 1959 The Kennel Club (England) allowed Bearded Collies to be eligible for Challenge Certificates and championships and the popularity of the breed began to steadily increase.
Bearded Collies were introduced into the United States in the late 1950s, but none of these dogs were bred. It wasn’t until 1967 that the first litter of Bearded Collies was born in this country. By July 1969, there was enough interest for the Bearded Collie Club of America to be founded.
The breed became eligible to be shown in the Miscellaneous class as of June 1, 1974. The AKC Stud Book was opened to Bearded Collie registrations on October 1, 1976, and the breed became eligible to compete in the Working Group on February 1, 1977. It joined the newly formed Herding Group in January 1983.
The Bearded Collie appears in black, brown, blue, and fawn colors, usually with white markings. His beautiful long coat and enthusiastic personality make him appealing in both the show and performance rings. He is a happy fellow and makes a good companion dog.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BEARDED COLLIE
Characteristics—The Bearded Collie is hardy and active, with an aura of strength and agility characteristic of a real working dog. Bred for centuries as a companion and servant of man, the Bearded Collie is a devoted and intelligent member of the family. He is stable and self-confident, showing no signs of shyness or aggression. This is a natural and unspoiled breed.
General Appearance—The Bearded Collie is a medium sized dog with a medium length coat that follows the natural lines of the body and allows plenty of daylight under the body. The body is long and lean, and, though strongly made, does not appear heavy. A bright inquiring expression is a distinctive feature of the breed. The Bearded Collie should be shown in a natural stance.
Head—The head is in proportion to the size of the dog. The skull is broad and flat; the stop is moderate; the cheeks are well filled beneath the eyes; the muzzle is strong and full; the foreface is equal in length to the distance between the stop and occiput. The nose is large and squarish. A snipy muzzle is to be penalized. (See Color section for pigmentation.)
Eyes: The eyes are large, expressive, soft and affectionate, but not round nor protruding, and are set widely apart. The eyebrows are arched to the sides to frame the eyes and are long enough to blend smoothly into the coat on the sides of the head. (See Color section for eye color.)
Ears: The ears are medium sized, hanging and covered with long hair. They are set level with the eyes. When the dog is alert, the ears have a slight lift at the base.
Teeth: The teeth are strong and white, meeting in a scissors bite. Full dentition is desirable.
Neck—The neck is in proportion to the length of the body, strong and slightly arched, blending smoothly into the shoulders.
Forequarters—The shoulders are well laid back at an angle of approximately 45°; a line drawn from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the forward point of articulation approximates a right angle with a line from the forward point of articulation to the point of the elbow. The tops of the shoulder blades lie in against the withers, but they slope outwards from there sufficiently to accommodate the desired spring of ribs. The legs are straight and vertical, with substantial, but not heavy, bone and are covered with shaggy hair all around. The pasterns are flexible without weakness.
Body—The body is longer than it is high in an approximate ratio of five to four, length measured from point of chest to point of buttocks, height measured at the highest point of the withers. The length of the back comes from the length of the ribcage and not that of the loin. The back is level. The ribs are well sprung from the spine but are flat at the sides. The chest is deep, reaching at least to the elbows. The loins are strong. The level back line blends smoothly into the curve of the rump. A flat croup or a steep croup is to be severely penalized.
Hindquarters—The hind legs are powerful and muscular at the thighs with well bent stifles. The hocks are low. In normal stance, the bones below the hocks are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other when viewed from the rear; the hind feet fall just behind a perpendicular line from the point of buttocks when viewed from the side. The legs are covered with shaggy hair all around.
Tail: The tail is set low and is long enough for the end of the bone to reach at least the point of the hocks. It is normally carried low with an upward swirl at the tip while the dog is standing. When the dog is excited or in motion, the curve is accentuated and the tail may be raised but is never carried beyond a vertical line. The tail is covered with abundant hair.
Feet—The feet are oval in shape with the soles well padded. The toes are arched and close together, and well covered with hair including between the pads.
Coat—The coat is double with the undercoat soft, furry and close. The outercoat is flat, harsh, strong and shaggy, free from wooliness and curl, although a slight wave is permissible. The coat falls naturally to either side but must never be artificially parted. The length and density of the hair are sufficient to provide a protective coat and to enhance the shape of the dog, but not so profuse as to obscure the natural lines of the body. The dog should be shown as naturally as is consistent with good grooming but the coat must not be trimmed in any way. On the head, the bridge of the nose is sparsely covered with hair which is slightly longer on the sides to cover the lips. From the cheeks, the lower lips and under the chin, the coat increases in length towards the chest, forming the typical beard. An excessively long, silky coat or one which has been trimmed in any way must be severely penalized.
Color—Coat: All Bearded Collies are born either black, blue, brown or fawn, with or without white markings. With maturity, the coat color may lighten, so that a born black may become any shade of gray from black to slate to silver, a born brown from chocolate to sandy. Blues and fawns also show shades from dark to light. Where white occurs, it only appears on the foreface as a blaze, on the skull, on the tip of the tail, on the chest, legs and feet and around the neck. The white hair does not grow on the body behind the shoulder nor on the face to surround the eyes. Tan markings occasionally appear and are acceptable on the eyebrows, inside the ears, on the cheeks, under the root of the tail, and on the legs where the white joins the main color.
Pigmentation: Pigmentation on the Bearded Collie follows coat color. In a born black, the eye rims, nose and lips are black, whereas in the born blue, the pigmentation is a bluegray color. A born brown dog has brown pigmentation and born fawns a correspondingly lighter brown. The pigmentation is completely filled in and shows no sign of spots.
Eyes: Eye color will generally tone with the coat color. In a born blue or fawn, the distinctively lighter eyes are correct and must not be penalized.
Size—The ideal height at the withers is 21–22 inches for adult dogs and 20–21 inches for adult bitches. Height over and under the ideal is to be severely penalized. The express objective of this criterion is to insure that the Bearded Collie remains a medium sized dog.
Gait—Movement is free, supple and powerful. Balance combines good reach in forequarters with strong drive in hindquarters. The back remains firm and level. The feet are lifted only enough to clear the ground, giving the impression that the dog glides along making minimum contact. Movement is lithe and flexible to enable the dog to make the sharp turns and sudden stops required of the sheepdog. When viewed from the front and rear, the front and rear legs travel in the same plane from the shoulder and hip joint to pads at all speeds. Legs remain straight, but feet move inward as speed increases until the edges of the feet converge on a center line at a fast trot.
Flat croup or steep croup
Excessively long, silky coat
Trimmed or sculptured coat
Height over or under the ideal
Approved August 9, 1978
THE BELGIAN MALINOIS IS ONE OF FOUR TYPES OF BELGIAN SHEEPHERDING dogs registered in Belgium and France as the Chien de Berger Belge. It shares a common foundation with the Belgian Sheepdog and Belgian Tervuren, whose historical sections in this book provide additional information on the beginnings of the breed. One of the first short-coated Belgian shepherds registered by the Société Royale Saint-Hubert was Charlot, born in 1891. The Belgian artist Alexandre Clarys would later use this dog as a model of the Belgian Malinois. The shorthaired fawn dog with black mask we know today as the Belgian Malinois shared the beginnings with many coat colors and lengths, but it quickly established itself as an identifiable type. Bred basically around the city of Malines, from whence the breed name is derived, the Belgian Malinois was bred by a dedicated group of trainers and working competitors. They prized the capabilities of this breed and concerned themselves with breeding dogs with excellent working character. Because of this, the Belgian Malinois has historically been the favorite type of Belgian shepherd in its native Belgium. Professor Adolphe Reul, one of the dedicated leaders in the breed’s formation, owned and bred many fine subjects, including the famous Mastock.
Because the early breeders were concerned with type and character, many cross-variety breedings took place. The Belgian Malinois was the superior competition dog, and many used it to add strength to their varieties. We still see the effects of those breedings today when longhaired puppies are born in registered Belgian Malinois litters. Through the offspring with long hair and from cross-variety breedings, Belgian Malinois history is intertwined with that of other Belgian Sheepdogs. The Belgian Tervuren, especially, owes a great deal to the function of Belgian Malinois blood.
There have been two major periods of Belgian Malinois activity in the United States. Beginning in 1911, when the first shorthaired Belgian Shepherds (Belgian Blackie and Belgian Mouche) were registered with the AKC until World War II, the Belgian Malinois enjoyed American popularity. Many subjects from the best Belgian bloodlines were imported and bred. There was some renewed interest after the war, but the breed did not flourish. Before 1959, the Belgian Malinois was relegated to the Miscellaneous class (even though it enjoyed individual AKC Stud Book registration) because there were not enough subjects to provide competition for championships.
The second period of importation and popular support began in 1963. Progressing slowly, the first ten years saw only 107 individual Belgian Malinois registrations. By June 1965, however, sufficient numbers had been registered by the AKC so the Belgian Malinois was moved into the Working Group and was eligible to compete for championships. Importations from Belgium, France, and Switzerland, as well as increased breeding activity since 1973, have given rise to a new era of relative popularity. While still one of the AKC’s least populous breeds, the Belgian Malinois is making its presence felt in the Herding Group. The main qualities that make the Belgian Malinois such a desirable breed are the easy-care coat, the medium size, and the keen intelligence and versatility. It is an alert and highly trainable breed that can herd a flock with inexhaustible energy and is sharp enough to protect the flock and farm. Since World War I the Malinois has contributed much to our society, and continues to distinguish itself as a police, military, and service dog. Today many owners are finding pleasure in training their family companion Belgian Malinois for conformation, obedience, schutzhund, herding, sledding, agility, therapy, and tracking. The Breed standards recognized by the AKC differ somewhat for each of the three Belgian shepherd breeds, but the basic dog is the same. In Europe and elsewhere in the world, they share a common standard, differentiated only by coat.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BELGIAN MALINOIS
General Appearance—The Belgian Malinois is a well balanced, square dog, elegant in appearance with an exceedingly proud carriage of the head and neck. The dog is strong, agile, well muscled, alert and full of life. He stands squarely on all fours, and viewed from the side, the topline, forelegs, and hind legs closely approximate a square. The whole conformation gives the impression of depth and solidity without bulkiness. The male is usually somewhat more impressive and grand than his female counterpart, which has a distinctly feminine look.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Males are 24 to 26 inches in height; females are 22 to 24 inches; measurement to be taken at the withers. Males under 23 inches or over 27 inches and females under 21 inches or over 25 inches are to be disqualified. The length, measured from the point of the breastbone to the point of the rump, should equal the height, but bitches may be slightly longer. A square dog is preferred. Bone structure is moderately heavy in proportion to height so that the dog is well balanced throughout and neither spindly or leggy nor cumbersome and bulky.
Head—The head is clean-cut and strong without heaviness; overall size is in proportion to the body. The expressionshould indicate alertness, attention and readiness for activity, and the gaze is intelligent and questioning. The eyesare brown, preferably dark brown, medium size, slightly almond shaped, not protruding. Eye rims are black. The ears approach the shape of an equilateral triangle and are stiff, erect, and in proportion to the head in size. The outer corner of the ear should not come below the center of the eye. Ears hanging as on a hound, or semi-prick ears are disqualifications. The top of the skullis flattened rather than rounded with the width approximately the same as the length but no wider. The stop is moderate. The muzzleis moderately pointed, avoiding any tendency to snipiness, and approximately equal in length to the topskull. The planes of the muzzle and topskull are parallel. The jaws are strong and powerful. The nose is black without discolored areas. The lips are tight and black with no pink showing on the outside. The Belgian Malinois has a full complement of strong, white teeth, that are evenly set and meet in a scissors or level bite. Overshot and undershot bites are a fault. An undershot bite in which two or more of the upper incisors lose contact with two or more of the lower incisors is a disqualification. One or more missing teeth is a serious fault.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neckis round and of sufficient length to permit the proud carriage of the head. It should taper from the body to the head. The toplineis generally level. The withers are slightly higher and slope into the back which must be level, straight and firm from withers to hip joint. The croup is medium long, sloping gradually. The bodyshould give the impression of power without bulkiness. The chest is not broad but is deep with the lowest point reaching the elbow. The underline forms a smooth ascendant curve from the lowest point of the chest to the abdomen. The abdomen is moderately developed, neither tucked up nor paunchy. The loin section, viewed from above, is relatively short, broad and strong, and blends smoothly into the back. The tailis strong at the base, the bone reaching to the hock. In action it is raised with a curve, which is strongest towards the tip, without forming a hook. A cropped or stumped tail is a disqualification.
Forequarters—The forequarters are muscular without excessive bulkiness. The shoulder is long and oblique, laid flat against the body, forming a sharp angle with the upper arm. The legs are straight, strong, and parallel to each other. The bone is oval rather than round. Length and substance are well in proportion to the size of the dog. The pastern is of medium length, strong, and very slightly sloped. Dewclaws may be removed. The feet are round (cat footed) and well padded with the toes curved close together. The nails are strong and black except that they may be white to match white toe tips.
Hindquarters—Angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the forequarters; the angle at the hock is relatively sharp, although the Belgian Malinois should not have extreme angulation. The upper and lower thigh bones should approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively. The legs are in proportion to the size of the dog; oval bone rather than round. Legs are parallel to each other. The thighs should be well muscled. Dewclaws, if any, should be removed. Metatarsi are of medium length, strong, and slightly sloped. The hind feet may be slightly elongated, with toes curved close together and well padded. Nails are strong and black except that they may be white to match white toe tips.
Coat—The coat should be comparatively short, straight, hard enough to be weather resistant, with dense undercoat. It should be very short on the head, ears, and lower legs. The hair is somewhat longer around the neck where it forms a collarette, and on the tail and backs of the thighs. The coat should conform to the body without standing out or hanging down.
Color—The basic coloring is a rich fawn to mahogany, with black tips on the hairs giving an overlay appearance. The mask and ears are black. The underparts of the body, tail and breeches are lighter fawn, but washed-out fawn color on the body is a fault. Color should be considered a finishing point, not to take precedence over structure or temperament. The tips of the toes may be white, and a small white spot on the breastbone/prosternum is permitted, not to extend to the neck. White markings, except as noted, are faulted.
Gait—The movement is smooth, free and easy, seemingly never tiring, exhibiting facility of movement rather than a hard driving action. The Belgian Malinois single tracks at a fast gait, the legs, both front and rear, converging toward the center line of gravity, while the topline remains firm and level, parallel to the line of motion with no crabbing. The breed shows a marked tendency to move in a circle rather than a straight line.
Temperament—Correct temperament is essential to the working character of the Belgian Malinois. The breed is confident, exhibiting neither shyness nor aggressiveness in new situations. The dog may be reserved with strangers but is affectionate with his own people. He is naturally protective of his owner’s person and property without being overly aggressive. The Belgian Malinois possesses a strong desire to work and is quick and responsive to commands from his owner. Faulty temperament is strongly penalized.
Faults—The degree to which a dog is penalized should depend upon the extent to which the dog deviates from the standard and the extent to which the particular fault would actually affect the working ability of the dog.
Males under 23 inches or over 27 inches and females under 21 inches or over 25 inches.Ears hanging as on a hound, or semi-prick ears. An undershot bite in which two or more ofthe upper incisors lose contact with two or more of the lower incisors. A cropped or stumped tail.
Approved July 10, 1990
Effective August 29, 1990
THE BELGIAN SHEEPDOG IS KNOWN AS THE GROENENDAEL, OR CHIEN DE Berger Belge in most parts of the world. Its origin can be traced to the late 1800s when it was listed, both in studbooks and at dog shows, among many other shepherds as the Chien de Berger de Races Continentales (Continental Shepherds). By pedigree we can identify many of the Continental Shepherds not only as the Belgian Shepherds (Groenendael, Malinois, Tervuren, and Laekenois), but also as German Shepherd Dogs, Hollander Herders, Beauceron, Bouviers des Flandres, and Briards.
As European countries developed a sense of pride and a spirit of nationalism, many individuals worked to develop animals which would be identified with their own countries. In Belgium, in the late 1800s, efforts were made to determine if there was a true shepherd dog representative only of Belgium, and in September 1891, the Club du Chien de Berger Belge (Belgian Shepherd Club) was formed for this purpose. A commission of club members was established which contacted veterinarians and others throughout the provinces. In November 1891, under the direction of veterinarian Professor Adolphe Reul, a gathering was held at Cureghem, on the outskirts of Brussels, to examine the shepherd dogs of that area. From the 117 dogs exhibited, Reul and his panel of judges concluded that for this Brabant Province there was a consistent type of sheepdog. They were anatomically identical but differed in hair textures, colors, and hair lengths. What Reul described was a square, medium-sized sheepdog, with well-set triangular ears and very dark brown eyes. The Club du Chien du Berger Belge devoted its efforts to similar exhibitions in the remaining eight provinces, and found similar results. Between 1891 and 1901, when the Belgian Shepherd was registered as a breed by the Société Royale Saint-Hubert, efforts were directed toward developing a standard, improving type, and exhibiting.
The longhaired black Belgian Shepherds primarily owe their existence to Nicolas Rose, restaurateur and owner of the Chateau Groenendael, outside of Brussels. He purchased what are considered to be the foundation couple of the longhaired blacks, Picard d’Uccle and Petite, and established a thriving kennel which can be traced to 1893, the year the Club du Chien de Berger Belge adopted the first standard for the Belgian Shepherds. Picard d’Uccle was bred to Petite, producing the outstanding Pitt, Baronne, and Duc de Groenendael, as well as to his daughters and others in the area, who are to be found in the pedigrees of our current dogs. This stock formed the basis of these beautiful longhaired blacks, officially given the name Groenendael in 1910.
Interest in the Belgian Shepherds developed very quickly after they were recognized as a breed. Before World War I it had become apparent that, although called a shepherd or sheepdog, the Groenendael was a versatile animal, and with its keen intelligence and easy trainability, it could perform a variety of functions. The Paris police utilized the Groenendael in the first decade of the twentieth century, as did the New York City police who, in 1908, imported four Belgian Sheepdogs to work alongside an American-bred Groenendael.
In the same period, Belgian customs officers employed the Groenendael for border patrols, and their efforts in capturing smugglers were greatly praised. The Groenendael were also used as herders, watchdogs, faithful companions, and became outstanding participants in the popular European “working trials,” from the local trial through international competitions. The Groenendael Jules du Moulin demonstrated this versatility by earning his World Championship at the defense trials in France in 1908. Repeating his victories in 1909, 1910, and 1912, he also earned his International Championship at the police trials of Belgium and France for four straight years, 1909–1912.
During World War I, Belgian Sheepdogs distinguished themselves as message carriers, ambulance dogs, and even pulling machine guns. Although first registered in the United States as early as 1911, their fame really took hold after the war. The Belgian Sheepdog Club of America was formed in 1919, and it was not uncommon to see ten or twelve Belgian Sheepdogs exhibited at the larger Eastern shows in the 1920s. By 1926, the Belgian Sheepdog was ranked 42 out of 100 breeds recognized by the AKC.
The Great Depression had a marked effect on the Belgian Sheepdog. Its popularity declined, and the American club ceased to function. World War II again found the Belgian Sheepdog serving as a war and defense dog, and many were utilized to guard military installations. Interest in the breed was rekindled after the war, and the current Belgian Sheepdog Club of America was formed in 1949. Since then, many Groenendael have been imported and the interest in the breed has continued to grow.
In 1959, the AKC Board of Directors mandated that only the Groenendael would be registered as Belgian Sheepdogs and that these dogs must have three generations of Groenendael ancestors.
Throughout their history Belgian Sheepdogs have earned their reputation as truly well-rounded dogs, and to this day they continue to captivate our hearts. Their elegance of carriage and balanced movement are a pleasure to behold. Their talents in obedience, tracking, schutzhund, and herding, and as sled dogs, have kept even the most activity-minded of us satisfied. Their skills in police work and search and rescue, and as guide and therapy dogs, have proven very valuable to society. These dogs have found their greatest value, however, in the hearts of their owners as gentle and devoted companions willing to give all to those they love.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BELGIAN SHEEPDOG
General Appearance—The first impression of the Belgian Sheepdog is that of a well balanced, square dog, elegant in appearance, with an exceedingly proud carriage of the head and neck. He is a strong, agile, well muscled animal, alert and full of life. His whole conformation gives the impression of depth and solidity without bulkiness. The male dog is usually somewhat more impressive and grand than his female counterpart. The bitch should have a distinctly feminine look.
Faults—Any deviation from these specifications is a fault. In determining whether a fault is minor, serious, or major, these two factors should be used as a guide: 1. The extent to which it deviates from the standard. 2. The extent to which such deviation would actually affect the working ability of the dog.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Males should be 24–26 inches in height and females 22–24 inches, measured at the withers.
Males under 221⁄2 or over 271⁄2 inches in height and females under 201⁄2 or over 25 1⁄2 inches in height shall be disqualified.
The length, measured from point of breastbone to point of rump, should equal the height. Bitches may be slightly longer. Bone structure should be moderately heavy in proportion to his height so that he is well balanced throughout and neither spindly or leggy nor cumbersome and bulky. The Belgian Sheepdog should stand squarely on all fours. Side view—The topline, front legs, and back legs should closely approximate a square.
Head—Clean-cut and strong, overall size should be in proportion to the body. Expressionindicates alertness, attention, readiness for activity. Gaze should be intelligent and questioning. Eyesbrown, preferably dark brown. Medium size, slightly almond shaped, not protruding. Earstriangular in shape, stiff, erect, and in proportion to the head in size. Base of the ear should not come below the center of the eye. Ears hanging (as on a hound) shall disqualify.
Skull—Top flattened rather than rounded. The width approximately the same, but not wider than the length. Stop moderate. Muzzlemoderately pointed, avoiding any tendency to snipiness, and approximately equal in length to that of the topskull. The jaws should be strong and powerful. Nose black without spots or discolored areas. The lips should be tight and black, with no pink showing on the outside. Teeth—A full complement of strong, white teeth, evenly set. Should not be overshot or undershot. Should have either an even bite or a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckround and rather outstretched, tapered from head to body, well muscled, with tight skin. Topline—The withers are slightly higher and slope into the back, which must be level, straight, and firm from withers to hip joints. Chestnot broad, but deep. The lowest point should reach the elbow, forming a smooth ascendant curve to the abdomen. Abdomen—Moderate development. Neither tucked up nor paunchy. The loin section, viewed from above, is relatively short, broad and strong, but blending smoothly into the back. The croup is medium long, sloping gradually. Tailstrong at the base, bone to reach hock. At rest the dog holds it low, the tip bent back level with the hock. When in action he raises it and gives it a curl, which is strongest toward the tip, without forming a hook. Cropped or stump tail shall disqualify.
Forequarters—Shoulderlong and oblique, laid flat against the body, forming a sharp angle (approximately 90°) with the upper arm. Legsstraight, strong and parallel to each other. Bone oval rather than round. Development (length and substance) should be well proportioned to the size of the dog. Pastern medium length, strong, and very slightly sloped. Feetround (cat footed), toes curved close together, well padded. Nails strong and black, except that they may be white to match white toe tips.
Hindquarters—Legs—Length and substance well proportioned to the size of the dog. Bone oval rather than round. Legs are parallel to each other. Thighsbroad and heavily muscled. The upper and lower thigh bones approximately parallel the shoulder blade and upper arm respectively, forming a relatively sharp angle at stifle joint. The angle at the hock is relatively sharp, although the Belgian Sheepdog does not have extreme angulation. Metatarsus medium length, strong and slightly sloped. Dewclaws, if any, should be removed. Feetslightly elongated. Toes curved close together, well padded. Nails strong and black, except that they may be white to match white toe tips.
Coat—The guard hairs of the coat must be long, well fitting, straight and abundant. They should not be silky or wiry. The texture should be a medium harshness. The undercoat should be extremely dense, commensurate, however, with climatic conditions. The Belgian Sheepdog is particularly adaptable to extremes of temperature or climate. The hair is shorter on the head, outside of the ears, and lower part of the legs. The opening of the ear is protected by tufts of hair.
Ornamentation—Especially long and abundant hair, like a collarette, around the neck; fringe of long hair down the back of the forearm; especially long and abundant hair trimming the hindquarters, the breeches; long, heavy and abundant hair on the tail.
Color—Black. May be completely black, or may be black with white, limited as follows: Small to moderate patch or strip on forechest. Between pads of feet. On tips of hind toes. On chin and muzzle (frost—may be white or gray). On tips of front toes— allowable, but a fault.
Disqualification—Any color other than black, except for white in specified areas. Reddening due to climatic conditions in an otherwise correct coat should not be grounds for disqualification.
Gait—Motion should be smooth, free and easy, seemingly never tiring, exhibiting facility of movement rather than a hard driving action. He tends to single track on a fast gait; the legs, both front and rear, converging toward the center line of gravity of the dog. The backline should remain firm and level, parallel to the line of motion, with no crabbing. He shows a marked tendency to move in a circle rather than a straight line.
Temperament—The Belgian Sheepdog should reflect the qualities of intelligence, courage, alertness and devotion to master. To his inherent aptitude as a guardian of flocks should be added protectiveness of the person and property of his master. He should be watchful, attentive, and always in motion when not under command. In his relationship with humans, he should be observant and vigilant with strangers, but not apprehensive. He should not show fear or shyness. He should not show viciousness by unwarranted or unprovoked attack. With those he knows well, he is most affectionate and friendly, zealous of their attention, and very possessive. Viciousness is a disqualification.
Males under 221⁄2 or over 271⁄2 inches in height and females under 201⁄2 or over 251⁄2 inches
Ears hanging (as on a hound).
Cropped or stump tail.
Any color other than black.
Approved December 11, 1990
Effective January 30, 1991
THE BELGIAN TERVUREN IS KNOWN IN ITS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN AS THE Chien de Berger Belge. This variety is distinguished by its coat color and length as “longhaired other than black” in comparison to the Groenendael with long black hair, the Malinois with a short coat, and the wirehaired Laekenois. The variety designation, Tervuren, owes its name to the Belgian village of Tervuren, the home of M. F. Corbeel, an early devotee of the breed. Mr. Corbeel bred the fawn-colored Tom and Poes, commonly considered the foundation couple of the breed, to produce the fawn-colored Miss. In turn, Miss was bred to the black Duc de Groenendael, to produce the famous fawn Milsart, who in 1907 became the first Tervuren champion.
Before the Industrial Age, the rural farmers of Belgium had a great need for a general purpose herding and guard dog. The protective instinct of these dogs provided security for the farm and the family, and their herding abilities assisted with the daily maintenance of the stock. The mental development of the breed as a versatile helper and attentive companion paralleled the physical evolution of a medium-sized, well-balanced animal with strength and stamina. With industrialization, the rural farm dog became less important, but the beauty and loyalty of the breed made them well appreciated as family companions.
Very little written information is available on the origins of the breed before the establishment of the Belgian Shepherd Club in 1891. Professor Adolphe Reul’s documentation of the exhibitions held to determine breed type, leading to the first written standard in 1893, and the breed’s recognition by the Société Royale Saint-Hubert in 1901, are considered the important historical landmarks in the development of the Belgian Shepherd. In May 1892, the first Belgian Shepherd specialty show was held in Cureghem, Belgium, and was won by a registered Tervuren, Duc II, owned by Arthur Meul. This same Duc, a brown-brindle born in 1890, served as the model for the Belgian Tervuren in the famous painting done by Alexandre Clarys in 1910.
In these early years, differing opinions as to the color of the Tervuren allowed for a range of colors. The breed was established without regard for color, but the development of varieties led to some advocating a charcoaled fawn with a black mask, others preferring a plain fawn with no mask, and still others breeding for the silver color. Currently, any longhaired Belgian Shepherd that is not black is considered a Tervuren. In the United States the preferred colors range from fawn to mahogany, all with a black masking and a blackened overlay, as detailed in the breed standard.
The efforts of a few dedicated breeders continued on a modest scale until after World War II. The outstanding reproducers of the 1900s were General, a direct descendant of Milsart, as well as Minox and Colette ex Folette, who were from Malinois parents, and who produced Jinox, Noisette, and Lakme. These dogs figure heavily in the ancestry of the Belgian Shepherds of the 1940s and 1950s who brought about the revival of the Tervuren as we know it today.
In 1948, at the kennel of P. Daniel in Normandy, the pale fawn Willy de la Garde Noire was born, of Groenendael parents. As a pup he was sold to Gilbert Fontaine, of the Clos St. Clair kennel. Although the longhaired fawns were generally not preferred at the time, Willy was of such excellent type and structure that he competed equally with the best Groenendael and Malinois. He won numerous CACIBs in both Belgium and France, including the 1950, 1953, and 1954 Paris shows. His record as a producer was no less spectacular, and it is because of Willy that the renaissance of the Tervuren began, primarily in France, but eventually extending to the rest of Europe and the United States. The development of the Tervuren during this time is a distinct reminder of the intricate interweavings of the genetics of the Belgian Shepherd. The Tervuren was created after World War II from the longhaired puppies in Malinois litters and the fawn-gray puppies in the Groenendael litters. These dogs were eventually bred to a few remaining postwar Tervuren, producing what is now the most popular variety of Belgian Shepherd in parts of Europe and America.
The first Tervuren was registered with the AKC in 1918. Registrations at this time were sparse, and by the Depression the variety had disappeared from the AKC Stud Book. It was not until 1953 that the blackened fawn longhaired dogs were again imported, through the efforts of Rudy Robinson, Robert and Barbara Krohn, and Marge Coyle. Before 1959, these dogs were registered and shown as Belgian Sheepdogs. In that year, the AKC granted the separate breed classification designating the Belgian Tervuren as a distinct breed.
Belgian Tervurens retain the working characteristics so valued in times past. By virtue of their quick intelligence and unwavering devotion they are precious personal companions. Their versatility is still highly appreciated, as is their graceful elegance and eye-catching appearance. They have remained useful in herding and are now exhibiting their talents as therapy dogs and companions to the disabled. It is not at all unusual for them to compete equally in conformation and companion rings, and many breed champions earn obedience degrees. They have been trained in sports as diverse as schutzhund and sledding. Truly, they have earned our respect, and captivate our hearts, with their adaptability, their exuberant personalities, and their distinctive beauty.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BELGIAN TERVUREN
General Appearance—The first impression of the Belgian Tervuren is that of a well balanced, medium size dog, elegant in appearance, standing squarely on all fours, with proud carriage of head and neck. He is strong, agile, well muscled, alert and full of life. He gives the impression of depth and solidity without bulkiness. The male should appear unquestionably masculine; the female should have a distinctly feminine look and be judged equally with the male. The Belgian Tervuren is a natural dog and there is no need for excessive posing in the show ring.
The Belgian Tervuren reflects the qualities of intelligence, courage, alertness and devotion to master. In addition to his inherent ability as a herding dog, he protects his master’s person and property without being overtly aggressive. He is watchful, attentive, and usually in motion when not under command.
The Belgian Tervuren is a herding dog, and faults which affect his ability to herd under all conditions, such as poor gait, bite, coat or temperament, should be particularly penalized.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The ideal male is 24 to 26 inches in height and female 22 to 24 inches in height measured at the withers. Dogs are to be penalized in accordance to the degree they deviate from the ideal. Males under 23 inches or over 26.5 inches or females under 21 inches or over 24.5 inches are to be disqualified. The body is square; the length measured from the point of shoulder to the point of the rump approximates the height. Females may be somewhat longer in body. Bone structure is medium in proportion to height, so that he is well balanced throughout and neither spindly or leggy nor cumbersome and bulky.
Head—Well chiseled, skin taut, long without exaggeration. Expression—intelligent and questioning, indicating alertness, attention and readiness for action. Eyes— dark brown, medium size, slightly almond shape, not protruding. Light, yellow or round eyes are a fault. Ears—triangular in shape, well cupped, stiff, erect, height equal to width at base. Set high, the base of the ear does not come below the center of the eye. Hanging ears, as on a hound, are a disqualification. Skulland muzzle—measuring from the stop are of equal length. Overall size is in proportion to the body, top of skull flattened rather than rounded, the width approximately the same as, but not wider than the length. Stop—moderate. The topline of the muzzle is parallel to the topline of the skull when viewed from the side. Muzzle moderately pointed, avoiding any tendency toward snippiness or cheekiness. Jawsstrong and powerful. Noseblack without spots or discolored areas. Nostrils well defined. Lipstight and black, no pink showing on the outside when mouth is closed. Teeth—Full complement of strong white teeth, evenly set, meeting in a scissors or a level bite. Overshot and undershot teeth are a fault. Undershot teeth such that contact with the upper incisors is lost by two or more of the lower incisors is a disqualification. Loss of contact caused by short center incisors in an otherwise correct bite shall not be judged undershot. Broken or discolored teeth should not be penalized. Missing teeth are a fault.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neckround, muscular, rather long and elegant, slightly arched and tapered from head to body. Skin well fitting with no loose folds. Withers accentuated. Toplinelevel, straight and firm from withers to croup. Croup medium long, sloping gradually to the base of the tail. Chest not broad without being narrow, but deep; the lowest point of the brisket reaching the elbow, forming a smooth ascendant curve to the abdomen. Abdomenmoderately developed, neither tucked up nor paunchy. Ribs well sprung but flat on the sides. Loin section viewed from above is relatively short, broad and strong, but blending smoothly into the back. Tailstrong at the base, the last vertebra to reach at least to the hock. At rest the dog holds it low, the tip bent back level with the hock. When in action, he may raise it to a point level with the topline giving it a slight curve, but not a hook. Tail is not carried above the backline nor turned to one side. A cropped or stump tail is a disqualification.
Forequarters—Shoulderslong, laid back 45 degrees, flat against the body, forming a right angle with the upper arm. Top of the shoulder blades roughly two thumbs width apart. Upper arms should move in a direction exactly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body. Forearmslong and well muscled. Legs straight and parallel, perpendicular to the ground. Bone oval rather than round. Pasterns short and strong, slightly sloped. Dewclaws may be removed. Feetrounded, cat footed, turning neither in nor out, toes curved close together, well padded, strong nails.
Hindquarters—Legspowerful without heaviness, moving in the same pattern as the limbs of the forequarters. Bone oval rather than round. Thighs broad and heavily muscled. Stiflesclearly defined, with upper shank at right angles to hip bones. Hocks moderately bent. Metatarsi short, perpendicular to the ground, parallel to each other when viewed from the rear. Dewclaws are removed. Feet slightly elongated, toes curved close together, heavily padded, strong nails.
Coat—The Belgian Tervuren is particularly adaptable to extremes of temperature or climate. The guard hairs of the coat must be long, close fitting, straight and abundant. The texture is of medium harshness, not silky or wiry. Wavy or curly hair is undesirable. The undercoat is very dense, commensurate, however, with climatic conditions. The hair is short on the head, outside the ears, and on the front part of the legs. The opening of the ear is protected by tufts of hair. Ornamentationconsists of especially long and abundant hair, like a collarette around the neck, particularly on males; fringe of long hair down the back of the forearm; especially long and abundant hair trimming the breeches; long, heavy and abundant hair on the tail. The female rarely hasas long or as ornamented a coat as the male. This disparity must not be a consideration when thefemale is judged against the male.
Color—Body rich fawn to russet mahogany with black overlay. The coat is characteristically double pigmented wherein the tip of each fawn hair is blackened. Belgian Tervuren characteristically becomes darker with age. On mature males, this blackening is especially pronounced on the shoulders, back and rib section. Blackening in patches is undesirable. Although allowance should be made for females and young males, absence of blackening in mature dogs is a serious fault. Washed out, predominant color, such as cream or gray is to be severely penalized.
Chest is normally black, but may be a mixture of black and gray. A single white patch is permitted on the chest, not to extend to the neck or breast. Face has a black mask and the ears are mostly black. A face with a complete absence of black is a serious fault. Frost or white on chin or muzzle is normal. The underparts of the body, tail, and breeches are cream, gray, or light beige. The tail typically has a darker or black tip. Feet— The tips of the toes may be white. Nail color may vary from black to transparent. Solid black, solid liver or any area of white except as specified on the chest, tips of the toes, chin and muzzle are disqualifications.
Gait—Lively and graceful, covering the maximum ground with minimum effort. Always in motion, seemingly never tiring, he shows ease of movement rather than hard driving action. He single tracks at a fast gait, the legs both front and rear converging toward the center line of gravity of the dog. Viewed from the side he exhibits full extension of both fore and hindquarters. The backline should remain firm and level, parallel to the line of motion. His natural tendency is to move in a circle, rather than a straight line. Padding, hackneying, weaving, crabbing and similar movement faults are to be penalized according to the degree to which they interfere with the ability of the dog to work.
Temperament—In his relationship with humans he is observant and vigilant with strangers, but not apprehensive. He does not show fear or shyness. He does not show viciousness by unwarranted or unprovoked attack. He must be approachable, standing his ground and showing confidence to meet overtures without himself making them. With those he knows well, he is most affectionate and friendly, zealous for their attention and very possessive.
Males under 23 inches or over 26.5 inches or females under 21 inches or over 24.5 inches.Hanging ears, as on a hound.
Undershot teeth such that contact with the upper incisors is lost by two or more of the lowerincisors.
A cropped or stump tail.
Solid black, solid liver or any area of white except as specified on the chest, tips of the toes,chin and muzzle.
Approved September 11, 1990
Effective October 30, 1990
WHEN THE ROMANS INVADED BRITAIN IN THE FIRST CENTURY B.C., THEY brought dogs to herd their livestock. These dogs were black, tan, and white, and large, with heavy bone. Romans and their indispensable dogs were a part of British life for centuries. When the empire crumbled, Viking raiders brought with them the spitz-type dogs they used for herding. These were eventually crossbred with Roman herding dogs, decreasing size and increasing agility. This proved to be an advantage in the hilly, rocky highlands of Scotland and Wales.
One of the earliest written descriptions of sheepdogs in the British Isles is attributed to Hywel Dda in 943. He described a black sheepdog taking a flock of sheep to graze in the hills and coming home with them in the evening.
In the 1576 Of English Dogges, by John Caius, we find a description that could apply to our modern-day working Border Collie:
Our Shepherd’s dogge is not huge, vaste, or bigge, but of indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with the blood thirsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefit is to be ascribed to the puifaunt Prince Edgar. This dogge, either at the hearing of his master’s voice or at the shrill hissing, bringeth the wandering weathers and straying sheep into the self same place where his master’s will and wish is to have them, whereby the shepherd reapeth this benefite, namely that with little labour nor tyole or moving of his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his own desire.
The sheepdog continued to develop, being bred not for the seemingly artificial criteria of appearance but rather for how well the dog worked. With the arrival of mechanization, many farmers began handling larger flocks. Since less manpower was required for most tasks, an efficient herding dog became a real asset.
Sheepdog trials played an important role in the development of these herders by testing their merit and capabilities in a uniform environment. The first recorded sheepdog trial was held on October 9, 1873, in Bala, Wales. The winner was William Thomson and his Scottish-bred dog, Tweed. A compact dog, Tweed had a black coat with tan and white markings, and was also the winner of the beauty prize!
All modern Border Collies trace to a single dog, Old Hemp, born in 1893. He was bred by Adam Telfer, of Northumberland, England. Old Hemp stood approximately twenty-one inches tall and weighed about forty-five pounds. He was rough coated, black with some white, and had semierect ears. He began in sheepdog trials at age one, and was undefeated in his lifetime. This record has never been matched.
Other influential early sires were Isaac Herdman’s Tommy #16 (International Sheepdog Society number), Thomas Armstrong’s Sweep (both grandsons of Old Hemp), and J. M. Wilson’s Craig. The best known was Wilson’s Wartime Cap #3036 because of his influence in the pedigree of John Richardson’s Wiston Cap, where he appears more than sixteen times. Wiston Cap is perhaps the dog with the greatest influence on the breed in recent history. Cap was the 1965 International Champion. He was a big, handsome, tri-colored, rough-coated dog who produced some excellent progeny. He died in 1979 at 151⁄2 years.
The ability to succeed as a herding dog was what made these early dogs successful stud dogs. All had won important herding championships, were good-natured and biddable, and exhibited a certain style of working, usually well off the stock with wide outruns. Many excellent specimens were exported to the United States, beginning in the 1880s.
The International Sheepdog Society (ISDS) was founded in Scotland in 1906 and played an important role in maintaining pedigrees and registration information. In 1918, ISDS secretary James Reid coined the name Border Collie. There is little doubt that this organization has had tremendous influence on the development of sheepherding and of the dogs used in this activity, whether it be for sport or farm-work. The ISDS, now headquartered in Bedford, England, is still very active in maintaining a registry and governing body for working Border Collies the world over.
Border Collies continue as an invaluable helper to stockmen and a standout in the herding trials of many different societies and registries. Their success in agility competition is prodigious.
Recognized as the premier sheepherding dog worldwide, and known for its obedience, trainability, and natural appearance, the Border Collie entered the AKC Miscellaneous class in 1955. The breed was admitted to the Herding Group and became eligible for full AKC recognition on October 1, 1995.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BORDER COLLIE
Preamble—The Border Collie originated in the border country between Scotland and England where the shepherds’ breeding selection was based on biddable stock sense and the ability to work long days on rugged terrain. As a result of this selective breeding, the Border Collie developed the unique working style of gathering and fetching the stock with wide sweeping outruns. The stock is then controlled with an intense gaze known as “eye,” coupled with a stalking style of movement. This selective breeding over hundreds of years developed the Border Collie’s intensity, energy and trainability which are features so important that they are equal to physical size and appearance. The Border Collie has extraordinary instinct and an uncanny ability to reason. One of its greatest assets is the ability to work out of sight of its master without commands. Breeding based on this working ability has made this breed the world’s premier sheep herding dog, a job the Border Collie is still used for worldwide.
General Appearance—The Border Collie is a well balanced, medium-sized dog of athletic appearance, displaying style and agility in equal measure with soundness and strength. Its hard, muscular body conveys the impression of effortless movement and endless endurance. The Border Collie is extremely intelligent, with its keen, alert expression being a very important characteristic of the breed. Any aspect of structure or temperament that would impede the dog’s ability to function as a herding dog should be severely faulted. The Border Collie is, and should remain, a natural and unspoiled true working sheep dog whose conformation is described herein. Honorable scars and broken teeth incurred in the line of duty are acceptable.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The height at the withers varies from 19 to 22 inches for males, 18 to 21 inches for females. The body, from prosternum to point of buttocks, is slightly longer than the height at the withers with the length to height ratio being approximately 10:9. Bone must be strong, medium being correct but lighter bone is preferred over heavy. Overall balance between height, length, weight and bone is crucial and is more important than any absolute measurement. Dogs must be presented in hard working condition. Excess body weight is not to be mistaken for muscle or substance. Any single feature of size appearing out of proportion should be considered a fault.
Head—Expression is intelligent, alert, eager, and full of interest. Eyes are set well apart, of moderate size, oval in shape. The color encompasses the full range of brown eyes, dogs having body colors other than black may have noticeably lighter eye color. Blue eyes (with one, both or part of one or both eyes being blue) in dogs other than merle, are acceptable but not preferred. Eye rims should be fully pigmented, lack thereof considered a fault according to degree. Ears are of medium size, set well apart, one or both carried erect and/or semi-erect (varying from 1⁄4 to 3⁄4 of the ear erect). When semi-erect, the tips may fall forward or outward to the side. Ears are sensitive and mobile. Skull is relatively flat and moderate in width. The skull and muzzle are approximately equal in length. In profile the top of the skull is parallel with the top of the muzzle. Stop moderate, but distinct. The muzzle is strong, tapering slightly to the nose. The underjaw is strong and well developed. A domed, blocky or very narrow skull is faulty according to degree, as is cheekiness and a snipy muzzle. Nose color matches the primary body color. Nostrils are well developed. Lack of nose pigmentation is a fault according to degree. Bite—Teeth and jaws are strong, meeting in a scissors bite. Complete dentition is required. Missing molars or pre-molars are serious faults as is an undershot or overshot bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck is of proportional length to the body, strong and muscular, slightly arched and blending smoothly into the shoulders. Topline—Back is level from behind the withers to the slightly arched, muscular loins, falling to a gently sloping croup. Body is athletic in appearance with a deep, moderately broad chest reaching no further than the point of the elbow. The rib cage is moderately long with well sprung ribs. Loins moderately deep and short, muscular, slightly arched and with a slight but distinct tuck up. The tail is set on low and is moderately long with the bone reaching at least to the hock. The ideal tail carriage is low when the dog is concentrating on a given task and may have a slight upward swirl at the end like a shepherd’s crook. In excitement, it may be raised proudly and waved like a banner, showing a confident personality. A tail curled over the back is a fault.
Forequarters—Forelegs should be parallel when viewed from front, pasterns slightly sloping when viewed from side. Because sufficient length of leg is crucial for the type of work the breed is required to do, the distance from the wither to the elbow is slightly less than from the elbow to the ground and legs that are too short in proportion to the rest of the body are a serious fault. The shoulder blades are long, well laid back and well-angulated to the upper arm. Shoulder blades and upper arms are equal in length. There is sufficient width between the tops of the shoulder blades to allow for the characteristic crouch when approaching and moving stock. The elbows are neither in nor out. Feet are compact, oval in shape; pads deep and strong, toes moderately arched and close together with strong nails of moderate length. Dewclaws may be removed.
Hindquarters—Broad and muscular, in profile sloping gracefully to the low set tail. The thighs are long, broad, deep and muscular. Stifles are well turned with strong hocks that may be either parallel or very slightly turned in. Dewclaws should be removed. Feet, although slightly smaller, are the same as front.
Coat—Two varieties are permissible, both having close-fitting, dense, weather resistant double coats with the top coat either straight or wavy and coarser in texture than the undercoat which is soft, short and dense. The rough variety is medium in length without being excessive. Forelegs, haunches, chest and underside are feathered and the coat on face, ears, feet, fronts of legs is short and smooth. The smooth variety is short over entire body, is usually coarser in texture than the rough variety and may have slight feathering on forelegs, haunches, chest and ruff. Neither coat type is preferred over the other. Seasonal shedding is normal and should not be penalized. The Border Collie’s purpose as an actively working herding dog shall be clearly evident in its presentation. Excess hair on the feet, hock and pastern areas may be neatened for the show ring. Whiskers are untrimmed. Dogs that are overly groomed (trimmed and/or sculpted) should be penalized according to the extent.
Color—The Border Collie appears in all colors or combination of colors and/or markings. Solid color, bi-color, tri-color, merle and sable dogs are to be judged equally with no one color or pattern preferred over another. White markings may be clear white or ticked to any degree. Random white patches on the body and head are permissible but should not predominate. Color and markings are always secondary to physical evaluation and gait.
Gait—The Border Collie is an agile dog, able to suddenly change speed and direction while maintaining balance and grace. Endurance is its trademark. The Border Collie’s most used working gaits are the gallop and a moving crouch (stealth) which convert to a balanced and free trot, with minimum lift of the feet. The head is carried level with or slightly below the withers. When shown, Border Collies should move on a loose lead and at moderate speed, never raced around the ring with the head held high. When viewed from the side the trot is not long striding, yet covers the ground with minimum effort, exhibiting facility of movement rather than a hard-driving action. Exaggerated reach and drive at the trot are not useful to the Border Collie. The topline is firm. Viewed from the front, action is forward and true without wasted motion. Viewed from the rear, hindquarters drive with thrust and flexibility with hocks turning neither in nor out, moving close together but never touching. The legs, both front and rear, tend to converge toward the center line as speed increases. Any deficiency that detracts from efficient movement is a fault.
Temperament—The Border Collie is energetic, intelligent, keen, alert, and responsive. An intense worker of great tractability, it is affectionate towards friends but may be sensibly reserved towards strangers. When approached, the Border Collie should stand its ground. It should be alert and interested, never showing fear, dullness or resentment. Any tendencies toward viciousness, nervousness or shyness are very serious faults.
Faults—Any deviation from the foregoing should be considered a fault, the seriousness of the fault depending upon the extent of the deviation.
Approved January 13, 2004
Effective March 2, 2004
BOUVIER DES FLANDRES
DR. ADOLPHE REUL, OF THE VETERINARY SCHOOL OF BRUSSELS, WAS THE first to call attention to the Bouvier’s many good qualities. This large dog with a heavy, cylindrical body; rough, gray, dark hair; and a rough appearance was found in southwest Flanders and on the French northern plain. It was a dog owned by people with cattle, for the dog’s chief aptitude seemed to be cattle driving. Most of the early Bouvier breeders were farmers, butchers, or cattle merchants whose interest was not breeding pedigreed dogs but rather in having help with their work. The earliest Bouviers were not absolutely uniform in size, weight, or color and were often known by different names, such as vuilbaard (“dirty beard”), koehond (“cow dog”), toucheur de boeuf or pic (“cattle driver”). Nevertheless, they all had enough characteristics in common to be recognized as Bouviers des Flandres.
The Société Royale Saint-Hubert became aware of the breed in 1910, when two Bouviers belonging to M. Paret of Ghent—Nelly and Rex—appeared on the show benches at the international dog show in Brussels. It was not until 1912 that a standard for Bouvier type was adopted. That was accomplished by a Frenchman, M. Fontaine, vice president of the Club Saint-Hubert du Nord. In August of that year, a society of Bouvier breeders, founded in Roules (West) Flanders, invited famous Belgian experts to a meeting. They drew up a “Standard of Perfection,” the first official standard to be recognized by the Société Royale Saint-Hubert, and the breed entered the society’s studbook.
After the outbreak of World War I, areas where the Bouvier was rapidly becoming popular were entirely destroyed and, as the population fled, most Bouviers were lost. A few people succeeded, however, in keeping their dogs throughout the war. The dog whose progeny did much afterward to revive the Bouvier in Belgium lived with the Belgian army as the property of veterinarian Captain Barbry. This dog, Ch. Nic de Sottegem, was shown in Antwerp at the Olympic show in 1920. Show judge Charles Huge reported: “Nic is the ideal type of Bouvier. He has a short body, with well-developed ribs, short flanks, strong legs, and good feet, long and oblique shoulders. His head is of a good shape, with somber eyes and an ideal courageous expression. His hair is dry and dark. I hope that this dog will have numerous progeny.”
Nic died in 1926. He had many descendants whose names appear in almost every pedigree. These dogs were subsequently gathered together at Ghent. After examining and measuring each one carefully, a group of experts, including Charles Huge, V. Tenret, V. Taeymans, Count de Hemptinne, Captain Binon, and A. Gevaert, established a comprehensive standard based on these descendants.
There is little doubt that a few dogs were brought to the Americas during this formative period early in the twentieth century. But it was not until 1929 that the Bouvier des Flandres was first recognized by the American Kennel Club, and not until 1931 that the breed was admitted to the AKC Stud Book. Just a few American fanciers imported these dogs from Europe before World War II. After the war, the Bouvier in Europe was near extinction. A small number of Western European expatriates brought with them a few Bouviers as well as a great understanding of the breed. Interest in this remarkable breed was revived.
The 1950s and 1960s proved to be pivotal for the Bouvier in America. New fanciers established kennel names and reputations that survive to this day. After at least one unsuccessful attempt to form an active Bouvier club, the American Bouvier des Flandres Club was established in 1963 and continues as the breed’s AKC parent club. The club is not only active in conformation and various other dog events but also takes a proactive stance on several aspects of Bouvier health and welfare.
The Bouvier is an incredibly versatile breed, one that displays strength of body and character. It is a dog neither to be taken lightly nor relegated to a life lacking interaction with its human family. This is a breed that needs a job or an active responsibility.
If the Bouvier has an ancestral vocation, it is either as a working farm dog that herds, or that manages and protects, livestock and other farm inhabitants. But this is a dog with the structure and temperament to be successful in a number of other activities. In fact, with American urbanization, most Bouviers “work” in obedience, agility, tracking, herding, search and rescue, police service, carting, therapy, personal assistance, and protection. Training in these activities offers the opportunity for owner-and-dog teams to participate in competitions based on real-life tasks.
The Bouvier des Flandres is a strong-willed dog. While definitely not for the faint of heart, the Bouvier will become a trusted friend for one who leads fairly. Those who willingly include a Bouvier in the family will be rewarded many times over from the heart of this great companion.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR BOUVIER DES FLANDRES
General Appearance—The Bouvier des Flandres is a powerfully built, compact, short-coupled, rough-coated dog of notably rugged appearance. He gives the impression of great strength without any sign of heaviness or clumsiness in his overall makeup. He is agile, spirited and bold, yet his serene, well behaved disposition denotes his steady, resolute and fearless character. His gaze is alert and brilliant, depicting his intelligence, vigor and daring. By nature he is an equable dog. His origin is that of a cattle herder and general farmer’s helper, including cart pulling. He is an ideal farm dog. His harsh double coat protects him in all weather, enabling him to perform the most arduous tasks. He has been used as an ambulance and messenger dog. Modern times find him as a watch and guard dog as well as a family friend, guardian and protector. His physical and mental characteristics and deportment, coupled with his olfactory abilities, his intelligence and initiative enable him to also perform as a tracking dog and a guide dog for the blind. The following description is that of the ideal Bouvier des Flandres. Any deviation from this is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—The height as measured at the withers: Dogs, from 241⁄2 to 27 1⁄2 inches; bitches, from 231⁄2 to 261⁄2 inches. In each sex, the ideal height is the median of the two limits, i.e., 26 inches for a dog and 25 inches for a bitch. Any dog or bitch deviating from the minimum or maximum limits mentioned shall be severely penalized. Proportion—The length from the point of the shoulder to the tip of the buttocks is equal to the height from the ground to the highest point of the withers. A long-bodied dog should be seriously faulted. Substance—Powerfully built, strong boned, well muscled, without any sign of heaviness or clumsiness.
Head—The head is impressive in scale, accentuated by beard and mustache. It is in proportion to body and build. The expression is bold and alert. Eyes neither protrude nor are sunken in the sockets. Their shape is oval with the axis on the horizontal plane, when viewed from the front. Their color is a dark brown. The eye rims are black without lack of pigment and the haw is barely visible. Yellow or light eyes are to be strongly penalized, along with a walleyed or staring expression. Ears placed high and alert. If cropped, they are to be a triangular contour and in proportion to the size of the head. The inner corner of the ear should be in line with the outer corner of the eye. Ears that are too low or too closely set are serious faults. Skull well developed and flat, slightly less wide than long. When viewed from the side, the top lines of the skull and the muzzle are parallel. It is wide between the ears, with the frontal groove barely marked. The stop is more apparent than real, due to upstanding eyebrows. The proportions of length of skull to length of muzzle are 3 to 2. Muzzle broad, strong, well filled out, tapering gradually toward the nose without ever becoming snipy or pointed. A narrow, snipy muzzle is faulty. Nose large, black, well developed, round at the edges, with flared nostrils. A brown, pink or spotted nose is a serious fault. The cheeks are flat and lean, with the lips being dry and tight fitting. The jaws are powerful and of equal length. The teeth are strong, white and healthy, with the incisors meeting in a scissors bite. Overshot or undershot bites are to be severely penalized.
Neck, Topline, and Body—The neck is strong and muscular, widening gradually into the shoulders. When viewed from the side, it is gracefully arched with proud carriage. A short, squatty neck is faulty. No dewlap. Back short, broad, well muscled with firm level topline. It is supple and flexible with no sign of weakness. Body or trunk powerful, broad and short. The chest is broad, with the brisket extending to the elbow in depth. The ribs are deep and well sprung. The first ribs are slightly curved, the others well sprung and very well sloped nearing the rear, giving proper depth to the chest. Flat ribs or slabsidedness is to be strongly penalized. Flanks and loins short, wide and well muscled, without weakness. The abdomen is only slightly tucked up. The horizontal line of the back should mold unnoticeably into the curve of the rump, which is characteristically wide. A sunken or slanted croup is a serious fault. Tail is to be docked, leaving 2 or 3 vertebrae. It must be set high and align normally with the spinal column. Preferably carried upright in motion. Dogs born tailless should not be penalized.
Forequarters—Strong boned, well muscled and straight. The shoulders are relatively long, muscular but not loaded, with good layback. The shoulder blade and humerus are approximately the same length, forming an angle slightly greater than 90 degrees when standing. Steep shoulders are faulty. Elbows close to the body and parallel. Elbows which are too far out or in are faults. Forearms viewed either in profile or from the front are perfectly straight, parallel to each other and perpendicular to the ground. They are well muscled and strong boned. Carpus exactly in line with the forearms. Strong boned. Pasterns quite short, slightly sloped. Dewclaws may be removed. Both forefeet and hind feet are rounded and compact turning neither in nor out; the toes close and well arched; strong black nails; thick tough pads.
Hindquarters—Firm, well muscled with large, powerful hams. They should be parallel with the front legs when viewed from either front or rear. Legs moderately long, well muscled, neither too straight nor too inclined. Thighs wide and muscular. The upper thigh must be neither too straight nor too sloping. There is moderate angulation at the stifle. Hocks strong, rather close to the ground. When standing and seen from the rear, they will be straight and perfectly parallel to each other. In motion, they must turn neither in nor out. There is a slight angulation at the hock joint. Sickle or cow-hocks are serious faults. Metatarsi hardy and lean, rather cylindrical and perpendicular to the ground when standing. If born with dewclaws, they are to be removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—A tousled, double coat capable of withstanding the hardest work in the most inclement weather. The outer hairs are rough and harsh, with the undercoat being fine, soft and dense. The coat may be trimmed slightly only to accent the body line. Overtrimming which alters the natural rugged appearance is to be avoided. Topcoat must be harsh to the touch, dry, trimmed, if necessary, to a length of approximately 2 1⁄2 inches. A coat too long or too short is a fault, as is a silky or woolly coat. It is tousled without being curly. On the skull, it is short, and on the upper part of the back, it is particularly close and harsh always, however, remaining rough. Ears are rough-coated. Undercoat a dense mass of fine, close hair, thicker in winter. Together with the topcoat, it will form a water-resistant covering. A flat coat, denoting lack of undercoat is a serious fault. Mustache and beard very thick, with the hair being shorter and rougher on the upper side of the muzzle. The upper lip with its heavy mustache and the chin with its heavy and rough beard gives that gruff expression so characteristic of the breed. Eyebrows,erect hairs accentuating the shape of the eyes without ever veiling them.
Color—From fawn to black, passing through salt and pepper, gray and brindle. A small white star on the chest is allowed. Other than chocolate brown, white, or parti-color, which are to be severely penalized, no one color is to be favored.
Gait—The whole of the Bouvier des Flandres must be harmoniously proportioned to allow for a free, bold and proud gait. The reach of the forequarters must compensate for and be in balance with the driving power of the hindquarters. The back, while moving in a trot, will remain firm and flat. In general, the gait is the logical demonstration of the structure and build of the dog. It is to be noted that while moving at a fast trot, the properly built Bouvier will tend to single-track.
Temperament—The Bouvier is an equable dog, steady, resolute and fearless. Viciousness or shyness is undesirable.
Approved January 10, 2000
Effective February 23, 2000
THE BRIARD IS AN OLD BREED OF FRENCH WORKING DOG. DEPICTED IN tapestries as early as the eighth century, the breed was accurately described in writing by the fourteenth century. Briards initially defended their charges against wolves and poachers, but the land division and population increase following the French Revolution gradually transformed their work into the more peaceful tasks of keeping sheep within unfenced pastures and guarding their masters’ flocks and property.
An article in 1809 referred to the breed as Chien Berger de Brie (Shepherd Dog of Brie), but Briards did not necessarily originate in the Brie province. Many authorities claim that Chien de Brie is a distortion of Chien d’Aubry, from the fourteenth-century legend in which the principal role was played by Aubry de Montdidier’s dog, believed to be a Briard.
They were first entered in dog shows at the end of the nineteenth century. The first known Briard standard was written in 1897 by a club of shepherd dog breeders. In 1909, Les Amis du Briard (Friends of the Briard) was founded. This club, disbanded during World War I and re-formed in 1923, established a more precise Briard standard in 1925. The Briard Club of America, recognized as the AKC parent club in 1928, adopted this standard with some modification. Except for slight elaboration in 1975, the standard has remained essentially unchanged.
The American history of the Briard is not well documented. Some credit the Marquis de Lafayette with introducing the breed to America in the late eighteenth century, but the writings of Thomas Jefferson indicate that he also imported Briards at about the same time.
The characteristics of the Briard have helped the breed withstand the test of time. The French shepherd, practical and frugal, kept only dogs with superior abilities. Briard breeders today strive to preserve traditional abilities along with the traits of intelligence, loyalty, and obedience for which the breed has been valued. Briards still display the herding ability for which they were prized. Even today’s companion Briards will display the instinct to herd whatever is at hand, giving head nudges to their owners to direct them, alerting them to anything unusual, and enthusiastically carrying out any task owners have given them. Briards are not generally inclined to wander from their property and may decide that children must also remain within these boundaries.
The Briard’s distinctive appearance includes eyebrows and beard, which give the breed its typical expression. At the end of the tail is a small crook, called a crochet. The correct coat is slightly wavy, of moderate length, with texture such that mud and dirt do not cling to it. Two dewclaws on each rear foot are another distinctive characteristic, a trait shared by most French sheepdog breeds.
Briards learn readily, and training should begin early. Trainers familiar with the breed believe that consistency, verbal reinforcement, and lavish praise work better than harsh methods. Briards do their utmost to please, once they know what is expected. They have an excellent memory, and once a lesson is learned it is seldom forgotten.
Although Briards have been used primarily as guarding and herding dogs, they are versatile. They have served as tracking, disaster, and avalanche dogs, and during World War I were the official French army dog. In this capacity, they were sentries, work for which their acute hearing proved invaluable. They accompanied patrols and carried food, supplies, and munitions to the front. Medical corps reports describe the Briard’s ability to find wounded soldiers on the battlefield, saying that the dogs would even instinctively bypass those beyond hope. They were also used for pulling carts, but this type of work does not suit the Briard. Their eagerness to please causes them to overwork, not seeming to sense their physical limitations. As a result, war service severely reduced their numbers and threatened the breed’s existence. Credit belongs to devoted breeders who saved the breed from extinction, carefully preserving the Briard’s many cherished qualities.
The Briard is not for every home. Only those willing to devote time and affection to the dog can develop the breed’s true character. The coat requires regular grooming or matting will occur. Briards are likely to view themselves more as companions than servants and can be somewhat independent. By nature they are reserved with strangers and can be overprotective. Therefore, owners must take the time to introduce young Briard puppies to various situations and people if they are to become calm, self-assured adults. This is a breed that must have human companionship to reach full potential. They are happiest at the side (or on the feet) of the people they love.
Briards have been described as a heart wrapped in fur, companions who understand every mood and will spend a lifetime trying to please. For those who have time and love to give, a Briard is a loyal and unselfish friend who returns every kindness many times over.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BRIARD
General Appearance—A dog of handsome form. Vigorous and alert, powerful without coarseness, strong in bone and muscle, exhibiting the strength and agility required of the herding dog. Dogs lacking these qualities, however concealed by the coat, are to be penalized.
Size, Proportions and Substance—Size—Males 23 to 27 inches at the withers; bitches 22 to 251⁄2 inches at the withers. Disqualification—All dogs or bitches under the minimum. Proportions —The Briard is not cobby in build. In males the length of the body, measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock, is equal to or slightly more than his height at the withers. The female may be a little longer.
Head—The head of a Briard always gives the impression of length, having sufficient width without being cumbersome. The correct length of a good head, measured from the occiput to the tip of the nose, is about 40 percent (40%) of the height of the dog at the withers. There is no objection to a slightly longer head, especially if the animal tends to a longer body line. Viewed from above, from the front or in profile, the fully-coated silhouette gives the impression of two rectangular forms, equal in length but differing in height and width, blending together rather abruptly. The larger rectangle is the skull and the other forms the muzzle. The head joins the neck in a right angle and is held proudly alert. The head is sculptured in clean lines, without jowls or excess flesh on the sides, or under the eyes or temples. Expression—The gaze is frank, questioning and confident. Eyes—The eyes set well apart with the inner corners and outer corners on the same level. Large, well opened and calm, they must never be narrow or slanted. The color must be black or black-brown with very dark pigmentation of the rim of the eyelids, whatever the color of the coat. Disqualification—yellow eyes or spotted eyes. Ears—The ears should be attached high, have thick leather and be firm at the base. Low-set ears cause the head to appear to be too arched. The length of the natural ear should be equal to or slightly less than one-half the length of the head, always straight and covered with long hair. The natural ear must not lie flat against the head and, when alert, the ears are lifted slightly, giving a square look to the top of the skull. The ears when cropped should be carried upright and parallel, emphasizing the parallel lines of the head; when alert, they should face forward, well open with long hair falling over the opening. The cropped ear should be long, broad at the base, tapering gradually to a rounded tip. Skull—The width of the head, as measured across the skull, is slightly less than the length of the skull from the occiput to the stop. Although not clearly visible on the fully-coated head, the occiput is prominent and the forehead is very slightly rounded. Muzzle—The muzzle with mustache and beard is somewhat wide and terminates in a right angle. The muzzle must not be narrow or pointed. Planes—The topline of the muzzle is parallel to the topline of the skull, and the junction of the two forms a well-marked stop, which is midway between the occiput and the tip of the nose, and on a level with the eyes. Nose—Square rather than round, always black with nostrils well opened. Disqualification—any color other than black. Lips—The lips are of medium thickness, firm of line and fitted neatly, without folds or flews at the corners. The lips are black. Bite, Teeth—Strong, white and adapting perfectly in a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline and Body—Neck—Strong and well constructed. The neck is in the shape of a truncated cone, clearing the shoulders well. It is strongly muscled and has good length. Topline —The Briard is constructed with a very slight incline, downward from the prominent withers to the back which is straight, to the broad loin and the croup which is slightly inclined. The croup is well muscled and slightly sloped to give a well-rounded finish. The topline is strong, never swayed nor roached. Body—The chest is broad and deep with moderately curved ribs, egg-shaped in form, the ribs not too rounded. The breastbone is moderately advanced in front, descending smoothly to the level of the elbows and shaped to give good depth to the chest. The abdomen is moderately drawn up but still presents good volume. Tail—Uncut, well feathered, forming a crook at the extremity, carried low and not deviating to the right or to the left. In repose, the bone of the tail descends to the point of the hock, terminating in the crook, similar in shape to the printed “J” when viewed from the dog’s right side. In action, the tail is raised in a harmonious curve, never going above the level of the back, except for the terminal crook. Disqualification—tail non-existent or cut.
Forequarters—Shoulder blades are long and sloping forming a 45-degree angle with the horizontal, firmly attached by strong muscles and blending smoothly with the withers. Legs—The legs are powerfully muscled with strong bone. The forelegs are vertical when viewed from the side except the pasterns are very slightly inclined. Viewed from the front or rear, the legs are straight and parallel to the median line of the body, never turned inward or outward. The distance between the front legs is equal to the distance between the rear legs. The construction of the legs is of utmost importance, determining the dog’s ability to work and his resistance to fatigue. Dewclaws—Dewclaws on the forelegs may or may not be removed. Feet—Strong and rounded, being slightly oval in shape. The feet travel straight forward in the line of movement. The toes are strong, well arched and compact. The pads are well developed, compact and elastic, covered with strong tissue. The nails are always black and hard.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are powerful, providing flexible, almost tireless movement. The pelvis slopes at a 30-degree angle from the horizontal and forms a right angle with the upper leg bone. Legs—Viewed from the side, the legs are well angulated with the metatarsus slightly inclined, the hock making an angle of 135 degrees. Dewclaws—Two dewclaws are required on each rear leg, placed low on the leg, giving a wide base to the foot. Occasionally the nail may break off completely. The dog shall not be penalized for the missing nail so long as the digit itself is present. Ideally the dewclaws form additional functioning toes. Disqualification—anything less than two dewclaws on each rear leg. Feet—If the rear toes turn out very slightly when the hocks and metatarsus are parallel, then the position of the feet is correct.
Coat—The outer coat is coarse, hard and dry (making a dry rasping sound between the fingers). It lies down flat, falling naturally in long, slightly waving locks, having the sheen of good health. On the shoulders the length of the hair is generally six inches or more. The undercoat is fine and tight on all the body. The head is well covered with hair which lies down, forming a natural part in the center. The eyebrows do not lie flat, but instead, arch up and out in a curve that lightly veils the eyes. The hair is never so abundant that it masks the form of the head or completely covers the eyes.
Color—All uniform colors are permitted except white. The colors are black, various shades of gray and various shades of tawny. The deeper shades of each color are preferred. Combinations of two of these colors are permitted, provided there are no marked spots and the transition from one color to another takes place gradually and symmetrically. The only permissible white: white hairs scattered throughout the coat and/or a white spot on the chest not to exceed one inch in diameter at the root of the hair. Disqualification—white coat, spotted coat, white spot on chest exceeding one inch in diameter.
Gait—The well-constructed Briard is a marvel of supple power. His movement has been described as “quicksilver,” permitting him to make abrupt turns, springing starts and sudden stops required of the sheepherding dog. His gait is supple and light, almost like that of a large feline. The gait gives the impression that the dog glides along without touching the ground. Strong, flexible movement is essential to the sheepdog. He is above all a trotter, single-tracking, occasionally galloping and he frequently needs to change his speed to accomplish his work. His conformation is harmoniously balanced and strong to sustain him in the long day’s work. Dogs with clumsy or inelegant gait must be penalized.
Temperament—He is a dog at heart, with spirit and initiative, wise and fearless with no trace of timidity. Intelligent, easily trained, faithful, gentle and obedient, the Briard possesses an excellent memory and an ardent desire to please his master. He retains a high degree of his ancestral instinct to guard home and master. Although he is reserved with strangers, he is loving and loyal to those he knows. Some will display a certain independence.
All dogs or bitches under the minimum size limits.
Yellow eyes or spotted eyes.
Nose any color other than black.
Tail non-existent or cut.
Less than two dewclaws on each rear leg.
White spot on chest exceeding one inch in diameter.
Approved February 8, 1975
Reformatted January 12, 1992
THE CANAAN DOG, THE NATIONAL BREED OF ISRAEL, DATES TO BIBLICAL times. Drawings found on the tombs at Beni-Hassan, from 2200 to 2000 B.C., depict dogs that show an unmistakable resemblance to the Canaan Dog of today. The Canaan Dog was the sentry and herd dog of the ancient Israelites, and in recent times they could be found performing the same functions with nomadic Bedouins, in various Israeli communities, and among the Druze religious sect on Mount Carmel. They were plentiful in the region until the Romans drove the Israelites out of the Holy Land more than 1,900 years ago. Dogs sought refuge in the Negev Desert, a natural reservoir of Israeli wildlife, where they survived and, for the most part, remained undomesticated for centuries.
In 1934, Dr. Rudolphina Menzel, a noted Austrian cynologist, immigrated to what was then Palestine and was asked by the Haganah (a Jewish defense organization) to develop a sentry dog for the isolated Jewish settlements and supervise the buildup of war dogs for Israel’s War of Independence. Remembering the semiwild dogs living in the desert, she knew only the fittest would have survived such hardships and began to acquire puppies and adult dogs for redomestication in her breeding program. Naming the breed after the land in which it originated, she found the Canaan Dog proved to be highly intelligent and easily trainable. These dogs soon began to serve as sentry dogs, messengers, Red Cross service dogs, and land-mine locators. During World War II, Dr. Menzel recruited and trained more than 400 of the best dogs as mine detectors for the Middle East forces; these dogs proved superior to mechanical detectors, saving many lives in the process.
After the war, Dr. Menzel dedicated her time to helping the blind. In 1949, she founded the Institute for Orientation and Mobility of the Blind, the only one of its kind in the Middle East. The entire Canaan Dog breeding program was soon concentrated within the institute and established under the kennel name of B’nei Habitatchon. The breed was first recognized by the Palestine Kennel Club, the forerunner of the Israel Kennel Club, and by 1948 approximately 150 Canaan Dogs were registered in their studbook.
On September 7, 1965, Ursula Berkowitz, of Oxnard, California, imported the first four Canaan Dogs with the idea of establishing the breed in the United States. Several more Canaan Dogs were soon imported and the breed slowly began to promulgate its existence in the United States. The Canaan Dog Club of America was formed in 1965 and kept the studbook records until the breed’s full recognition into the AKC Herding Group.
The Canaan Dog, while easily trainable and adaptable to situations, still retains some of its natural, reactive qualities. They are territorial and highly suspicious of strangers. They are not a true guard dog, but rather one that will give an alarm if anything is wrong within their territory. Some Canaan Dogs do not regard fences as a barrier or perimeter to their territory. A “thinking breed,” the Canaan Dog must be thoroughly socialized and obedience training is highly recommended, though the breed will balk at repetitive training. Loyal to their family, the Canaan Dog regards the human-dog relationship as a partnership. Physically, the Canaan Dog will retain its puppy qualities for a very brief time as its survival in the desert depended upon its fast adult growth; however, its mental and emotional maturity will require another three to four years, testing an owner’s patience and loyalty to the breed.
A versatile and agile breed, the Canaan Dog can be found in many companion events, such as agility, tracking, obedience, and rally. Many Canaan Dogs have distinguished themselves in several AKC performance trial–level venues, such as herding. While not specifically bred to herd, the Canaan Dog does exhibit herding instinct and has a 70 to 80 percent pass rate in the Canaan Dog Club of America’s annual herding-instinct tests under AKC judges.
The Canaan Dog entered the Miscellaneous class in June 1989, was registered in the AKC Stud Book as of June 1, 1997, and was eligible, in August of that year, to compete in conformation.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CANAAN DOG
General Appearance—The Canaan Dog is a herding and flock guardian dog native to the Middle East. He is aloof with strangers, inquisitive, loyal and loving with his family. His medium-size, square body is without extremes, showing a clear, sharp outline. The Canaan Dog moves with athletic agility and grace in a quick, brisk, ground-covering trot. He has a wedge-shaped head with low-set erect ears, a bushy tail that curls over the back when excited, and a straight, harsh, flat-lying double coat.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height at the withers is 20 to 24 inches for dogs and 19 to 23 inches for bitches. The ideal Canaan Dog lies in the middle of the stated ranges. Disqualifications —Dogs less than 20 inches or more than 25 inches. Bitches less than 18 inches or more than 23 inches. Proportion—Square when measured from the point of the withers to the base of the tail and from the point of the withers to the ground. Substance—Moderate. Dogs generally weigh 45 to 55 pounds and bitches approximately 35 to 45 pounds. Dogs distinctly masculine without coarseness and bitches feminine without over-refinement.
Head—Elongated, the length exceeding the breadth and depth considerably. Wedge-shaped, when viewed from above. Slightly arched when viewed from the side, tapering to stop. The region of the forehead is of medium width, but appearing broader through ears set low to complete an alert expression, with a slight furrow between the eyes. Expression—Alert, watchful and inquisitive. Dignified. Eyes—Dark, almondshaped, slightly slanted. Varying shades of hazel with liver-pointed dogs. Eye rims darkly pigmented or of varying shades of liver harmonizing with coat color. Fault—Unpigmented eye rims. Ears—Erect, medium to large, set moderately low, broad at the base, tapering to a very slightly rounded tip. Ears angled very slightly forward when excited. A straight line from the inner corner of the ear to the tip of the nose should just touch the inner corner of the eye and a line drawn from the tip of the ear to the tip of the nose should just touch the outer corner of the eye. Ear motion contributes to expression and clearly defines the mood of the dog. Major Fault—In the adult dog, other than erect ears. Stop—Slightly accentuated. Muzzle—Tapering to complete the wedge shape of the head. Length equal to or slightly longer than the length of the skull from the occiput to stop. Whisker trimming optional. Nose—Darkly pigmented or varying shades of liver, harmonizing with coat color. Lips—Tight with good pigmentation. Bite— Scissors.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Well-arched. Balance to body and head and free from throatiness. Topline—Level with slight arch over the loins. Body—Strong, displaying athletic agility and trimness. Chest—Moderately broad and deep, extending to the elbows, with well-sprung ribs. Loin—Well tucked-up. Short, muscled flanks. Tail—Set moderately high. May be carried curled over the back when excited; limited to one full curl. When extended, the bone must reach to the hocks. Fault—Tail which falls over to either side of the back.
Forequarters—Shoulders moderately angulated. Legs straight. Pasterns flexible with very slight slope when viewed from the side. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet— Catlike, pads hard, pigmentation harmonizing with nose and eye rims. Nails strong, hard, pigmentation harmonizing with either nose and eye rims or coat.
Hindquarters—Moderately angulated. In balance with forequarters. Straight when viewed from the rear. Thigh musculature well-developed, moderately broad. Hocks well let-down. Dewclaws must be removed. Feet and nails as in forequarters.
Coat—Double coat. Outer coat—straight, harsh, flat-lying, with slight ruff. Ruff more pronounced on males. Length of outer coat 1⁄2 to 11⁄2 inches; longer on ruff and back of thighs, shorter on body, legs and head. Undercoat—straight, soft, short, flat-lying, density varying with climate. Tail bushy, increasing in plumage from set to end of bones, then tapering to pointed tip. Faults—Excessively long guard coat that masks the clean outline of the dog. Any trimming that alters the natural appearance of the dog.
Color—There are two color patterns. Pattern 1) Predominantly white with mask and with or without additional patches of color (large body patches are desirable). Pattern 2) Solid colored with or without white trim. Color may range from black through all shades of brown—sandy to red or liver. Shadings of black on a solid brown or tan dog are frequently seen. The trim on a solid colored dog may include chest, undercarriage, feet and lower part of leg and tip of tail. In all color patterns self-ticking may be present. Disqualifications—a) Gray and/or brindle. b) All white.
Mask—The mask is a desired and distinguishing feature of the predominantly white Canaan Dog. The mask is the same color(s) as the body patches on the dog. The basically symmetrical mask must completely cover the eyes and ears or can completely cover the head as in a hood. The only allowed white in the mask or hood is a white blaze of any size or shape and/or white on the muzzle below the mask. Faults—On predominantly white dogs: absence of mask, half mask, or grossly asymmetrical mask.
Gait—Movement is very important. Good reach and drive. Quick, brisk natural trot, apparently tireless, indicating an animal capable of trotting for hours. Covers ground more quickly than expected. Agile, able to change directions almost instantaneously. Tends to single-track at high speed. Fault—Anything that detracts from efficient movement.
Temperament—Alert, vigilant, devoted and docile with his family. Reserved and aloof with strangers. Highly territorial, serving as a responsive companion and natural guardian. Very vocal, persistent. Easily trained. Faults—Shyness or dominance toward people.
Dogs less than 20 inches or more than 25 inches. Bitches less than 18 inches or more than23 inches. Gray and/or brindle. All white.
Approved June 10, 1996
Effective August 12, 1997
CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI
THE CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI, THE CORGI WITH THE TAIL, IS THE OLDER of the two Corgi breeds, and one of the earliest breeds of the British Isles. (The data upon which this summarized history is written was collected over a period of twenty years by W. Lloyd-Thomas, of Mabws Hall, Llanrhystyd, Cardiganshire, South Wales.)
In the beginning, the Corgi came to the high country now known as Cardiganshire with the tall, tawny-headed Celts from central Europe. The migration of this warrior tribe to Wales is placed, roughly, at about 1200 B.C., which means that the Corgi has been known in the land of its origin for more than 3,000 years. The dog was a member of the same family that has produced the Dachshund.
The village of Bronant in Mid-Cardiganshire became the special stronghold of those early Celts. The vigilance and intelligence of the Corgi must have been a great asset to the Celts, and tales handed down from father to son for generations identify him always as a valued member of the family circle. His uses were many and varied, not the least of which were his guardianship of the children and his aid in beating out game, which in those times was of more than ordinary importance.
Still, the occupation which made the Corgi worth his weight in gold to those Welsh hill men came at a much later period, but still hundreds of years ago. This was when the crown owned practically all land, and the tenant farmers, or crofters, were permitted to fence off only a few acres surrounding their dooryards. The rest was open country, known as common land, on which the crofter was permitted to graze his cattle, one of the chief sources of his meager income. It can be imagined that there was great competition among the crofters to secure as much as possible of this pastureland for their own uses, and the task would have been difficult had it not been for the Corgi. The little dog which had been with this Celtic people so long, and which had come to be of almost human intelligence, was trained to perform a service the opposite of that done by the herding dog.
Instead of herding the cattle, the Corgi would nip at their heels and drive them as far afield as desired. Often the crofter called upon his dog to clear “his” ground of the neighbor’s cattle. The dog worked the same way in either case. The crofter would stand by his gate and give a soft whistle of two notes, one high, one low. Many times the dog could not see the cattle he was to chase, but he would keep going as long as he could hear that whistle. His speed was remarkable, considering his short legs with their out-turned feet, but the length of his back gave him added spring. When the dog had scattered the cattle by biting their hocks—avoiding death only by ducking close to the ground when they kicked—the crofter would give the recall signal, a shrill, long-drawn-out whistle made by placing the fingers in the mouth. The dog would return at once.
The division of the crown lands, their subsequent sale to the crofters, and the appearance of fences, removed the usefulness of the Corgi. He was still retained as guard and companion by some of the hill men, but to most he was a luxury they could not afford. In many instances he was succeeded by the red herder and by the brindle herder. The original type of Corgi known in Bronant since time immemorial became very scarce, and it is due only to the greatest care on the part of modern breeders that the old strains have been preserved.
Needless to say, studbooks were unknown to the Celts and to the early Welsh farmer-descendants of the old warrior tribe. But if there were no records, there was a rigid policy of selective breeding unsurpassed in this present day. The original Corgis had to be proficient workers, and no mating was consummated without due consideration.
After the breaking up of the crown lands, and the introduction of the new breeds, there was a certain amount of experimentation with crosses. The ancient dog of Bronant was crossed with the red herder, but it did not prove very successful and was not attempted many times. The brindle herder, however, made a rather fortuitous cross. The progeny followed the dominant characteristics of the Corgi, and gained a little through the finer coat and the color of the brindle herder. Crossed later with the Collie, there was produced the breed known as the heeler.
The principal strains of the Cardigan Welsh Corgi of today go back to the old Bronant Corgi with a slight infusion of brindle herder blood. This dog approximates as nearly as possible the dog that enjoyed his greatest popularity in Cardiganshire a century and more ago.
The two Corgi breeds were regarded officially in England as one breed divided into two types until 1934, when they were recognized as separate breeds. Up until that time they had been interbred to some extent, and sorting out the two breeds became a difficult task. In 1934, two hundred and fifty Pembrokes were registered to only fifty-nine Cardigans. The Cardigan was considered to be less uniform in type at that time and the breed nearly disappeared in its native Wales.
The first pair of Cardigans imported to the United States (by Mrs. Robert Bole, of Boston) arrived in June 1931. The breed was admitted to AKC registration in 1935.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI
General Appearance—Low set with moderately heavy bone and deep chest. Overall silhouette long in proportion to height, culminating in a low tail set and foxlike brush. General Impression—A handsome, powerful, small dog, capable of both speed and endurance, intelligent, sturdily built but not coarse.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Overall balance is more important than absolute size. Dogs and bitches should be from 10.5 to 12.5 inches at the withers when standing naturally. The ideal length/height ratio is 1.8 to 1 when measuring from the point of the breast bone (prosternum) to the rear of the hip (ischial tuberosity) and measuring from the ground to the point of the withers. Ideally, dogs should be from 30 to 38 pounds; bitches from 25 to 34 pounds. Lack of overall balance, oversized or undersized are serious faults.
Head—The head should be refined in accordance with the sex and substance of the dog. It should never appear so large and heavy nor so small and fine as to be out of balance with the rest of the dog. Expression alert and gentle, watchful, yet friendly. Eyes medium to large, not bulging, with dark rims and distinct corners. Widely set. Clear and dark in harmony with coat color. Blue eyes (including partially blue eyes), or one dark and one blue eye permissible in blue merles, and in any other coat color than blue merle are a disqualification. Ears large and prominent in proportion to size of dog. Slightly rounded at the tip, and of good strong leather. Moderately wide at the base, carried erect and sloping slightly forward when alert. When erect, tips are slightly wide of a straight line drawn from the tip of the nose through the center of the eye. Small and/or pointed ears are serious faults. Drop ears are a disqualification.
Skull—Top moderately wide and flat between the ears, showing no prominence of occiput, tapering towards the eyes. Slight depression between the eyes. Cheeks flat with some chiseling where the cheek meets the foreface and under the eye. There should be no prominence of cheekbone. Muzzle from the tip of the nose to the base of the stop should be shorter than the length of the skull from the base of the stop to the high point of the occiput, the proportion being about three parts muzzle to five parts skull; rounded but not blunt; tapered but not pointed. In profile the plane of the muzzle should parallel that of the skull, but on a lower level due to a definite but moderate stop.
Nose black, except in blue merles where black noses are preferred but butterfly noses are tolerated. A nose other than solid black in any other color is a disqualification.Lips fit cleanly and evenly together all around. Jaws strong and clean. Underjaw moderately deep and well formed, reaching to the base of the nose and rounded at the chin. Teeth strong and regular. Scissors bite preferred; i.e., inner side of upper incisors fitting closely over outer side of lower incisors. Overshot, undershot, or wry bite are seriousfaults.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck moderately long and muscular without throatiness. Well developed, especially in males, and in proportion to the dog’s build. Neck well set on; fits into strong, well shaped shoulders. Topline level. Body long and strong. Chest moderately broad with prominent breastbone. Deep brisket, with well sprung ribs to allow for good lungs. Ribs extending well back. Loin short, strong, moderately tucked up. Waist well defined. Croup—Slight downward slope to the tail set.
Tail set fairly low on body line and reaching well below hock. Carried low when standing or moving slowly, streaming out parallel to ground when at a dead run, lifted when excited, but never curled over the back. High tail set is a serious fault.
Forequarters—The moderately broad chest tapers to a deep brisket, well let down between the forelegs. Shoulders slope downward and outward from the withers sufficiently to accommodate desired rib-spring. Shoulder blade (scapula) long and well laid back, meeting upper arm (humerus) at close to a right angle. Humerus nearly as long as scapula. Elbows should fit close, being neither loose nor tied. The forearms (ulna and radius) should be curved to fit spring of ribs. The curve in the forearm makes the wrists (carpal joints) somewhat closer together than the elbows. The pasterns are strong and flexible. Dewclaws removed.
The feet are relatively large and rounded, with well filled pads. They point slightly outward from a straight-ahead position to balance the width of the shoulders. This outward point is not to be more than 30 degrees from center line when viewed from above. The toes should not be splayed.
The correct Cardigan front is neither straight nor so crooked as to appear unsound. Overall, the bone should be heavy for a dog of this size, but not so heavy as to appear coarse or reduce agility. Knuckling over, straight front, fiddle front are serious faults.
Hindquarters—Well muscled and strong, but slightly less wide than shoulders. Hipbone (pelvis) slopes downward with the croup, forming a right angle with the femur at the hip socket. There should be moderate angulation at stifle and hock. Hocks well let down. Metatarsi perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other. Dewclaws removed. Feet point straight ahead and are slightly smaller and more oval than front. Toes arched. Pads well filled.
Overall, the hindquarters must denote sufficient power to propel this low, relatively heavy herding dog efficiently over rough terrain.
Coat—Medium length but dense as it is double. Outer hairs slightly harsh in texture; never wiry, curly or silky. Lies relatively smooth and is weather resistant. The insulating undercoat is short, soft and thick. A correct coat has short hair on ears, head, the legs; medium hair on body; and slightly longer, thicker hair in ruff, on the backs of the thighs to form “pants,” and on the underside of the tail. The coat should not be so exaggerated as to appear fluffy. This breed has a shedding coat, and seasonal lack of undercoat should not be too severely penalized, providing the hair is healthy. Trimming is not allowed except to tidy feet and, if desired, remove whiskers. Soft guard hairs, uniform length, wiry, curly, silky, overly short and/or flat coats are not desired. A distinctly long or fluffy coat is an extremely serious fault.
Color—All shades of red, sable and brindle. Black with or without tan or brindle points. Blue merle (black and gray; marbled) with or without tan or brindle points. There is no color preference. White flashings are usual on the neck (either in part or as a collar), chest, legs, muzzle, underparts, tip of tail and as a blaze on head. White on the head should not predominate and should never surround the eyes. Any color other than specified and/or body color predominantly white are disqualifications.
Gait—Free and smooth. Effortless. Viewed from the side, forelegs should reach well forward when moving at a trot, without much lift, in unison with driving action of hind legs. The correct shoulder assembly and well fitted elbows allow for a long free stride in front. Viewed from the front, legs do not move in exact parallel planes, but incline slightly inward to compensate for shortness of leg and width of chest. Hind legs, when trotting, should reach well under body, move on a line with the forelegs, with the hocks turning neither in nor out, and in one continuous motion drive powerfully behind, well beyond the set of the tail. Feet must travel parallel to the line of motion with no tendency to swing out, cross over, or interfere with each other. Short choppy movement, rolling or high-stepping gait, close or overly wide coming or going, are incorrect. This is a herding dog which must have the agility, freedom of movement, and endurance to do the work for which he was developed.
Temperament—Even-tempered, loyal, affectionate, and adaptable. Never shy nor vicious.
Blue eyes, or partially blue eyes, in any coat color other than blue merle.
Nose other than solid black except in blue merles.
Any color other than specified.
Body color predominantly white.
Approved December 13, 1994
Effective January 31, 1995
THERE ARE TWO VARIETIES OF COLLIE. THE ROUGH-COATED IS FAR MORE familiar, but many fanciers have increased their breeding of the smooth-coated variety and many smooths of excellent type are now being exhibited.
Although the exact origin of the Collie remains an enigma, both varieties existed long ago in the unwritten history of the herding dogs of Scotland and northern England.
Since sheepherding is one of the world’s oldest occupations, the Collie’s ancestors date far back in the history of dogs. The smooth Collie, which for as long as there have been written standards for the breed has been bred to the same standard except for coat, was considered principally as a drover’s dog used for guiding cows and sheep to market, not for standing over and guarding them at pasture. Until the last two centuries, both varieties were strictly working dogs without written pedigrees. Their untutored masters saw no need for pedigrees, if indeed they were capable of keeping studbooks.
The earliest illustrations known to bear a resemblance to both varieties are found as woodcuts in The History of Quadrupeds, by Thomas Bewick, antedating 1800. The rough dog was described as a “Shepherd’s Dog” and the smooth as a “ban dog.” The rough was described as being only fourteen inches at the shoulder, and the smooth was said to be much larger and descended from the mastiff. (Mastiff in this sense does not refer to the breed we know today by that name but was something of a generic term used basically to describe a common type dog.) It is well established that the roughs at that time were not only much smaller but had shorter, broader heads and were usually black, or black and white, in color.
From early in the nineteenth century, when some dog fanciers began to take interest in these dogs, and the keeping of written pedigrees began, the breed progressed rapidly, becoming not only larger in stature but also more refined. The dog Old Cockie was born in 1867. He not only stamped characteristic type on the rough Collie, but he is believed by usually reliable authorities to be responsible for introducing to the breed the factors which led to the development of the sable coat color in the Collie. A short time later Collies were seen of almost every imaginable color, including red, buff, mottle of various shades, and a few sables. At that time the most frequently seen colors were black, tan and white, black and white (without tan), and what are now called blue merles, but which were known then as tortoiseshell.
The early pedigrees were very much abbreviated, as compared with our present breed records. In fact, the first volume of the English studbook showed seventy-eight “sheep dogs and Scotch Collies” registered up to 1874. Fifteen of them had written pedigrees but only three extended beyond sire and dam. Serving as proof that pride of ownership was given priority over written records, it was in 1860 that the first classes for “Scotch Sheep Dogs” were offered at the second dog show ever held in England, that of the Birmingham Dog Society. Both varieties competed in the same classes.
Shortly thereafter, Queen Victoria visited Balmoral and saw her first Collies. They captivated her and she enthusiastically began to sponsor them. There was a marked surge in the popularity of the breed, which found itself not only the indispensable helpmate of the humble shepherd but the treasure and the playmate of the elite.
Collie type was well enough fixed by 1886 so that the English breeders have never seen fit to change the height and weight established in their standard at that time. Clarifying changes have been made in the United States standard over the ensuing years but, except for recognizing that the Collie has become slightly larger and heavier on this side of the Atlantic, there is no fundamental difference, even today, from that 1886 description of the ideal Collie.
Many of the early settlers in the New World brought dogs with them to herd their sheep and cattle in the Colonies, but it was not until May 1877, seventeen years after their show ring debut in England, that they were shown here, at the second show of the Westminster Kennel Club, in New York. Classes were offered for “Shepherd Dogs, or Collie Dogs” and a few were entered. The next year, however, was to see great interest and excitement. Two Collies imported from Victoria’s Royal Balmoral Kennel had been entered! Soon Collies were to be found as prized possessions of the wealthy and socially elite. Kennels were established by the well-known financier J. P. Morgan and his contemporaries, and many fashionable estates up the Hudson River and on Long Island had Collie kennels. English dogs were imported for what were then considered to be exorbitant prices. It is interesting to note that about a half century later almost the reverse situation was occurring. The Collie became a highly desired breed in Japan and there was great persuasion to convince some of the American breeders to export some of their top dogs. By this time, the importation of Collies from England had become exceedingly rare.
Being no longer in great demand as a herder, today’s Collie has transferred these abilities to serving as a devoted family dog where he shows a particular affinity for small children. For many years his general popularity has placed him in the top half of AKC registration rankings. Elegant and beautiful in appearance, loyal and affectionate in all his actions, self-appointed guardian of everything he can see or hear, the Collie represents, to his many admirers, the ideal family companion.
The Collie Club of America was organized in 1886, two years after the establishment of the American Kennel Club, and was the second parent club to join the AKC. Very active in promoting the interest of the breed, the parent club now has a membership numbering well over 3,500 and its annual specialty show attracts over 400 Collies from all over the United States.
The Collie has been the beneficiary of “good press.” Great impetus to the breed’s popularity was provided by the famous Collie stories of Albert Payson Terhune. His Lad: A Dog was followed by many more volumes, eagerly read by several generations of Americans. And, of course, the literary, film, and television exploits of Lassie spark in children and their parents a strong desire to have for their very own a “lovely dog like that.”
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE COLLIE
General Character—The Collie is a lithe, strong, responsive, active dog, carrying no useless timber, standing naturally straight and firm. The deep, moderately wide chest shows strength, the sloping shoulders and well-bent hocks indicate speed and grace, and the face shows high intelligence. The Collie presents an impressive, proud picture of true balance, each part being in harmonious proportion to every other part and to the whole. Except for the technical description that is essential to this Standard and without which no Standard for the guidance of breeders and judges is adequate, it could be stated simply that no part of the Collie ever seems to be out of proportion to any other part. Timidity, frailness, sullenness, viciousness, lack of animation, cumbersome appearance and lack of overall balance impair the general character.
Head—The head properties are of great importance. When considered in proportion to the size of the dog the head is inclined to lightness and never appears massive. A heavy-headed dog lacks the necessary bright, alert, full-of-sense look that contributes so greatly to expression. Both in front and profile view the head bears a general resemblance to a well-blunted lean wedge, being smooth and clean in outline and nicely balanced in proportion. On the sides it tapers gradually and smoothly from the ears to the end of the black nose, without being flared out in backskull (“cheeky”) or pinched in muzzle (“snipy”). In profile view the top of the backskull and the top of the muzzle lie in two approximately parallel, straight planes of equal length, divided by a very slight but perceptible stop or break. A midpoint between the inside corners of the eyes (which is the center of a correctly placed stop) is the center of balance in length of head.
The end of the smooth, well-rounded muzzle is blunt but not square. The underjaw is strong, clean-cut and the depth of skull from the brow to the under part of the jaw is not excessive. The teeth are of good size, meeting in a scissors bite. Overshot or undershot jaws are undesirable, the latter being more severely penalized. There is a very slight prominence of the eyebrows. The backskull is flat, without receding either laterally or backward and the occipital bone is not highly peaked. The proper width of backskull necessarily depends upon the combined length of skull and muzzle and the width of the backskull is less than its length. Thus the correct width varies with the individual and is dependent upon the extent to which it is supported by length of muzzle. Because of the importance of the head characteristics, prominent head faults are very severely penalized.
Eyes—Because of the combination of the flat skull, the arched eyebrows, the slight stop and the rounded muzzle, the foreface must be chiseled to form a receptacle for the eyes and they are necessarily placed obliquely to give them the required forward outlook. Except for the blue merles, they are required to be matched in color. They are almond-shaped, of medium size and never properly appear to be large or prominent. The color is dark and the eye does not show a yellow ring or a sufficiently prominent haw to affect the dog’s expression. The eyes have a clear, bright appearance, expressing intelligent inquisitiveness, particularly when the ears are drawn up and the dog is on the alert. In blue merles, dark brown eyes are preferable, but either or both eyes may be merle or china in color without specific penalty. A large, round, full eye seriously detracts from the desired “sweet” expression. Eye faults are heavily penalized.
Ears—The ears are in proportion to the size of the head and, if they are carried properly and unquestionably “break” naturally, are seldom too small. Large ears usually cannot be lifted correctly off the head, and even if lifted, they will be out of proportion to the size of the head. When in repose the ears are folded lengthwise and thrown back into the frill. On the alert they are drawn well up on the backskull and are carried about three-quarters erect, with about one-fourth of the ear tipping or “breaking” forward. A dog with prick ears or low ears cannot show true expression, and is penalized accordingly.
Neck—The neck is firm, clean, muscular, sinewy and heavily frilled. It is fairly long, carried upright with a slight arch at the nape and imparts a proud, upstanding appearance showing off the frill.
Body—The body is firm, hard and muscular, a trifle long in proportion to the height. The ribs are well-rounded behind the well-sloped shoulders and the chest is deep, extending to the elbows. The back is strong and level, supported by powerful hips and thighs and the croup is sloped to give a well-rounded finish. The loin is powerful and slightly arched. Noticeably fat dogs, or dogs in poor flesh, or with skin disease, or with noundercoat are out of condition and are moderately penalized accordingly.
Legs—The forelegs are straight and muscular, with a fair amount of bone, considering the size of the dog. A cumbersome appearance is undesirable. Both narrow and wideplacement are penalized. The forearm is moderately fleshy and the pasterns are flexible but without weakness. The hind legs are less fleshy, muscular at the thighs, very sinewy and the hocks and stifles are well bent. A cowhocked dog or a dog with straight stifles is penalized. The comparatively small feet are approximately oval in shape. The soles are well padded and tough, and the toes are well arched and close together. When the Collie is not in motion the legs and feet are judged by allowing the dog to come to a natural stop in a standing position so that both the forelegs and the hind legs are placed well apart, with the feet extending straight forward. Excessive “posing” is undesirable.
Gait—Gait is sound. When the dog is moved at a slow trot toward an observer its straight front legs track comparatively close together at the ground. The front legs are not out at the elbows, do not “crossover,” nor does the dog move with a choppy, pacing or rolling gait. When viewed from the rear the hind legs are straight, tracking comparatively close together at the ground. At a moderate trot the hind legs are powerful and propelling. Viewed from the side the reasonably long, “reaching” stride is smooth and even, keeping the back line firm and level.
As the speed of the gait is increased the Collie single tracks, bringing the front legs inward in a straight line from the shoulder toward the center line of the body and the hind legs inward in a straight line from the hip toward the center line of the body. The gait suggests effortless speed combined with the dog’s herding heritage, requiring it to be capable of changing its direction of travel almost instantaneously.
Tail—The tail is moderately long, the bone reaching to the hock joint or below. It is carried low when the dog is quiet, the end having an upward twist or “swirl.” When gaited or when the dog is excited it is carried gaily but not over the back.
Coat—The well-fitting, proper-textured coat is the crowning glory of the rough variety of Collie. It is abundant except on the head and legs. The outer coat is straight and harsh to the touch. A soft, open outer coat or a curly outer coat, regardless of quantity is penalized. The undercoat, however, is soft, furry and so close together that it is difficult to see the skin when the hair is parted. The coat is very abundant on the mane and frill. The face or mask is smooth. The forelegs are smooth and well feathered to the back of the pasterns. The hind legs are smooth below the hock joints. Any feathering below the hocks is removed for the show ring. The hair on the tail is very profuse and on the hips it is long and bushy. The texture, quantity and the extent to which the coat “fits the dog” are important points.
Color—The four recognized colors are “Sable and White,” “Tri-color,” “Blue Merle” and “White.” There is no preference among them. The “Sable and White” is predominantly sable (a fawn sable color of varying shades from light gold to dark mahogany) with white markings usually on the chest, neck, legs, feet and the tip of the tail. A blaze may appear on the foreface or backskull or both. The “Tri-color” is predominantly black, carrying white markings as in a “Sable and White” and has tan shadings on and about the head and legs. The “Blue Merle” is a mottled or “marbled” color predominantly blue-grey and black with white markings as in the “Sable and White” and usually has tan shadings as in the “Tri-color.” The “White” is predominantly white, preferably with sable, tri-color or blue merle markings.
Size—Dogs are from 24 to 26 inches at the shoulder and weigh from 60 to 75 pounds. Bitches are from 22 to 24 inches at the shoulder, weighing from 50 to 65 pounds. An undersize or an oversize Collie is penalized according to the extent to which the dogappears to be undersize or oversize.
Expression—Expression is one of the most important points in considering the relative value of Collies. Expression, like the term “character” is difficult to define in words. It is not a fixed point as in color, weight or height and it is something the uninitiated can properly understand only by optical illustration. In general, however, it may be said to be the combined product of the shape and balance of the skull and muzzle, the placement, size, shape and color of the eye and the position, size and carriage of the ears. An expression that shows sullenness or which is suggestive of any other breed is entirely foreign. The Collie cannot be judged properly until its expression has been carefully evaluated.
The Smooth Variety of Collie is judged by the same Standard as the Rough Variety, except that the references to the quantity and distribution of the coat are not applicable to the Smooth Variety, which has a short, hard, dense, flat coat of good texture, with an abundance of undercoat.
Approved May 10, 1977
GERMAN SHEPHERD DOG
DERIVED FROM THE OLD HERDING AND FARM DOG BREEDS, AND FAMOUS FOR centuries as both servant and companion, today’s German Shepherd Dog is the result of intensive development orchestrated by those who valued the breed.
Founded by Captain Max von Stephanitz in 1899, and molded by the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (the German Shepherd Dog Club of Germany) is recognized as the breed’s original parent club. From about 1914, the popularity of the German Shepherd Dog spread rapidly throughout the world. Interest in the breed has been fostered worldwide by specialty clubs in many countries, just as it has in the United States by the German Shepherd Dog Club of America.
The German Shepherd Dog is first, last, and always a working dog, whose temperament and physical structure have been developed through selective breeding, judging, and specialized training.
The most important attribute of the breed is its character. German Shepherd Dogs are distinguished by the loyalty, courage, and ability to assimilate and retain training for an amazing number of specialized services. They should be of even disposition, poised, and unexcitable, with restrained and composed confidence. For typical work as a herding sheepdog, they must not be gun-shy and must have the courage to protect the flock from attacks by other animals or humans. For police work, narcotics detection, or search and rescue, they must have courage and stability coupled with excellent scenting capabilities. As guide dogs for the blind, German Shepherd Dogs must and do exhibit a high order of intelligence and discrimination, as this work requires observation, patience, faithfulness, watchfulness, and good judgment. All this is possible because of the German Shepherd Dog’s natural aptitude for training.
These qualities have endeared German Shepherd Dogs to a wide public in practically every country in the world. They serve as assistants for the disabled, therapy dogs for the infirm, home guardians, and companions and friends to children and families. They are protectors of livestock and partners to police officers and soldiers. German Shepherd Dogs are not pugnacious brawlers but bold and punishing fighters, if the need arises. With humans, they do not give affection lightly. They are dignified and may be indifferent to strangers, but friendship, once given, is for life.
Physically, the German Shepherd Dog breed has been developed to almost an ideal fitness for the work they do. They are a dog of middle size, strong and well muscled, with enough weight to be effective as a herder of sheep or a dog on patrol, but still agile and not awkward or coarse.
By careful selective breeding, the natural, easy trot of the German Shepherd Dog has evolved to a nearly effortless motion. Essentially a trotting breed, the dog’s structure has been developed to increase the power, elasticity, and length of gait. Other things being equal, the best-moving German Shepherd Dog is the one that covers the maximum amount of ground with the minimum expenditure of energy. So well coordinated and harmonious is this gait, that when properly demonstrated, the dog seems to glide forward without visible effort. One might think that the dog is suspended from a firm beam in the back.
The impression of the dog as a whole is one of ruggedness combined with nobility, and power combined with agility. There should be a sense of balance, with forequarters and hindquarters complementing each other. The outline should be smooth and flowing, and the topline, from the tip of the ear to the tip of the tail, should be a single sweeping succession of unbroken curves. The German Shepherd Dog is a natural breed and should not be altered for the ever-changing whims of the show ring.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE GERMAN SHEPHERD DOG
General Appearance—The first impression of a good German Shepherd Dog is that of a strong, agile, well muscled animal, alert and full of life. It is well balanced, with harmonious development of the forequarter and hindquarter. The dog is longer than tall, deep-bodied, and presents an outline of smooth curves rather than angles. It looks substantial and not spindly, giving the impression, both at rest and in motion, of muscular fitness and nimbleness without any look of clumsiness or soft living. The ideal dog is stamped with a look of quality and nobility—difficult to define, but unmistakable when present. Secondary sex characteristics are strongly marked, and every animal gives a definite impression of masculinity or femininity, according to its sex.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The desired height for males at the top of the highest point of the shoulder blade is 24 to 26 inches; and for bitches, 22 to 24 inches.
The German Shepherd Dog is longer than tall, with the most desirable proportion as 10 to 81⁄2. The length is measured from the point of the prosternum or breastbone to the rear edge of the pelvis, the ischial tuberosity. The desirable long proportion is not derived from a long back, but from overall length with relation to height, which is achieved by length of forequarter and length of withers and hindquarter, viewed from the side.
Head—The head is noble, cleanly chiseled, strong without coarseness, but above all not fine, and in proportion to the body. The head of the male is distinctly masculine, and that of the bitch distinctly feminine.
The expression keen, intelligent and composed. Eyes of medium size, almond shaped, set a little obliquely and not protruding. The color is as dark as possible. Ears are moderately pointed, in proportion to the skull, open toward the front, and carried erect when at attention, the ideal carriage being one in which the center lines of the ears, viewed from the front, are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the ground. A dog with cropped or hanging ears must be disqualified.
Seen from the front the forehead is only moderately arched, and the skull slopes into the long, wedge-shaped muzzle without abrupt stop. The muzzle is long and strong, and its topline is parallel to the topline of the skull. Nose black. A dog with a nose that is not predominantly black must be disqualified. The lips are firmly fitted. Jaws are strongly developed. Teeth—42 in number—20 upper and 22 lower—are strongly developed and meet in a scissors bite in which part of the inner surface of the upper incisors meet and engage part of the outer surface of the lower incisors. An overshot jaw or a level bite is undesirable. An undershot jaw is a disqualifying fault. Complete dentition is to be preferred. Any missing teeth other than first premolars is a serious fault.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is strong and muscular, clean-cut and relatively long, proportionate in size to the head and without loose folds of skin. When the dog is at attention or excited, the head is raised and the neck carried high; otherwise typical carriage of the head is forward rather than up and but little higher than the top of the shoulders, particularly in motion.
Topline—The withers are higher than and sloping into the level back. The back is straight, very strongly developed without sag or roach, and relatively short.
The whole structure of the body gives an impression of depth and solidity without bulkiness.
Chest—Commencing at the prosternum, it is well filled and carried well down between the legs. It is deep and capacious, never shallow, with ample room for lungs and heart, carried well forward, with the prosternum showing ahead of the shoulder in profile. Ribs well sprung and long, neither barrel-shaped nor too flat, and carried down to a sternum which reaches to the elbows. Correct ribbing allows the elbows to move back freely when the dog is at a trot. Too round causes interference and throws the elbows out; too flat or short causes pinched elbows. Ribbing is carried well back so that the loin is relatively short. Abdomen firmly held and not paunchy. The bottom line is only moderately tucked up in the loin.
Loin—Viewed from the top, broad and strong. Undue length between the last rib and the thigh, when viewed from the side, is undesirable. Croup long and gradually sloping.
Tail bushy, with the last vertebra extended at least to the hock joint. It is set smoothly into the croup and low rather than high. At rest, the tail hangs in a slight curve like a saber. A slight hook—sometimes carried to one side—is faulty only to the extent that it mars general appearance. When the dog is excited or in motion, the curve is accentuated and the tail raised, but it should never be curled forward beyond a vertical line. Tails too short, or with clumpy ends due to ankylosis, are serious faults. A dog with a docked tail must be disqualified.
Forequarters—The shoulder blades are long and obliquely angled, laid on flat and not placed forward. The upper arm joins the shoulder blade at about a right angle. Both the upper arm and the shoulder blade are well muscled. The forelegs, viewed from all sides, are straight and the bone oval rather than round. The pasterns are strong and springy and angulated at approximately a 25-degree angle from the vertical. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed, but are normally left on.
The feet are short, compact with toes well arched, pads thick and firm, nails short and dark.
Hindquarters—The whole assembly of the thigh, viewed from the side, is broad, with both upper and lower thigh well muscled, forming as nearly as possible a right angle. The upper thigh bone parallels the shoulder blade while the lower thigh bone parallels the upper arm. The metatarsus (the unit between the hock joint and the foot) is short, strong and tightly articulated. The dewclaws, if any, should be removed from the hind legs. Feet as in front.
Coat—The ideal dog has a double coat of medium length. The outer coat should be as dense as possible, hair straight, harsh and lying close to the body. A slightly wavy outer coat, often of wiry texture, is permissible. The head, including the inner ear and foreface, and the legs and paws are covered with short hair, and the neck with longer and thicker hair. The rear of the forelegs and hind legs has somewhat longer hair extending to the pastern and hock, respectively. Faults in coat include soft, silky, too long outer coat, woolly, curly, and open coat.
Color—The German Shepherd Dog varies in color, and most colors are permissible. Strong rich colors are preferred. Pale, washed-out colors and blues or livers are serious faults. A white dog must be disqualified.
Gait—A German Shepherd Dog is a trotting dog, and its structure has been developed to meet the requirements of its work. General Impression—The gait is outreaching, elastic, seemingly without effort, smooth and rhythmic, covering the maximum amount of ground with the minimum number of steps. At a walk it covers a great deal of ground, with long stride of both hind legs and forelegs. At a trot the dog covers still more ground with even longer stride, and moves powerfully but easily, with coordination and balance so that the gait appears to be the steady motion of a well-lubricated machine. The feet travel close to the ground on both forward reach and backward push. In order to achieve ideal movement of this kind, there must be good muscular development and ligamentation. The hindquarters deliver, through the back, a powerful forward thrust which slightly lifts the whole animal and drives the body forward. Reaching far under, and passing the imprint left by the front foot, the hind foot takes hold of the ground; then hock, stifle and upper thigh come into play and sweep back, the stroke of the hind leg finishing with the foot still close to the ground in a smooth follow-through. The overreach of the hindquarter usually necessitates one hind foot passing outside and the other hind foot passing inside the track of the forefeet, and such action is not faulty unless the locomotion is crabwise with the dog’s body sideways out of the normal straight line.
Transmission—The typical smooth, flowing gait is maintained with great strength and firmness of back. The whole effort of the hindquarter is transmitted to the forequarter through the loin, back and withers. At full trot, the back must remain firm and level without sway, roll, whip or roach. Unlevel topline with withers lower than the hip is a fault. To compensate for the forward motion imparted by the hindquarters, the shoulder should open to its full extent. The forelegs should reach out close to the ground in a long stride in harmony with that of the hindquarters. The dog does not track on widely separated parallel lines, but brings the feet inward toward the middle line of the body when trotting, in order to maintain balance. The feet track closely but do not strike or cross over. Viewed from the front, the front legs function from the shoulder joint to the pad in a straight line. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs function from the hip joint to the pad in a straight line. Faults of gait, whether from front, rear or side, are to be considered very serious faults.
Temperament—The breed has a distinct personality marked by direct and fearless, but not hostile, expression, self-confidence and a certain aloofness that does not lend itself to immediate and indiscriminate friendships. The dog must be approachable, quietly standing its ground and showing confidence and willingness to meet overtures without itself making them. It is poised, but when the occasion demands, eager and alert; both fit and willing to serve in its capacity as companion, watchdog, blind leader, herding dog or guardian, whichever the circumstances may demand. The dog must not be timid, shrinking behind its master or handler; it should not be nervous, looking about or upward with anxious expression or showing nervous reactions, such as tucking of tail, to strange sounds or sights. Lack of confidence under any surroundings is not typical of good character. Any of the above deficiencies in character which indicate shyness must be penalized as very serious faults and any dog exhibiting pronounced indications of these must be excused from the ring. It must be possible for the judge to observe the teeth and to determine that both testicles are descended. Any dog that attempts to bite the judge must be disqualified. The ideal dog is a working animal with an incorruptible character combined with body and gait suitable for the arduous work that constitutes its primary purpose.
Cropped or hanging ears.
Dogs with noses not predominantly black.
Any dog that attempts to bite the judge.
Approved February 11, 1978
Reformatted July 11, 1994
OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG
COMPARED WITH SOME OTHER KINDS OF DOGS THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG cannot boast the same antiquity, but there is nevertheless ample evidence that it can trace its origin to the early nineteenth century or at least 150 years back, thus proving that among recognized breeds it is no mere upstart. As to its real origin, there are conflicting ideas based on premises obscured by the passage of time. A painting by Gainsborough of a duke of Buccleuch, from which engravings were struck in 1771, shows the peer with his arms clasped about the neck of what appears to be a fairly good specimen of present-day Old English Sheepdog. This is the earliest picture known that in any manner depicts the breed. What, however, the pictured dog was supposed to be at that period is not certain.
In all probability the breed was first developed in the west of England, in the counties of Devon and Somerset and the Duchy of Cornwall, although from what breeds it was produced is a matter of conjecture. Some maintain that the Scotch Bearded Collie had a large part in its making; others claim for one of its progenitors the Russian Owtchar.
At all events, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, we read of a “drover’s dog” which was used largely for driving sheep and cattle into the markets of the metropolis. These drover’s dogs were exempt from taxes and, to prove their occupation, they were docked. Some believe that the nicknames “bob” and “bobtail” trace to this custom. It is not true, of course, that the practice of removing the tail has produced a breed naturally bobtailed or tailless. In fact, few specimens of the breed are whelped without tails, or with tails long or comparatively short. According to the standard, the tail should be removed at the first joint when the puppy is three or four days old, and it should never be longer than one and one-half or two inches in length at maturity. Seldom is an Old English Sheepdog seen in the show ring today with more than a mere thickening of the skin where the tail has been removed. Since this dog has been used more for driving than for herding, the lack of a tail to serve as a rudder, so to speak, has in no way affected its working ability with heavier kinds of sheep and cattle.
For years after the breed’s introduction into this country, fanciers did considerable harm by misinterpreting “profuseness” of coat as “excessiveness.” This misled the public into believing that the Old English Sheepdog was difficult to care for, when as a matter of fact a dog with typical coat of the right texture is no harder to keep in shape than is any other longhaired dog. Furthermore, it is home loving, not given to roaming and fighting, and it is extremely agile; because of its intelligence, affection, and lack of boisterousness, it makes an ideal house dog. It has a tender mouth and can be trained as a retriever; it makes a first-class sledge dog, and is satisfactory as a companion equally at home in an apartment, large house, drawing room, and practically anywhere else.
In seeking a good representative of the breed, points to look for include a body practically square; good bone, deep brisket, chest, and spring of rib; strong foreface, dark or walleyes, level teeth; straight forelegs, well-let-down hocks; and a hard coat with good underjacket. Markings are not important. The dogs do well under almost any climatic conditions, their coats serving as insulation against heat, cold, and dampness. A marked characteristic of the breed is its gait, which is quite like the shuffle of a bear.
The Old English Sheepdog Club of America was started by W. A. Tilley in 1904, and received official recognition by the AKC the following year.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE OLD ENGLISH SHEEPDOG
General Appearance—A strong, compact, square, balanced dog. Taking him all around, he is profusely, but not excessively coated, thickset, muscular and able-bodied. These qualities, combined with his agility, fit him for the demanding tasks required of a shepherd’s or drover’s dog. Therefore, soundness is of the greatest importance. His bark is loud with a distinctive “pot-casse” ring in it.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Type, character and balance are of greater importance and are on no account to be sacrificed to size alone.
Size—Height (measured from top of withers to the ground)—Dogs: 22 inches (55.8 cm) and upward. Bitches: 21 inches (53.3 cm) and upward.
Proportion—Length (measured from point of shoulder to point of ischium [tuberosity]) practically the same as the height. Absolutely free from legginess or weaselness.
Substance—Well muscled with plenty of bone.
Head—A most intelligent expression.
Eyes—Brown, blue or one of each. If brown, very dark is preferred. If blue, a pearl, china or wall-eye is considered typical. An amber or yellow eye is most objectionable.
Ears—Medium sized and carried flat to the side of the head.
Skull—Capacious and rather squarely formed giving plenty of room for brain power. The parts over the eyes (supra-orbital ridges) are well arched. The whole well covered with hair.
Jaw—Fairly long, strong, square and truncated. Attention is particularly called to theabove properties as a long, narrow head or snipy muzzle is a deformity.
Nose—Always black, large and capacious.
Teeth—Strong, large and evenly placed. The bite is level or tight scissors.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Fairly long and arched gracefully.
Topline—Stands lower at the withers than at the loin with no indication of softness or weakness. Attention is particularly called to this topline, as it is a distinguishing characteristic of the breed.
Body—Rather short and very compact, broader at the rump than at the shoulders, ribs well sprung and brisket deep and capacious. Neither slab-sided nor barrel-chested. The loin is very stout and gently arched.
Tail—Docked close to the body, when not naturally bob tailed.
Forequarters—Shoulders well laid back and narrow at the points. The forelegs dead straight with plenty of bone. The measurements from the withers to the elbow and from the elbow to the ground are practically the same.
Hindquarters—Round and muscular with well let down hocks. When standing, the metatarses are perpendicular to the ground when viewed from any angle.
Feet—Small and round, toes well arched, pads thick and hard, feet pointing straight ahead.
Coat—Profuse, but not so excessive as to give the impression of the dog being overly fat, and of a good hard texture; not straight, but shaggy and free from curl. Quality and texture of coat to be considered above mere profuseness. Softness or flatness of coat to be considered a fault. The undercoat is a waterproof pile when not removed by grooming or season. Ears coated moderately. The whole skull well covered with hair. The neck well coated with hair. The forelegs well coated all around. The hams densely coated with a thick, long jacket in excess of any other part. Neither the natural outline nor the natural texture of the coat may be changed by any artificial means except that the feet and rear may be trimmed for cleanliness.
Color—Any shade of gray, grizzle, blue or blue merle with or without white markings or in reverse. Any shade of brown or fawn to be considered distinctly objectionable andnot to be encouraged.
Gait—When trotting, movement is free and powerful, seemingly effortless, with good reach and drive, and covering maximum ground with minimum steps. Very elastic at a gallop. May amble or pace at slower speeds.
Temperament—An adaptable, intelligent dog of even disposition, with no sign of aggression, shyness or nervousness.
Approved February 10, 1990
Effective March 28, 1990
PEMBROKE WELSH CORGI
ALTHOUGH ALL EVIDENCE SEEMS TO POINT TO THE FACT THAT THE Pembroke Welsh Corgi is a much younger dog than the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, it is still true that the Corgi from Pembrokeshire is a breed of considerable antiquity. No breed that traces its origin back to A.D. 1107 can be regarded as an especially new type of dog.
In modern times there has been an effort to link the two types of Corgi under the heading of a single breed. This is far from the truth, according to W. Lloyd-Thomas, the Welsh authority who has spent so many years digging out the history of these small cattle dogs. He has given some interesting information, that, while it tends to divorce the two Corgis definitely, still gives the Pembroke a colorful past.
The direct ancestors of the Pembroke were brought across the Channel by the Flemish weavers who had been induced by Henry I of England to take up their abode in Wales. This occurred in 1107, and it stands as a sturdy cornerstone upon which the development of a breed has been built. While weaving was one of their occupations, these Flemish people were also of an agrarian nature, and they soon had transferred to the southwest corner of Wales, at Haverfordwest, the replicas of the model homes and farms in their native land. The dog fitted into this scheme.
This early progenitor of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi of today has been described as having a noticeable resemblance to the old Schipperkes. It sprang from the same family that includes the Keeshond, the Pomeranian, the Samoyed, the Chow Chow, the Norwegian Elkhound, and the Finnish Spitz. It has little or nothing of the Dachshund characteristics.
In relation to the Cardigan, the Pembroke is shorter in body; the legs are straighter and lighter boned, while the coat is of finer texture. Two of the most noticeable differences are in the ears and the tail. Cardigan ears are rounded, while the Pembroke’s are pointed at the tip and stand erect. The Cardigan has a long tail, and the Pembroke a short one. In disposition, the Pembroke is more restless, more easily excited. If one could see specimens of the early members of both breeds at the same time, the differences would be very marked. In modern times they have become more similar. The whole development of the Pembroke evinces a desire on the part of its breeders to produce a lower, stockier dog. It also may be noted that the head has grown stronger, while in these times, good-sized, round-tipped ears are not unusual.
The manner in which the Pembroke and the Cardigan have approached each other in appearance is not merely a matter of chance or of selective breeding. It is known, rather definitely, that the two were crossed before the middle of the nineteenth century.
The story comes direct from one of the old crofters, a man of nearly ninety years, who spent his whole lifetime in Bronant. It seems that in his youth, many of the young people in that village found a manner of increasing their pocket money. There were always plenty of the Cardigan puppies; in fact, the majority were a burden on the poor tenant farmers. If these puppies were retained, they would cost money to feed. One day an enterprising young man tucked a couple of Corgi puppies under his arm and set forth into a neighboring shire. When he returned there was the jingle of coins in his pocket. Thereafter, other young men followed the example. The old hill man who relates this incident says that he sold puppies to the farmers in Carmarthenshire and in Pembrokeshire.
It is not known whether any Cardigan Corgis had gone into Pembrokeshire at an earlier date, but it is quite possible, and it is only logical that if the two breeds were in the same section they would be bred together at some time. So far as is known, the Pembroke was not taken into Cardiganshire up to the time of World War I, although since then there have been many instances of intermatings.
The two breeds of Corgi were mated together frequently at the time when these dogs first came to the consciousness of the show fanciers. Little was known about either dog, and crossings were common. This practice has been stopped, and breeders today are determined to keep the Pembroke distinct from the Cardigan.
The Pembroke is one of the most agreeable of small house dogs. It has an affectionate nature but does not force its attentions upon those unwilling to accept them. Its intelligence is undoubted, and it is a remarkably alert, ever-vigilant home guardian.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PEMBROKE WELSH CORGI
General Appearance—Low-set, strong, sturdily built and active, giving an impression of substance and stamina in a small space. Should not be so low and heavy-boned as to appear coarse or overdone, nor so light-boned as to appear racy. Outlook bold, but kindly. Expression intelligent and interested. Never shy nor vicious.
Correct type, including general balance and outline, attractiveness of headpiece, intelligent outlook and correct temperament is of primary importance. Movement is especially important, particularly as viewed from the side. A dog with smooth and free gait has to be reasonably sound and must be highly regarded. A minor fault must never take precedence over the above desired qualities.
A dog must be very seriously penalized for the following faults, regardless of whatever desirable qualities the dog may present: oversized or undersized; button, rose or drop ears; overshot or undershot bite; fluffies, whitelies, mismarks or bluies.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height (from ground to highest point on withers) should be 10 to 12 inches. Weight is in proportion to size, not exceeding 30 pounds for dogs and 28 pounds for bitches. In show condition, the preferred medium-sized dog of correct bone and substance will weigh approximately 27 pounds, with bitches approximately 25 pounds. Obvious oversized specimens and diminutive toy like individuals must be very severely penalized.
Proportions—Moderately long and low. The distance from the withers to the base of the tail should be approximately 40 percent greater than the distance from the withers to the ground. Substance—Should not be so low and heavy-boned as to appear coarse or overdone, nor so light-boned as to appear racy.
Head—The head should be foxy in shape and appearance. Expression—Intelligent and interested, but not sly. Skull—should be fairly wide and flat between the ears. Moderate amount of stop. Very slight rounding of cheek, not filled in below the eyes, as foreface should be nicely chiseled to give a somewhat tapered muzzle. Distance from occiput to center of stop to be greater than the distance from stop to nose tip, the proportion being five parts of total distance for the skull and three parts for the foreface. Muzzle should be neither dish-faced nor Roman-nosed. Eyes—Oval, medium in size, not round, nor protruding, nor deepset and piglike. Set somewhat obliquely. Variations of brown in harmony with coat color. Eye rims dark, preferably black. While dark eyes enhance the expression, true black eyes are most undesirable, as are yellow or bluish eyes. Ears—Erect, firm, and of medium size, tapering slightly to a rounded point. Ears are mobile, and react sensitively to sounds. A line drawn from the nose tip through the eyes to the ear tips, and across, should form an approximate equilateral triangle. Bat ears, small catlike ears, overly large weak ears, hooded ears, ears carried too high or too low, are undesirable. Button, rose or drop ears are very serious faults. Nose—Black and fully pigmented.
Mouth—Scissors bite, the inner side of the upper incisors touching the outer side of the lower incisors. Level bite is acceptable. Overshot or undershot bite is a very serious fault. Lips—Black, tight with little or no fullness.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck—Fairly long. Of sufficient length to provide overall balance of the dog. Slightly arched, clean and blending well into the shoulders. A very short neck giving a stuffy appearance and a long, thin or ewe neck are faulty. Topline—Firm and level, neither riding up to nor falling away at the croup. A slight depression behind the shoulders caused by heavier neck coat meeting the shorter body coat is permissible. Body—Rib cage should be well sprung, slightly egg-shaped and moderately long. Deep chest, well let down between the forelegs. Exaggerated lowness interferes with the desired freedom of movement and should be penalized. Viewed from above, the body should taper slightly to end of loin. Loin short. Round or flat rib cage, lack of brisket, extreme length or cobbiness, are undesirable. Tail—Docked as short as possible without being indented. Occasionally a puppy is born with a natural dock, which if sufficiently short, is acceptable. A tail up to two inches in length is allowed, but if carried high tends to spoil the contour of the topline.
Forequarters—Legs—Short, forearms turned slightly inward, with the distance between wrists less than between the shoulder joints, so that the front does not appear absolutely straight. Ample bone carried right down into the feet. Pasterns firm and nearly straight when viewed from the side. Weak pasterns and knuckling over are serious faults. Shoulder blades long and well laid back along the rib cage. Upper arms nearly equal in length to shoulder blades. Elbows parallel to the body, not prominent, and well set back to allow a line perpendicular to the ground to be drawn from tip of the shoulder blade through to elbow. Feet—Oval, with the two center toes slightly in advance of the two outer ones. Turning neither in nor out. Pads strong and feet arched. Nails short. Dewclaws on both forelegs and hindlegs usually removed. Too round, long and narrow, or splayed feet are faulty.
Hindquarters—Ample bone, strong and flexible, moderately angulated at stifle and hock. Exaggerated angulation is as faulty as too little. Thighs should be well muscled. Hocks short, parallel, and when viewed from the side are perpendicular to the ground. Barrel hocks or cowhocks are most objectionable. Slipped or double-jointed hocks are very faulty. Feet—as in front.
Coat—Medium length; short, thick, weather-resistant undercoat with a coarser, longer outer coat. Overall length varies, with slightly thicker and longer ruff around the neck, chest and on the shoulders. The body coat lies flat. Hair is slightly longer on back of forelegs and underparts and somewhat fuller and longer on rear of hindquarters. The coat is preferably straight, but some waviness is permitted. This breed has a shedding coat, and seasonal lack of undercoat should not be too severely penalized, providing the hair is glossy, healthy and well groomed. A wiry, tightly marcelled coat is very faulty, as is an overly short, smooth and thin coat. Very Serious Faults—Fluffies—A coat of extreme length with exaggerated feathering on ears, chest, legs and feet, underparts and hindquarters. Trimming such a coat does not make it any more acceptable. The Corgi should be shown in its natural condition, with no trimming permitted except to tidy the feet, and, if desired, remove the whiskers.
Color—The outer coat is to be of self colors in red, sable, fawn, black and tan with or without white markings. White is acceptable on legs, chest, neck (either in part or as a collar), muzzle, underparts and as a narrow blaze on head. Very Serious Faults: Whitelies—Body color white, with red or dark markings. Bluies—Colored portions of the coat have a distinct bluish or smoky cast. This coloring is associated with extremely light or blue eyes, liver or gray eye rims, nose and lip pigment. Mismarks—Self colors with any area of white on the back between withers and tail, on sides between elbows and back of hindquarters, or on ears. Black with white markings and no tan present.
Gait—Free and smooth. Forelegs should reach well forward without too much lift, in unison with the driving action of the hind legs. The correct shoulder assembly and well-fitted elbows allow a long, free stride in front. Viewed from the front, legs do not move in exact parallel planes, but incline slightly inward to compensate for shortness of leg and width of chest. Hind legs should drive well under the body and move on a line with the forelegs, with hocks turning neither in nor out. Feet must travel parallel to the line of motion with no tendency to swing out, cross over or interfere with each other. Short, choppy movement, rolling or high-stepping gait, close or overly wide coming or going, are incorrect. This is a herding dog, which must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work for which he was developed.
Temperament—Outlook bold, but kindly. Never shy or vicious. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any Pembroke Welsh Corgi that is excessively shy.
Approved June 13, 1972
Reformatted January 28, 1993
POLISH LOWLAND SHEEPDOG
THE POLISH LOWLAND SHEEPDOG, ALSO KNOWN BY ITS POLISH ACRONYM PON (Polski Owczarek Nizinny), is neither an ancient breed nor a new one. While the origin of the PON is obscured by time, it is commonly held that the breed evolved from breeding native dogs of Poland to shaggy-haired dogs accompanying Hun migrations from central Asia.
Polish herders needed a robust, tough, harsh-coated, highly intelligent, agile, and fearless dog to use as a sheepherder by day and a guard dog by night. It was these characteristics that were bred for selectively and are still found in today’s PON.
An indigenous, medium-sized, longhaired herding dog in Poland was first mentioned in the thirteenth century. A sixteenth-century reference mentions a Polish merchant traveling to Scotland to exchange a shipload of grain for sheep. The Scottish sheep breeder, impressed by the work of the sheepdogs accompanying the Polish merchant, offered to exchange two additional sheep for one male and two female sheepdogs. It is generally believed that these dogs contributed to the development of the Bearded Collie. In the eighteenth century, a medium-sized dog that could easily be the ancestor of the modern PON was said to be “most clever, having almost human intelligence.”
When Poland regained her independence from Russia after World War I, there began an interest in purebred Polish animals. Considerable progress was made in developing breed type during this period. This work was almost undone when World War II all but led to the breed’s extinction, as only a handful of these dogs survived the conflict. The Polish Kennel Club’s 1950 appeal for information on surviving PONs included a mention of the German military’s use of PONs from one of the premier prewar kennels. These PONs, which accompanied the German army during the invasion of Norway, were awarded the Iron Cross for their service.
Dr. Danuta Hryniewicz, a veterinarian from northern Poland, is generally credited as the person most responsible for bringing today’s PON back from the brink of extinction. Her PON Smok (named for the storybook dragon of Poland), is considered the father of the post–World War II PON. The 1970s saw PON popularity spread throughout Europe, and in 1979 the first PONs were imported into the United States.
The breakthrough in America occurred when Betty and Kaz Augustowski acquired their first PONs in 1982 and established Elzbieta Kennels. The breed entered the AKC Stud Book in 1999 and began competition in the Herding Group in August 2001 after it was officially recognized by the AKC.
PONs must be socialized from a very young age, as they can be suspicious of strangers. They are self-controlled, perceptive, and are endowed with an excellent memory but can be stubborn in order to get their own way. They do well in several environments and are very good companion dogs in the city. PONs are intelligent and learn quickly when given positive reinforcement, and perform well in obedience, agility, herding, and tracking as well as in the conformation ring. They are lively, friendly, family dogs, who are good-natured and gentle with children. The breed is not plagued by any pervasive hereditary health problems and can lead a productive life for twelve to fourteen years.
Today’s PONs have not lost the characteristics sought by Polish shepherds centuries ago. Strong and hardy, with a long, thick double coat and hanging hair that covers the eyes, PONs are the quintessential “shaggy dog.”
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE POLISH LOWLAND SHEEPDOG
General Appearance—Medium-sized, cobby, strong and muscular, with a long, thick coat and hanging hair that covers the eyes. His herding and working ability is attributed to an intense desire to please and compatible nature. He is lively but self-controlled, clever and perceptive and well known for an excellent memory.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Well balanced due to a strong skeleton. Height measured at the withers for an adult dog is 18–20 inches, and 17–19 inches for a bitch. It is not desirable to diminish the size below the Standard, making the dog too delicate for a strong working dog. The silhouette is rectangular rather than square. The ratio of height to length is 9–10, meaning that the height at the withers should equal 9⁄10ths of its length. Fault: Long legs.
Head and Skull—The medium-sized head is in proportion to the body. The profuse hair on the forehead, cheeks and chin make the head look bigger than it actually is. Expression should be lively with a penetrating gaze. Eyes are of medium size and oval. Fault: Protruding eyes. Colors are brown or hazel. The edges of the lids are as dark as possible within the coat color. Ears are heart-shaped, drop, and set moderately high. Fault: Ears set too high. They are medium size in proportion to the head and should be fully covered with long hair. Skull is moderately broad and slightly domed. The forehead furrow and occiput are palpable. The stop has a pronounced indentation, but never as pronounced as a round-skull breed. Faults: A round head, apple shaped head. The ratio of muzzle to skull is 1:1. A little shorter muzzle is acceptable. The topline of the muzzle is straight. Fault: Convex or concave muzzles. The jaws are strong. Teeth a full compliment of strong white teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. Nose should be large and black or brown, depending on the coat color. A pink nose or a nose partially lacking pigment should be penalized.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck is muscular and strong. It is broad, without dewlap and held horizontally when moving. Faults: Neck held too high or too narrow. The back should be neither too long or too short for proper balance and movement. Withers are well pronounced and broad. The chest is deep and broad. The topline is level. The loin is well muscled and broad. The croup is slightly cut, but only to a small degree. The belly is slightly drawn up. Tail should be short, set low and no longer than two vertebrae. It should not change the shape of the body. Tails are docked on puppies born with long or partial tails.
Forequarters—The shoulders are heavily muscled, and well laid back at an angle of approximately 45°. A line drawn from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the forward point of articulation approximates a right angle with a line from the forward point of articulation to the point of the elbow. The legs are straight and vertical, with heavy bone. The pasterns are flexible without weakness. The feet are oval, thick and compact, with the front feet larger than the rear feet.
Hindquarters—Large, heavily boned, and well muscled. Hocks are parallel when viewed from the rear. Fault: Cowhocks. Feet are oval with tight arched toes. Pads are hard. Nails are dark.
Coat—It is doubled coated. The entire body is covered with a long, dense, shaggy, thick coat that is reasonably straight. The undercoat is soft and dense. Characteristically, long hanging hair covers the eyes. A slight wavy coat is acceptable. Faults: A curly coat, lack of undercoat and short coats. The Polish Lowland Sheepdog must be shown naturally—no scissoring is allowed.
Color—All coat colors are acceptable. The most common colors are white with either black, gray or sandy patches and gray with white, or chocolate. Most carry a dominant fading factor genetically, which results in puppies being born darker in coat color than they will appear as adults, with the exception of those puppies born white.
Gait—The gait is fluid motion. He is often an ambler. With the correct shoulder angulation, he is capable of swinging his front legs forward with great reach of stride, extending out before his body in a long flat arch. The stride propels the body forward, rather than upward, with less fatigue. When viewed from the front, the legs should move parallel from the elbows to the pasterns. Toeing in is considered natural. Fault: Toeing out. The greatest source of his forward drive is derived from good rear angulation. When viewed from behind, the back legs should be parallel to each other and not too close. Fault: Close rear movement.
Temperament—He is stable and self confident. He needs a dominant master and consistent training from the time he is very young. If this is not provided, he will tend to dominate the master. When not used as a herding or working dog, he can be a magnificent companion as he seems to fit into any type of lifestyle. He is extremely loyal, but somewhat aloof and suspicious of strangers. Faults: Nervous, cowardly, or extreme vicious behavior.
Approved January 11, 1999
Effective July 1, 1999
THE PULI (POO LEE, THE PLURAL IS PULIK), OR DROVER, HAS BEEN AN INTEGRAL part of the lives of Hungarian shepherds for more than 1,000 years. For many years, accepted wisdom was that Pulik migrated with the Magyars as they crossed into Hungary from Asia and India. Some now believe, though, that the Puli originated with the Cuman people in western China, near Tibet. Many have noticed a striking resemblance between the Puli and the Tibetan Terrier. It is possible that early dogs of the two breeds share some common root stock.
Nomadic shepherds on the Hungarian plains valued their herding dogs, paying as much as a year’s income for a Puli. Hungarian shepherds used the Puli as a drover to move the flock over many miles into the plains and as a herder for large flocks of several hundred sheep. Shepherds were ruthless in maintaining their dogs’ working abilities and would eliminate dogs that did not show these qualities. To survive, the Puli had to be physically sound, mentally capable, agile, and willing to work.
Appearance and performance could not be divided. Indeed, the Puli coat is unique. A corded coat protected the Puli against the brutal winter frost and provided insulation against the summer heat when working on the open plains of the Hungarian Puszta. The undercoat is soft, woolly, and dense, the outer coat long and profuse. The puppy coat is tufted, but as it grows the outer and under coats tangle, first forming clumps and then cords.
Color also played a role in the development of Hungary’s sheepdogs. The small, dark-colored Puli often worked in tandem with the large, white Komondor, which was easily seen at night while protecting the flock from wild animals and robbers. In contrast, the Puli’s dark color was effective because sheep take direction more readily from darker-colored dogs. Moreover, the dark Puli was distinctive to the shepherd’s eye as the dog worked the flock, rounding them up, even jumping on the sheep or running over their backs to cut off or turn back a runaway. The Puli has truly earned the distinction as the acrobat of the dog world.
The black color of the Puli is unlike that of any other breed. It is dull: in some cases rusty tinged, in others gray as a weatherworn old coat faded by the sun. The coat of a black dog who worked outdoors in all weather is robbed of its intensity and sheen by the glaring sun. Pulik are also found in gray and white, and any shade of gray is allowed as long as it is solid gray. The Puli must always be a solid-colored dog.
Turkish invaders decimated Hungary during the sixteenth century. Subsequently, herdsmen from Western Europe, looking for greener pastures, repopulated the country. The introduction of French and German sheepherding dogs resulted in interbreeding. Two Hungarian herding breeds, the Pumi and the Mudi, emerged. By the late 1800s, the names Pumi and Puli were used almost interchangeably, although the breeds each maintained several distinct characteristics. In 1912, Dr. Emil Raitsits began a program to revive the Puli breed, fearing it would become extinct during the rapid modernization of agriculture. The first Puli standard was written in 1915 and was approved by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1924. In an effort to popularize the breed in the 1930s, the standard included the large police Puli (19 inches), the working or medium Puli (16 to 19 inches), the small Puli (12 to 16 inches), and the dwarf or toy Puli (11 inches). Time revealed that the breed was not popular enough to warrant so many varieties, and only the medium size was retained.
Pulik were first imported to the United States in 1935 for a USDA project to evaluate sheepherding dogs. The Puli excelled in tests for intelligence. The breed was accepted for AKC registration in 1936, and the Puli Club of America was formed in 1951. The current AKC Puli standard describes a medium-sized dog averaging sixteen to seventeen inches in height, with so striking an appearance that it would be impossible to confuse it with any other breed. The Puli’s shaggy, corded coat covers the head like an umbrella and forms a profuse cover for the body, right down to the tip of the tail. Pulik may also be kept in a brushed coat, which demands frequent grooming to prevent cords from forming naturally.
Today’s Pulik have adapted well to home or apartment living. They retain the agility, herding instinct, and willingness to work that endeared them to Hungarian shepherds. Pulik are extremely intelligent, deeply loyal dogs, wary of strangers. Quick and keen, when frustrated or excited they can resemble a bouncing ball and bubble with an energy they can scarcely control at times. They are often clowns for their owners, but they are always capable of the dazzling footwork that evoked the admiration of shepherds so long ago.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PULI
General Appearance—The Puli is a compact, square appearing, well balanced dog of medium size. He is vigorous, alert and active. Striking and highly characteristic is the shaggy coat which, combined with his light-footed, distinctive movement, has fitted him for the strenuous work of herding flocks on the plains of Hungary. Agility, combined with soundness of mind and body, is of prime importance for the proper fulfillment of this centuries-old task.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Ideally, males are 17 inches measured from the withers to the ground; bitches, 16 inches. An inch over or under these measurements is acceptable. The tightly knit body approximates a square measured from withers to ground and point of shoulder to point of buttock. Medium boned.
Head—The head is of medium size in proportion to the body. The almond shaped eyes are deep set, rather large, and dark brown with black or slate gray eye rims. The ears, set on somewhat higher than the level of the eyes, are hanging, of medium size, V-SHAPE, and about half the head length. The skull slightly domed and medium broad. The stop is defined, but not abrupt. The muzzle is strong and straight, a third of the head length, and ends in a nose of good size. The nose is always black. Flews and gums are black or slate gray. Flews are tight. A full complement of teeth, comparatively large, meet in a scissors bite.
Neck, Topline, Body—The neck is strong, muscular, of medium length and free of throatiness. The back is level and strong, of medium length, with croup sloping slightly. The chest is moderately broad and deep—the ribs well sprung. The loin is short, strong and moderately tucked up. The tail is carried over, and blends into the backline.
Forequarters—The shoulders are well laid back. Upper arm and scapula are approximately equal in length and form an angle of 90 degrees. The forelegs are straight, strong and medium boned with strong and flexible pasterns. Dewclaws, if any, may be removed. The round, compact feet have well arched toes and thick cushioned pads. The Puli stands well up on his pads. The pads and nails are black or slate gray.
Hindquarters—The hindquarters are well developed and muscular with well bent stifles, the rear assembly balancing that of the front. The hocks are perpendicular to the ground and well let down. Dewclaws, if any, may be removed. Feet as in front.
Coat—The dense, weather resistant coat is profuse on all parts of the body. The outer coat is wavy or curly, but never silky. The undercoat is soft, wooly and dense. The coat clumps together easily, and if allowed to develop naturally, will form cords in the adult. The cords are wooly, varying in shape and thickness, either flat or round, depending on the texture of the coat and the balance of undercoat to outer coat. The Puli may be shown either corded or brushed. It is essential that the proper double coat with correct texture always be apparent. With age the coat can become quite long, even reaching to the ground; however, only enough length to properly evaluate quality and texture is considered necessary so as not to penalize the younger or working specimens.
Color—Only the solid colors of rusty black, black, all shades of gray, and white are acceptable; however, on the chest a white spot of not more than 2 inches is permissible. In the black and the gray dogs an intermixture of some gray, black or white hairs is acceptable as long as the overall appearance of a solid color is maintained. The fully pigmented skin has a bluish or gray cast whatever the coat color.
Gait—The Puli is typically a lively, acrobatic dog; light, quick, agile and able to change directions instantly. At a collected, or contained trot the gait is distinctive: quick-stepping and animated, not far reaching, yet in no way mincing or stilted. When at a full trot, the Puli covers ground smoothly and efficiently with good reach and drive, the feet naturally tending to converge toward a median line of travel as speed increases. His distinctive movement is essential to the Puli’s herding style.
Temperament—By nature an affectionate, intelligent and home-loving companion, the Puli is sensibly suspicious and therefore an excellent watchdog. Extreme timidity or shyness are serious faults.
Faults—Any deviation from the foregoing should be considered a fault, the seriousness of the fault depending upon the extent of the deviation.
Approved February 12, 1983
Reformatted June 19, 1990
THE SHETLAND SHEEPDOG, AS ITS NAME IMPLIES, IS A WORKING COLLIE IN miniature. There is little doubt that the small working Collie, from which came the modern show Collie evolving on larger lines, was likewise the progenitor of the Shetland Sheepdog evolving on smaller ones. It was assisted in the process by the environment of the Shetland Islands, which produced diminutiveness in all its stock, and by crosses with other breeds residing in, if not indigenous to, the islands.
The Shetland Islands themselves are not conducive to abundance of fodder or flock, made up as they are of rugged rocks on which only meager vegetation can survive and surrounded by the sea, which brews frequent and severe storms. Small wonder that only the hardiest of both man and beast, and the smaller, could find subsistence. The actual origin of the breed cannot be traced by reference to records, as none were ever written. Tradition makes the dogs as old as the working Collies of Scotland, which frequently came to Shetland as the breed’s forebears, and as old as the islands themselves.
As the islands were isolated from the trend of travel, the little dogs were a long time coming to the ken of dog-loving folk. Thus the breed did not take its place on the show bench until well along in the present century. The year 1909 marked the initial recognition of the Sheltie by The Kennel Club (England). Not until 1914 did the breed obtain separate classification as Shetland Sheepdogs, not Shetland Collies, because of pressure brought to bear by the Collie breeders. The first Challenge Certificate was awarded to the breed in 1915, after which World War I put a stop to all progress for the next few years.
The first Shetland Sheepdog registered by the American Kennel Club, in 1911, was Lord Scott, imported from Shetland by John G. Sherman Jr. of New York. The American Shetland Sheepdog Association, parent club of the breed, was organized at the Westminster Kennel Club show in 1929, and held its first specialty show in 1933.
The history of the several clubs catering to the breed reflects the struggle of breeders to fix and perpetuate the proper type and size. The Shetland Sheepdog Club in the Shetland Islands, founded in 1908, is, of course, the oldest. They asked for a rough Collie in miniature, height not exceeding 15 inches. The Scottish Shetland Sheepdog Club, a year later, asked for first an “ordinary Collie in miniature” and finally a “modern show Collie in miniature,” ideal height 12 inches, and eventually 131⁄2 inches. The English Shetland Sheepdog Club, founded in 1914, was an offshoot of the Scottish, requiring “approximately a show Collie in miniature,” height (ideal) first 12 inches and finally from 12 to 15, the ideal being 131⁄2 inches. The British Breeders’ Association came into being for a time as the offspring of the English Club and asked for a “show Collie in miniature,” maintaining the same heights. In 1930 the Scottish and English Clubs revised their standards jointly to read “should resemble a Collie (Rough) in miniature.” The American Shetland Sheepdog Association, youngest in years, tried to profit by the experience of its predecessors by combining the best of each in its standard.
On the subject of size, the current American standard specifies that the Shetland Sheepdog should stand between 13 and 16 inches at the shoulder. Importantly, it calls for disqualification for heights above or below this range.
The breed characteristics common to all Shelties can be used for two purposes pertaining to their working propensities or their companionship qualities. It is their nature to obey, willingly and naturally, with few or no lessons needed, an instinct coming no doubt from the many generations of obediently trained dogs behind them. This responsiveness has helped to make them one of the most successful of all breeds in obedience competition and a dominating presence on the agility course. The instinct to guard property or places and to give watchdog warning makes them invaluable for work as farm helpers or home protectors, a heritage of the constant vigilance required to protect the crofters’ cottages, flocks, and herds from invaders of all kinds. Their ability to run swiftly and gracefully, and jump with agility over obstacles, makes them a delight in fields and woods as well as in farm-work. But what most endears them to everybody is their devoted, docile natures and their keen and all but human intelligence and understanding.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SHETLAND SHEEPDOG
General Appearance—Preamble—The Shetland Sheepdog, like the Collie, traces to the Border Collie of Scotland, which, transported to the Shetland Islands and crossed with small, intelligent, longhaired breeds, was reduced to miniature proportions. Subsequently crosses were made from time to time with Collies. This breed now bears the same relationship in size and general appearance to the Rough Collie as the Shetland Pony does to some of the larger breeds of horses. Although the resemblance between the Shetland Sheepdog and the Rough Collie is marked, there are differences which may be noted. The Shetland Sheepdog is a small, alert, rough-coated, longhaired working dog. He must be sound, agile and sturdy. The outline should be so symmetrical that no part appears out of proportion to the whole. Dogs should appear masculine; bitches feminine.
Size, Proportion, Substance—The Shetland Sheepdog should stand between 13 and 16 inches at the shoulder. Note: Height is determined by a line perpendicular to the ground from the top of the shoulder blades, the dog standing naturally, with forelegs parallel to line of measurement.
Disqualifications—Heights below or above the desired size range are to be disqualified from the show ring.
In overall appearance, the body should appear moderately long as measured from shoulder joint to ischium (rearmost extremity of the pelvic bone), but much of this length is actually due to the proper angulation and breadth of the shoulder and hindquarter, as the back itself should be comparatively short.
Head—The head should be refined and its shape, when viewed from top or side, should be a long, blunt wedge tapering slightly from ears to nose.
Expression—Contours and chiseling of the head, the shape, set and use of ears, the placement, shape and color of the eyes combine to produce expression. Normally the expression should be alert, gentle, intelligent and questioning. Toward strangers the eyes should show watchfulness and reserve, but no fear.
Eyes medium size with dark, almond-shaped rims, set somewhat obliquely in skull. Color must be dark, with blue or merle eyes permissible in blue merles only. Faults— Light, round, large or too small. Prominent haws. Ears small and flexible, placed high, carried three-fourths erect, with tips breaking forward. When in repose the ears fold lengthwise and are thrown back into the frill. Faults—Set too low. Hound, prick, bat, twisted ears. Leather too thick or too thin.
Skull and Muzzle—Top of skull should be flat, showing no prominence at nuchal crest (the top of the occiput). Cheeks should be flat and should merge smoothly into a well-rounded muzzle. Skull and muzzle should be of equal length, balance point being inner corner of eye. In profile the topline of skull should parallel the topline of muzzle, but on a higher plane due to the presence of a slight but definite stop. Jaws clean and powerful. The deep, well-developed underjaw, rounded at chin, should extend to base of nostril. Nose must be black. Lips tight. Upper and lower lips must meet and fit smoothly together all the way around. Teeth level and evenly spaced. Scissors bite.
Faults—Two-angled head. Too prominent stop, or no stop. Overfill below, between, or above eyes. Prominent nuchal crest. Domed skull. Prominent cheekbones. Snipy muzzle. Short, receding, or shallow underjaw, lacking breadth and depth. Overshot or undershot, missing or crooked teeth. Teeth visible when mouth is closed.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck should be muscular, arched, and of sufficient length to carry the head proudly. Faults—Too short and thick.
Back should be level and strongly muscled. Chest should be deep, the brisket reaching to point of elbow. The ribs should be well sprung, but flattened at their lower half to allow free play of the foreleg and shoulder. Abdomen moderately tucked up. Faults— Back too long, too short, swayed or roached. Barrel ribs. Slab-side. Chest narrow and/or too shallow. There should be a slight arch at the loins, and the croup should slope gradually to the rear. The hipbone (pelvis) should be set at a 30-degree angle to the spine. Faults—Croup higher than withers. Croup too straight or too steep.
The tail should be sufficiently long so that when it is laid along the back edge of the hind legs the last vertebra will reach the hock joint. Carriage of tail at rest is straight down or in a slight upward curve. When the dog is alert the tail is normally lifted, but it should not be curved forward over the back. Faults—Too short. Twisted at end.
Forequarters—From the withers, the shoulder blades should slope at a 45-degree angle forward and downward to the shoulder joints. At the withers they are separated only by the vertebra, but they must slope outward sufficiently to accommodate the desired spring of rib. The upper arm should join the shoulder blade at as nearly as possible a right angle. Elbow joint should be equidistant from the ground and from the withers. Forelegs straight viewed from all angles, muscular and clean, and of strong bone. Pasterns very strong, sinewy and flexible. Dewclaws may be removed. Faults — Insufficient angulation between shoulder and upper arm. Upper arm too short. Lack of outward slope of shoulders. Loose shoulders. Turning in or out of elbows. Crooked legs. Light bone.
Feet should be oval and compact with the toes well arched and fitting tightly together. Pads deep and tough, nails hard and strong. Faults—Feet turning in or out. Splay feet. Hare feet. Cat feet.
Hindquarters—The thigh should be broad and muscular. The thighbone should be set into the pelvis at a right angle corresponding to the angle of the shoulder blade and upper arm. Stifle bones join the thighbone and should be distinctly angled at the stifle joint. The overall length of the stifle should at least equal the length of the thighbone, and preferably should slightly exceed it. Hock joint should be clean-cut, angular, sinewy, with good bone and strong ligamentation. The hock (metatarsus) should be short and straight viewed from all angles. Dewclaws should be removed. Faults— Narrow thighs. Cow-hocks. Hocks turning out. Poorly defined hock joint.
Feet as in forequarters.
Coat—The coat should be double, the outer coat consisting of long, straight, harsh hair; the undercoat short, furry, and so dense as to give the entire coat its “standoff” quality. The hair on face, tips of ears and feet should be smooth. Mane and frill should be abundant, and particularly impressive in males. The forelegs well feathered, the hind legs heavily so, but smooth below the hock joint. Hair on tail profuse. Note: Excess hair on ears, feet, and on hocks may be trimmed for the show ring. Faults—Coat short or flat, in whole or in part; wavy, curly, soft or silky. Lack of undercoat. Smooth-coated specimens.
Color—Black, blue merle, and sable (ranging from golden through mahogany); marked with varying amounts of white and/or tan. Faults —Rustiness in a black or a blue coat. Washed-out or degenerate colors, such as pale sable and faded blue. Self-color in the case of blue merle, that is, without any merling or mottling and generally appearing as a faded or dilute tri-color. Conspicuous white body spots. Specimens with more than 50 percent white shall be so severely penalized as to effectively eliminate them from competition. Disqualification—Brindle.
Gait—The trotting gait of the Shetland Sheepdog should denote effortless speed and smoothness. There should be no jerkiness, nor stiff, stilted, up-and-down movement. The drive should be from the rear, true and straight, dependent upon correct angulation, musculation, and ligamentation of the entire hindquarter, thus allowing the dog to reach well under his body with his hind foot and propel himself forward. Reach of stride of the foreleg is dependent upon correct angulation, musculation and ligamentation of the forequarters, together with correct width of chest and construction of rib cage. The foot should be lifted only enough to clear the ground as the leg swings forward. Viewed from the front, both forelegs and hindlegs should move forward almost perpendicular to ground at the walk, slanting a little inward at a slow trot, until at a swift trot the feet are brought so far inward toward center line of body that the tracks left show two parallel lines of footprints actually touching a center line at their inner edges. There should be no crossing of the feet nor throwing of the weight from side to side.
Faults—Stiff, short steps, with a choppy, jerky movement. Mincing steps, with a hopping up and down, or a balancing of weight from side to side (often erroneously admired as a “dancing gait” but permissible in young puppies). Lifting of front feet in hackney-like action, resulting in loss of speed and energy. Pacing gait.
Temperament—The Shetland Sheepdog is intensely loyal, affectionate, and responsive to his owner. However, he may be reserved toward strangers but not to the point of showing fear or cringing in the ring. Faults—Shyness, timidity or nervousness. Stubbornness, snappiness or ill temper.
SCALE OF POINTS
Heights below or above the desired size range, i.e., 13–16 inches. Brindle color.
Approved May 12, 1959
Reformatted July 18, 1990
THE MISCELLANEOUS CLASS
THERE ARE SEVERAL HUNDRED DISTINCT BREEDS OF PUREBRED DOG. Those officially recognized for registration in the Stud Book of the American Kennel Club are presented in the body of this book. The AKC, however, provides for a regular path of development for a new breed, which may result in that breed’s full recognition.
Briefly stated, the requirement for admission to the Stud Book is clear and categorical proof that a substantial, sustained nationwide interest and activity in the breed exists. This includes an active parent club, with serious and expanding breeding activity over a wide geographic area.
When, in the judgment of the AKC Board of Directors, such interest and activity exists, a breed is admitted to the Miscellaneous class. Breeds in the Miscellaneous class may compete in AKC obedience trials and earn obedience titles. They may also compete at conformation shows, but here they are limited to competition in the Miscellaneous class and are not eligible for championship points.
When the Board of Directors is satisfied that a breed is continuing a healthy, dynamic growth in the Miscellaneous class, it may be admitted to registration in the Stud Book and compete in regular classes.
Currently, the breeds in the Miscellaneous class are:
THE BEAUCERON, ALSO KNOWN AS BERGER DE BEAUCE AND BAS ROUGE, IS the largest of the French sheepdogs and was developed solely in France, with no foreign crosses. The Beauceron is closely related to the longhaired Briard, or Berger de Brie.
In the early nineteenth century, large flocks of sheep were common and the Beauceron was indispensable to the shepherds of France; two dogs were sufficient to tend flocks of two to three hundred sheep.
Sheep production experienced a sharp decline during the latter 1800s and by the mid-twentieth century was only a phantom of its past. With the decline in sheep raising and advent of corralling rather than moving them to graze, sheepdogs became for the most part obsolete.
In an effort to preserve the breed, the French breed club for the Beauceron, Club Les Amis du Beauceron, promoted the breed in other fields, specifically in the area of protection of home and family. The breed served valiantly during both world wars as messenger and mine-detection dogs and experienced a significant increase in popularity after World War II.
Today, the breed is still utilized as a herding dog, working both sheep and cattle, but is also used as a personal-protection dog; for tracking, police, and military service; and in search-and-rescue work. Obedience enthusiasts in Europe and in the United States, looking for a true athlete with agility, a steady disposition, and an uncanny ability to focus on the task at hand have successfully turned to the Beauceron as a competition partner.
The Beauceron is a working dog of substance, active and serious, with exceptional endurance and keen intelligence and obedience. Loyal and strongly devoted to his master, he is also a faithful family companion. Since the Beauceron has a well-developed guarding instinct and is naturally distrusting of strangers, he lends himself well as a protector of house and home. His build, bearing, and frank and unwavering expression demand respect wherever he goes.
Although easily trainable and obedient, the Beauceron is not a dog for novice owners. These dogs have strong personalities and, coupled with a strong need for both physical and mental outlets, this breed more often than not requires an experienced, dedicated, and active owner. Dogs lacking stimulation become difficult to live with and destructive. The decision to add a Beauceron to one’s household should be a well-contemplated one, and though puppies are not readily available, it is advisable to remain patient when selecting a breeder and puppy.
The first mention of a dog that matches the Beauceron’s description is found in a manuscript dated 1587. In 1809, Abbé Rozier wrote an article on French herding dogs. It was he who first described the differences in type and used the terms Berger de la Brie for long-coated dogs and Berger de la Beauce for short-coated dogs. The name Beauceron was used for the first time in 1888, and the first Berger de Beauce was registered with the Société Central Canine in September 1893.
Today’s Beaucerons bear little physical resemblance to the dogs of the late 1800s. The Beauceron of yesteryear was more petite in its build, with a shorter, hard, and close-lying outer coat. Next to black and rust and harlequins, a variety of coat colors existed, such as reds. Today’s standard recognizes only black-and-tan and harlequin as coat colors. Although the breed has added substance to its build, it remains a natural athlete, without bulk or heaviness, moving effortlessly and with a noble carriage.
The French novelist Colette was a devotee of the breed and labeled the Beauceron the “country gentleman.” She described them as affectionate, playful, superb with children, absolutely and deeply attached to their masters. But at the same time, there is something mysterious about a Beauceron. They are like some people who don’t talk much but have a strong presence. They have a dimension, a depth, rarely found in other dogs. This is the essence of the Beauceron, then and now.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE BEAUCERON
General Appearance—The Beauceron is a distinct French breed of herding dog. Though almost unknown outside of France, the Beauceron has a long history. It is a very old breed developed solely in France with no foreign crosses. The earliest record found so far of what is thought to be this breed dates back to a Renaissance manuscript of 1578. In 1809, the Abbé Rozier reported plain dogs guarding flocks and herds. In 1863, Pierre Megnin differentiated, with precision, two types of these sheepdogs: one with a long coat, which became known as the Berger de Brie (Briard), the other with a short coat, which is known as the Berger de Beauce (Beauceron). The Beauceron is a well balanced, solid dog of good height and well muscled without heaviness or coarseness. The dog is alert and energetic with a noble carriage. The whole conformation gives the impression of depth and solidity without bulkiness, exhibiting the strength, endurance and agility required of the herding dog. Dogs are characteristically larger throughout with large frame and heavier bone than bitches. Bitches are distinctly feminine, but without weakness of substance or structure. The Beauceron should be easily approached without showing signs of fear.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size: males 251⁄2 to 271⁄2 inches; bitches 24 to 261⁄2 inches, measurement to be taken at the highest point of the shoulder blades. Disqualification: Height outside of maximum or minimum limits. Proportion: The conformation of the Beauceron is that of a mid-line, that is, harmoniously built with none of its regions exaggerated in shortness or length. The length of body, measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock, is slightly greater than the height at the highest point of the shoulder blade. Correct proportion is of primary importance, as long as size is within the standard’s range.
Head—Long (2⁄5 of the dog’s height at the highest point of the shoulder blade). The head must be proportionate to the body. Well-chiseled head with harmonious lines. Skull: the width of the head, as measured across the skull, is slightly less than the length of the skull from the occiput to the stop. The occiput is prominent and the forehead is very slightly rounded. The skull of the Beauceron viewed from the side or from above should form a rectangle, slightly longer than it is wide. The occiput is prominent. The back of the skull should not drop off and the forehead is very slightly rounded. Nose: not hooked, but nonetheless slightly curved (convex) toward the end. The nose in relation to the muzzle must be neither too narrow nor too large, nevertheless well developed; always black with nostrils well opened. View in profile, the nose must be in line with the extension of the upper lip. Disqualification: any color other than black. Planes: the topline of the muzzle is parallel to the topline of the skull, and the junction of the two forms a well-marked stop, which is midway between the occiput and the tip of the nose, and on a level with the eyes. Muzzle: Neither narrow nor pointed; lips lie close to jaws, dry, without folds or flews at the corners. Lips: well pigmented. Jaws full and powerful well filled under the eyes. Teeth: Strong, well-developed, white. The teeth of the upper jaw covering the teeth of the lower jaw without ever losing contact. The Beauceron should have a full complement of teeth, meeting perfectly in a scissors bite. Fault: 1 or 2 missing teeth. Serious Fault: 3 missing teeth. Disqualification: 4 or more missing teeth; Overshot or Undershot mouths with loss of contact. Eyes: Horizontal (the head being held horizontally). The eyes set well apart with the inner corners and outer corners on the same level. Large, slightly oval, well opened and calm, they must never be narrow or slanted. The eyes must always be dark brown, never lighter than dark hazel even if the accents are light tan with very dark pigmentation of the rim of the eyelids, whatever the color of the coat. Disqualification: yellow eyes or spotted eyes. Expression: Frank, Confident. Ears: Should be attached high, with thick ear leather. The Beauceron ear is usually cropped; however, a natural ear is acceptable. No preference should be given to the natural or cropped ear. If cropped, they should stand straight. The cropped ear should be carried upright and parallel, emphasizing the parallel lines of the head; when alert, they should face forward, well open. The well-held ear is one in which the middle passes through an imaginary line prolonging the sides of the neck. The natural ear must not lie flat against the head and, when alert, the ears are lifted slightly, giving a square look to the top of the skull. The length of the natural ear must be equal to the length of the head always straight and covered with short hair.
Neck, Topline, Body—Neck: neck muscled and smoothly blended into the bodyline, enabling the head to be carried proudly while standing at attention. Topline: straight back; strong, never swayed nor roached. Body: The length of the body from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock must be slightly more than the height of the dog. Chest, wide and deep; Sternum descending to the point of the elbow; top of shoulder blade well defined, wide and well fused to the rest of the body; rib cage extended well back; croup with little sloping and only in the direction of the attachment to the tail. The abdomen is moderately drawn up but still presents good volume. Tail: never docked; carried down and not deviating to the right or left; descending at least to the point of the hock, without curvation, forming a slight J-hook. In action, the tail is raised in a harmonious curve, never going above the level of the back, except for the terminal crook. Disqualification: Tail lacking or docked.
Forequarters—Shoulder: Medium length, sloping, forming a 45-degree angle with the horizontal, firmly attached by strong muscles and blending smoothly with the withers; Legs: The legs are powerfully muscled with strong bone. The legs are vertical when viewed from the side and from the front. The distance between the front legs equal to the distance between the rear legs. The construction of the legs is of the utmost importance, determining the dog’s ability to work and his resistance to fatigue. Feet: Strong, round, nails always black; pads firm but still supple. The feet travel straightforward in the line of movement. Some dogs may have multiple dewclaws on the front legs.
Hindquarters—The angulation of the hindquarters is to be in balance with the forequarters. The hindquarters are powerful, providing flexible, almost tireless movement. The pelvis slopes at a 30-degree angle from the horizontal and forms a right angle with the upper leg bone. Leg: The legs are well angulated with metatarsus slightly inclined, the hock making an angle of 135 degrees. Feet: if the rear toes turn out very slightly when the hocks and metatarsus are parallel, then the position of the feet is correct. Dewclaws: Double dewclaw on the rear leg; dewclaws placed on the inside, forming “thumbs” well separated one from the other ideally; close to the foot to create a larger weight-bearing surface. Faults: Double dewclaw placed too high on the leg or represented by two superimposed stumps; Disqualification: Anything less than double dewclaws on each rear leg.
Coat—Outer coat is straight, coarse, and dense, of medium length and lying flat, never soft and fine to the touch. The coat should be comparatively short, straight, hard enough to be weather resistant, with dense undercoat. It should be shortest on the head, ears and lower legs. The hair is somewhat longer around the neck, tail and back of thighs where “fringe” will be present. The Beauceron is to be exhibited in the natural condition with no trimming. Fault: Wavy coat; Severely Penalize: Long Hair, Coat Open or Curly.
Colors—Black and Tan (BICOLOR): Red feet (stockings); the black being very pure; the color of the tan must be (squirrel red); the tan marks are found: lozenges over the eyes; on the sides of the muzzle, lessening on the cheeks, never reaching the underside of the ears; two spots on the chest are preferred to a breastplate; on the throat; under the tail; on the legs, the tan extends to the feet, to the pasterns, progressively lessening in ascending, though never covering more than 1⁄3 of the leg; ascending a little higher on the inside of the leg; some white hairs at the breast are tolerated.
Black, Gray and Tan (TRICOLOR): A color pattern involving Blue/Gray splotches on a Black Background with red points, including stockings as described in the BiColor. Disqualification: absence of markings; white spot on the chest exceeding 1″ in diameter in Bi-Color or Tri-Color; In Tri-Color the gray should not exceed half the background color (black).
Gait—Movement should be fluid, effortless and covering ground in long strides, permitting him to make abrupt turns, springing starts, and sudden stops required of the sheep herding dog. The gait gives the impression that the dog glides along without touching the ground. Strong, flexible movement is essential to the sheepdog. His conformation harmoniously balanced and strong to sustain him in the long day’s work. In movement the head should lower approaching the level of the topline like any other herding breed. Dogs with clumsy or inelegant gait must be penalized.
Temperament—He is a dog at heart, with spirit and initiative, wise and fearless with no trace of timidity. Intelligent, easily trained, faithful, gentle and obedient, the Beauceron possesses an excellent memory and an ardent desire to please his master. He retains a high degree of his ancestral instinct to guard home and master. Although he is reserved with strangers, he is loving and loyal to those he knows. Some will display a certain independence.
Height outside of maximum or minimum limits.
Nose any color other than black.
4 or more missing teeth.
Overshot or Undershot mouths with loss of contact.
Yellow eyes or spotted eyes.
Tail lacking or docked.
Anything less than double dewclaws on each rear leg.
Absence of markings.
White spot on the chest exceeding 1″ in diameter in Bi-Color or Tri-Color.
In Tri-Color the gray should not exceed half the background color (black).
Approved June 11, 2001
Effective September 1, 2001
THE PLOTT HOUND, OR SIMPLY THE PLOTT, IS UNIQUE AMONG COON-HOUNDS. Unlike other such breeds and varieties, the Plott is not descended from imported English foxhounds but rather from Germanic stock, notably the Hannoverischer Schweisshund (Hanover Hound).
The breed’s history begins in 1750, when sixteen-year-old German immigrant Johannes Plott landed in Philadelphia, finally settling in North Carolina with five German-bred brindle- and buckskin-colored hunting dogs he brought from the Old World. In what is now the county of Cabarrus (formerly a part of Mecklenburg County), Plott hunted his dogs on bear, deer, and smaller game. But it was the son of Johannes, Henry, who is the true founder of the family’s eponymous breed. Breed historian John R. Jackson, of Boone, North Carolina, describes Henry Plott’s contribution to the breed:
In the mountainous western section of North Carolina lay the frontier, then a virtual game-laden paradise. Deer hides, especially, and other animal pelts could be harvested in great quantity. It was here to this wilderness area (now Haywood County) that Henry Plott settled and concentrated his efforts in establishing a highly successful big-game dog, a dog especially adept at hunting bears. Exactly what Plott integrated with his father’s original stock is unknown. Be that as it may, however, breedings were carefully maintained, accounting for the best trackers, fighters, and tree dogs available.
Henry Plott’s pack possessed an unparalleled ability to run, fight, and tree bears and mountain lions, as well as bay wild boar. Since Henry’s time, many small-game hunters have utilized the Plott’s courage and versatility to trail and tree raccoons and bobcats.
By the time in the mid-nineteenth century when Henry Plott bequeathed his pack to his sons, John, Amos, Enos, and David, the Plott was already a widely known hunting breed in the region and something of a local legend, figuring prominently in the folklore and tall tales of western North Carolina. The hound that Henry Plott left to posterity was not only a bold trail-and-tree dog but also a multitalented canine of remarkable native intelligence—the loyal, obedient, and tenacious hunter it remains to this day.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE PLOTT
The Plott may have an identification mark on the rump used to identify the dog when out hunting. Such a mark is not to be penalized when evaluating the dog.
General Appearance—A hunting hound of striking color that traditionally brings big game to bay or tree, the Plott is intelligent, alert and confident. Noted for stamina, endurance, agility, determination and aggressiveness when hunting, the powerful, well muscled, yet streamlined Plott combines courage with athletic ability.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Height—Males—20 to 25 inches at the withers. Females 20 to 23 inches at the withers. Proportion—General conformation and height in proportion. Faults: Extremely leggy or close to the ground. Weight—(in hunting condition) Males—50 to 60 pounds. Females 40 to 55 pounds. Substance— Moderately boned. Strong, yet quick and agile. Faults: Overdone. Carrying too much weight and or too much bone to display speed and dexterity.
Head—Head—Carried well up with skin fitting moderately tight. Faults: Folds, dewlap, skin stretched too tightly. Expression—Confident, inquisitive, determined. Fault: Sad expression. Eyes—Brown or hazel, prominent rather than deeply set. Faults: Drooping eyelids, red haw. Ears—Medium length, soft textured, fairly broad, set moderately high to high. Hanging gracefully with the inside part rolling forward toward the muzzle. Ear spread in males—18 to 20 inches. Ear spread in females—17 to 19 inches. When attentive or inquisitive, some Plotts display a semi-erectile power in their ears and lift them enough so a noticeable crease occurs on line with the crown. Disqualification: Length of ear extending beyond the tip of the nose or hanging bloodhound-like, in long, pendulous fashion. Skull—Moderately flat. Rounded at the crown with sufficient width between and above the eyes. Faults: Narrow-headed, square, oval or excessively domed. Muzzle—Moderate length, flews give it a squarish appearance. Faults: Bluntly squared. Pointed. Pigmentation—Eye rims, lips and nose are black. Flews—Black. Fault: Pendulous flews. Bite—Teeth-Scissors. Fault: Overshot or undershot.
Neck, Topline and Body—Neck—Medium length and muscular. Clean and free of ponderous dewlap. Fault: Loose, wrinkled or folded skin. Topline—Gently sloping, slightly higher at the withers than at the hips. Fault: Roached. Body—Chest— Deep. Ribs—Deep, moderately wide, well sprung. Back—Well muscled, strong, level. Loin—Slightly arched. Tail—Root is slightly below level of topline. Rather long, carried free, well up, saber like. Moderately heavy in appearance and strongly tapered. Sometimes typified by a slight brush.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Clean, muscular and sloping, indicating speed and strength. Elbow—Squarely set. Forelegs—Straight, smooth, well muscled. Pasterns— Strong and erect. Feet—Firm, tight, wellpadded and knuckled, with strong toes. Set directly under the leg. Disqualification—Splayed feet. Nails—Usually black, although shades of reddish brown matching the brindle body color are permissible and buckskin colored dogs have light red nails. May be white when portions of the feet are white.
Hindquarters—Angulation—Well bent at stifles and at the hocks. Hips— Smooth, round, and proportionally wide, indicating efficient propulsion. Legs—Long and muscular from hip to hock. From hock to pad short, strong and at right angles to the ground. Upper and second thigh—Powerful and well-muscled. Feet—Set back from under the body. Firm and tight. Toes—Strong.
Coat—Smooth, fine, glossy, but thick enough to provide protection from wind and water. Rare specimens are double coated, with a short, soft, thick inner coat concealed by a longer, smoother and stiffer outer coat.
Color—Any shade of brindle (a streaked or striped pattern of dark hair imposed on a lighter background) is preferred. This includes the following brindle factors: yellow, buckskin, tan, brown, chocolate, liver, orange, red, light or dark gray, blue or Maltese, dilute black, and black. Other acceptable Plott colors are solid black, any shade of brindle, with black saddle, and black with brindle trim. A rare buckskin, devoid of any brindle, sometimes appears among litters; ranging from red fawn, sandy red, light cream, and yellow ochre, to dark fawn and golden tan. Some white on chest and feet is permissible, as is a graying effect around the jaws and muzzle.
Gait—Dexterous and graceful, rhythmic footfall. With ample reach in front and drive behind, the Plott easily traverses various terrains with agility and speed. Legs converge to single track at speed.
Temperament—Eager to please, loyal, intelligent, alert. Aggressive, bold, and fearless hunter. Disposition generally even, but varies among strains, with a distinction sometimes appearing between those bred for big game and those bred as coonhounds.
Length of ear extending beyond the tip of the nose or hanging bloodhound-like, in long,pendulous fashion. Splayed feet.
Approved June 1998
Effective October 1, 1998
WHEN COLONISTS CAME TO AMERICA, THE FUR-BEARING ANIMALS THEY found became important sources of food and clothing as well as valuable commodities for trade. Because fur-bearing animals typically seek refuge in trees, survival depended on hunting dogs that followed the animal’s scent-trail to the tree and barked until the hunter arrived. Early breeders developed such hunting dogs from foundation stock available in the fairly common foxhound packs imported from England and France. The treeing behavior was fine-tuned and the American coonhound was born. From these beginnings six distinctive breeds evolved, one of the first of which was the Redbone, a descendant of foxhound packs in the Deep South. Other American breeds that developed in similar fashion were the Black and Tan, the Bluetick, the English, the Plott, and the Treeing Walker.
Early efforts at breeding a Southern tree hound for hunting raccoon, opossum, and squirrel were based upon stock from George Birdsong and Thomas Henry in the mid-nineteenth century. The earliest of these hounds were red in color with black saddles, and often with white markings on the feet and brisket. An occasional solid coat of deep red occurred and rapidly became the color of choice. Selective breeding over the decades produced the rich red coloring that became the benchmark of today’s Redbone Coonhound.
Early Redbones were fleet of foot and showed extreme endurance—obvious by-products of foxhound influence—and were naturally suited for the competition of early coonhound field trials. Dogs were required to run a scent course with great speed and to locate the scented lure in a tree at course’s end. In 1927 a Redbone named Little Sheik won the inaugural Leafy Oaks, a coonhound field trial that endured as the premier event of its type well into the last decade of the century.
With the advent of night trials, known as wild coon hunts in the mid-1950s, a Redbone named Red Bud, born in 1949 at Miamisburg, Ohio, was the first to achieve the title of champion in what has become the signature event in modern coonhound competition. Another notable competitor was the famed Midnight Flyer, born in 1918, whose illustrious field-trial career was ended by an accident before his fourth birthday. Perhaps one of the most famous Redbones of all time, a male named Jungle Jim, was a great-great grandson of Midnight Flyer.
Redbones, perhaps more than other coonhound breeds, have gained popularity as companions as well as hunting dogs. This is largely due to a combination of a natural affection for people, and the national exposure gained from the writings of Wilson Rawls, whose 1961 classic Where the Red Fern Grows, the tale of an Oklahoma boy and his coon dogs, features two Redbones, Old Dan and Little Ann. The novel, made into a motion picture in 1974, has become a mainstay of elementary-school teachers wishing to emphasize the love and care that can be shared between a child and a dog.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE REDBONE COONHOUND
General Appearance—Hunted from swamplands to mountains, the Redbone is surefooted and swift, even on the most difficult terrain. Well-balanced, with a flashy red coat and excellent cold nose, the powerfully built Redbone mingles handsome looks with a confident air and fine hunting talents.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size—Males—22 to 27 inches. Females—21 to 26 inches. Proportion Length well proportioned to height. Should be equal in height from highest point of the shoulder blade to the ground as long measured from sternum to the buttocks. Slightly taller at shoulder than at hips. Substance—Weight should be in proportion with height and bone structure. Working dogs not to be penalized for being slightly underweight. Well boned according to size of dog.
Head—Expression—Pleading. Eyes—Dark brown to hazel in color, dark preferred. Set well apart. No drooping eyelids. Eyes round in shape. Faults—Yellow eyes, drooping eyelids. Ears—Set moderately low, fine in texture. Reaching near the end of the nose when stretched out. Proportioned to head. Faults—Stiff to the touch. Appearing to be attached only to the skin, instead of firmly attached to the head. Skull— Moderately broad. Shape is flat. Faults—Narrow across top, excess of dome, pointed dome. Muzzle—Square. Well balanced with other features of the head. Faults—Dished or upturned muzzle. Not in proportion with head. Nose—Nostrils large and open, black in color, never pink. Faults—Any color other than black. Teeth—Scissors bite preferred. Even bite acceptable. Faults—Overshot or undershot.
Neck, Topline, and Body—Neck—Medium in length, strong, slightly arched and held erect, denoting proudness. Throat clean. Slight fold of skin below the angle of jaw is permissible. Faults—Too long, too thick, not in proportion with head and body. Topline—slightly taller at the withers than at the hips. Fault—Hips higher than withers. Body—Chest—Deep, broad. Ribs—Well sprung to provide optimal lung capacity, denoting stamina. Back—Strong. Faults—Roach or sway back. Loin—Slightly arched. Tail—Medium length, very slight brush, and saber-like. Faults—Not strong at root, heavy brush, Setter-like plume.
Forequarters—Shoulders—Clean and muscular. Shoulder angulation should have a perfect 90-degree angle or close. Legs—Straight, well-boned. The forelegs will be set under dog and feet under his withers, not under ears. Pasterns—Straight, well set, clean and muscular, denoting both speed and strength. Faults—Forelegs crooked, out at elbows. Feet—Cat-paw type, compact, well padded. Toes—Stout, strong and well-arched. Nails—Well-set. Faults—Flat feet, open feet, hind dewclaws.
Hindquarters—Thighs—Clean and muscular. Fault—Cowhocked. Hindquarters should have same. Well boned.
Coat—Short, smooth, coarse enough to provide protection.
Color—Solid red preferred. Dark muzzle and small amount of white on brisket and feet permissible. Faults: White on feet extending beyond toes. More white on brisket than an open hand will cover. White stockings on legs.
Gait—Determined, steady, and proud, with good reach and drive.
Temperament—Even-tempered at home but an aggressive hunter. Amenable to formal training. A good family dog that likes to please.
Approved June 11, 2001
Effective September 1, 2001
THE SWEDISH VALLHUND IS AN ORIGINAL SWEDISH BREED AND A VERY OLD spitz breed. Sweden has declared that this breed is a lantras, defined by the Swedish Kennel Club as a population of domestic animal species who mate naturally, even if the choice of male and female are made by humans. The breed should have existed in the same area for such a period of time that it has adapted itself to the environment. The characteristics for a lantras is a wide variation in most qualities, primarily in regard to color and size. Other qualities are long life, patience to hardship, hardiness, high power of resistance to diseases, and original behavior, for example, natural mating, easy births, good maternal instinct, ability to find food, and ability to take initiative.
It is said that the Swedish Vallhund goes back over 1,000 years to the time of the Vikings, when it may have been known as the Vikingarnas Dog. During the eighth or ninth century, historians presume that either the Vallhund was brought to Wales or the Corgi was taken to Sweden, hence the similarities between the two breeds. Historian Clifford Hubbard thought that the Vallhund was the older of the two breeds.
The Vallhund is an alert, eager-to-please, ready-to-learn, energetic, hardy dog that is longer legged, not as long in body, and not as stocky as the Corgi. The Swedish Vallhund was bred to work on farms and ranches and originally herded cattle. The dog is low to the ground and herds by rounding up and nipping at the hocks.
In 1942, the breed was almost extinct. In this year, Bjorn von Rosen, who had worked to save several old Swedish breeds from extinction, remembered the Vallhund from his boyhood and placed a newspaper ad regarding these beloved dogs of his childhood. He got a response from K. G. Zettersten. Together they found a few of the old Vallhunds and began a program to save and revitalize this old breed, which had been common before World War I.
In 1943, the Swedish Kennel Club recognized the breed after a year of showing in exhibitions. The Vallhund was known as Svensk Vallhund, Swedish Vallhund, vallhund meaning “herding dog.” In 1964, when the Swedish standard was revised, the breed became known as Vastgotaspet, after the Swedish province Vastergotland in which the revived breeding program originated. In 1974, the first Swedish Vallhund came to England. Ms. Nicky Gascoigne helped to organize the Breed Society there in 1980, and Championship Status for the breed was received in 1985 from The Kennel Club (England). Marilyn Thell, of Rhode Island, brought two dogs to the United States in 1985 and two years later founded what is now the Swedish Vallhund Club of America.
Historically, the breed is watchful, energetic, fearless, alert, intelligent, friendly, eager to learn, adaptable, active, and steady, making for a good herding and companion animal. The Swedish Vallhund is neither shy nor aggressive. Spirited and athletic, as well as steady and dependable, he is a big dog in a small body. Originally, the Vallhund was used to herd cattle but now may also herd sheep. The Vallhund also participates in obedience, agility, tracking, flyball, and conformation events.
Balance, outline, temperament, and movement are of overriding importance. The Swedish Vallhund is a thoroughly sound animal, willing and able to do its work, and is adaptable and eager to be a family companion and participate in any activity.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE SWEDISH VALLHUND
General Appearance—The SV is an original Swedish breed as well as a very old Spitz breed as a type known in the time of the Vikings. For many decades the SV has been kept as a farm dog for herding cattle. The SV is a small powerful, fearless, sturdily built Spitz herding dog with a longer body. The correct relationship of height to length of body is 2:3. The SV has a wedge-shaped head, prick ears and a close-fitting, hard coat of medium length and sable coloring. The double coat and the characteristic “harness markings” are essential features of this breed. Tail may be natural (long, stub, or bob) or docked. The appearance of the Swedish Vallhund conveys intelligence, alertness and energy. Balance, outline, temperament and movement are of overriding importance. The Swedish Vallhund is a thoroughly sound animal willing and able to do its work of herding and equally adaptable and eager to be a family companion.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Height—Height at withers for dogs ranges from 12.5–13.75 inches and for bitches 11.5–12.75 inches. Minor variations may be seen; however, more important is the proportion. Proportion—The relationship of height to length of body, as measured from sternum to the rearmost point of the buttocks, should be 2:3. Substance—Strong, substantial bone, well developed, neither refined nor coarse, and a solidly built, muscular body.
Head—Rather long and clean. Viewed from above, the head forms an even wedge from skull to tip of nose and is well filled in under eyes. Eyes—Medium size, oval in shape and dark brown with black eye rims. Ears—Medium size, pointed, pricked. Ear leathers should be hard from base to tip, smoothed haired and mobile, not set on too low. The dog should make good use of them. Skull—Broad and almost flat. Stop—Well defined. Muzzle—Viewed from the side, the muzzle should look rather square, slightly shorter than the skull. Planes—The top line of the muzzle and skull are parallel with each other. Nose—In profile, the nose is on the same line as the top of the muzzle and does not extend beyond the forepart of the muzzle. Pigmentation is jet black. A nose which is not predominantly black is a disqualification. Lips—Tightly closed. Flews— Well closed and tight. Teeth—Strong, well developed, with full dentition in a scissors bite. An undershot bite is a disqualification.
Neck, Top Line & Body—Neck—Long, strongly muscled with good reach. Top line—Level when standing or moving. Chest—Long with good depth and well-sprung ribs. Viewed from the front, the chest should be oval; from the side, elliptical. It should reach two-fifths of the length of the forelegs and, when viewed from the side, the lowest point of the chest is immediately behind the back part of the foreleg. The prosternum is visible and not excessively pointed. Underline—Slightly tucked up. Back—Well muscled. Loin—Short and strong. Croup—Broad and very slightly sloping. Tail— Three types of tail are permissible: long, stub, and bob. The stub tail should not be more than 4″. May be shown natural or docked. All tail types are equally acceptable.
Forequarters—Angulation—Well angulated. Shoulders—Strongly muscled. Shoulder blades—Long and well laid back. Withers—Slightly prominent. Upper Arms—Slightly shorter than the shoulder blade; set at a distinct angle. The elbows lie close to the ribs, but are still very mobile. Elbows—Move parallel to the body and are set far enough back to allow a line perpendicular to the ground to be drawn from the tip of the shoulder blade through to the elbow. Forelegs—When viewed from the front while moving, slightly curved to give free action against the lower part of the chest. Viewed from side they are straight. Legs: well boned. Pasterns—Elastic. Dewclaws— May be removed. Feet—Medium sized, short, oval, pointing straight forward. Toes— Well knuckled up. Pads—Thick and strong.
Hindquarters—Angulation—Well angulated at stifle and hock. Legs—Well boned. Upper thigh and second thigh are strongly muscled. Lower thigh is slightly longer than the distance from hock to ground. When viewed from behind, they are parallel Stifles—Well bent. Hocks—perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, they are parallel to each other. Feet—Medium sized, short, oval, pointing straight forward. Toes—Well knuckled up. Pads—Thick and strong.
Coat—Medium length hair; harsh, close and tight topcoat. Undercoat is soft and dense. Short on the head and the foreparts of the legs and slightly longer on neck, chest and back parts of the hind legs. Dogs are to be shown natural. Faults include woolly, curly, or open coats. Fluffy coats are a disqualification.
Color—A Sable pattern seen in colors of grey through red and combinations of these colors in various shades. All are equally acceptable. Lighter shades of these colors are desirable on the chest, belly, buttocks, lower legs, feet and hocks, with darker hairs on back, neck and sides of the body. Lighter markings on shoulders, so-called harness markings, are essential. Although a dark muzzle is acceptable, a well-defined mask with lighter hair around eyes, on muzzle and under the throat, giving a distinct contrast to the upper mask is highly desirable. White is permitted as a narrow blaze, neck spot, slight necklace, and white markings on the front and hind legs, and chest. White in excess of one third of the dog’s total color is a disqualification. A blue color is a disqualification.
Gait—Sound with good drive. The Swedish Vallhund is a herding dog requiring an easy, almost flowing movement, agility and endurance. The forelegs should reach well forward in a long free stride without too much lift. Viewed from the front, the legs do not move in exact parallel planes, but incline slightly inward to compensate for shortness of leg and width of chest. Hind legs should drive well under the body and move on a line with forelegs, with hocks turning neither in nor out. Feet should travel parallel to the line of motion with no tendency to swing out, cross over, or interfere with each other. Faults: Short, choppy movement; close or overly wide movement.
Temperament—The breed is watchful, energetic, fearless, alert, intelligent, friendly, eager to please, active and steady, making for a good herding and companion animal. Sound temperament neither shy nor vicious.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault, and the seriousness of the fault should be in exact proportion to its degree.
Coats that are woolly, curly, or open.
Short, choppy movement; close or overly wide movement.
More than one-third white color.
Nose not predominantly black
Blue coat color.
Approved October 18, 2004
Effective September 1, 2005
THE HISTORY OF THE TIBETAN MASTIFF—THE LARGE GUARDIAN DOG OF Tibet—is hidden in the mists of legend, along with the people of the high Himalayan Mountains and the plains of Central Asia. Accurate records of the genetic heritage of the dogs are nonexistent. Even so, history has reserved a special place for the Tibetan Mastiff. They are considered by many to be the basic stock from which most modern large working breeds, including all mastiffs and mountain dogs, have developed.
Earliest written accounts place a large dog around 1100 B.C. in China. Skulls of large dogs date to the Stone and Bronze ages. Ancestors of today’s mastiff breeds are believed to have accompanied the armies of the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans and later traveled with Attila the Hun and Genghis Khan into Europe. During these centuries of upheaval, it is believed that the Tibetan Mastiff remained isolated on the high plateaus and valleys of the Himalaya and developed into the magnificent animal so highly prized by the people of Tibet.
Today in Himalayan regions, a pure Tibetan Mastiff is hard to find, though they are still bred by the nomads of the Chang Tang plateau. They are bred and live at an average altitude of 16,000 feet, and some are brought to be sold to the Barkhor, the market that surrounds the Jokhang Temple, the holiest site for Tibetan Buddhists. Although Tibetan Mastiffs are traditionally kept tied to the gates of the house or monastery, or tied to stakes in the nomad camps, they are let loose at night. When the flocks are moved to higher pasture, the Tibetan Mastiffs were traditionally left behind to guard the tents and the children. The dogs were expected to defend the flocks of goats, sheep, and yaks, and the women and the children and the tents of their masters against predators such as wolves and snow leopards, as well as human intruders.
Before the early 1800s, few Westerners were allowed into Tibet and little was known about Tibetan dogs. In accounts of visits to Tibet by early travelers, they rarely mentioned the dogs they encountered. Marco Polo wrote of the dogs in Tibet being as large as donkeys, and Jesuit missionaries of the eighteenth century wrote of the ferocious, huge dogs (“Many of the Thibetan dogs are uncommon and extraordinary. They are black with rather long glossy hair, very big and sturdily built, and their bark is most alarming”—I. Desideri, 1712). In 1800 Captain Samuel Turner, in his Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet, recorded an encounter with huge dogs:
The mansion stood upon the right; on the left was a row of wooden cages, containing a number of huge dogs, tremendously fierce, strong and noisy. They were natives of Tibet; and whether savage by nature, or soured by confinement, they were so impetuously furious, that it was unsafe, unless the keepers were near, even to approach their dens.
In 1847, Lord Hardinge, viceroy of India, sent a “large dog from Tibet” called Siring to Queen Victoria. England had its first dog show in 1859; and in 1873, The Kennel Club (England) was formed, with the first studbook containing pedigrees of 4,027 dogs. In the official classification made by The Kennel Club, the “large dog from Tibet” was designated the Tibetan Mastiff for the first time.
Two more Tibetan Mastiffs were brought into England in 1874 by the then Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII). They were exhibited at the Alexandra Palace Show in December 1875. There was a trickle of imports into England and Europe until 1928, when Colonel and Mrs. Bailey imported four Tibetan Mastiffs obtained while the colonel was a political officer in Sikkim, Nepal, and Tibet. In 1931, Mrs. Bailey formed the Tibetan Breeds Association in England and the first official standard for the breed was adopted by The Kennel Club. It was also the standard adopted by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.
In the late 1950s, two Tibetan Mastiffs were sent from Tibet to President Eisenhower. They were taken to a farm in the Midwest and nothing more was heard of them. Beginning in 1969, several were imported from Nepal and India into the United States. The American Tibetan Mastiff Association was formed in 1974, with a dog imported from Nepal, Jumla’s Kalu of Jumla, as dog number 001. The first American national specialty match was held in connection with the California Rare Breeds Dog Association in October 1979, and the first national specialty show was held in 1983.
The close relationship of the Tibetan Mastiff with man through the centuries has given it an almost uncanny “human” understanding. Generations of working as a guardian of yaks, sheep, and, more important, women and children, requiring them to be always a protector and never a killer, has produced a disposition and temperament of controlled strength, initiative, and fearlessness, tempered with patience, loyalty, and gentleness.
OFFICIAL STANDARD FOR THE TIBETAN MASTIFF
General Appearance—Noble and impressive: a large, powerful, heavy, well built dog, well muscled, with much substance and bone, and of solemn but kindly appearance. The Tibetan Mastiff stands well up on the pasterns, with strong, tight, cat feet, giving an alert appearance. The body is slightly longer than tall. The head is broad and impressive, with massive back skull, the eyes deep-set and almond shaped, slightly slanted, the muzzle broad and well-padded, giving a square appearance. The typical expression of the breed is one of watchfulness. The tail is well feathered and carried over the back in a single curl falling over the loin, balancing the head. The coat and heavy mane are thick, with coarse guard hair and a wooly undercoat. The tail and britches are well feathered.
The Tibetan Mastiff has been used primarily as a family and property guardian for many millennia, and is aloof and watchful of strangers, and highly protective of its people and property.
Size, Proportion, Substance—Size: Dogs—minimum of 26 inches at the withers. Bitches—minimum of 24 inches at the withers. Dogs and bitches that are more than one inch below the minimum heights to be severely faulted. Proportion: Slightly longer than tall (9–10), (i.e., the height to length, measured from sternum to ischium should be slightly greater than the distance from withers to ground). Substance: The Tibetan Mastiff should have impressive substance, both in bone and structure, as well as strength. When dogs are judged equal in type, proportion and movement, the more substantial dog, in terms of substance and bone, not merely height, is to be given preference.
Head—Broad, heavy and strong. Some wrinkling in maturity, extending from above eyes down to corner of mouth. A correct head and expression is essential to the breed. Expression: Noble, intelligent, watchful and aloof. Eyes:Very expressive, medium size, any shade of brown. Rims to be black except in blue/grey, blue/grey and tan dogs and brown dogs, the darkest possible shade of grey or brown. Eyes deep-set, well apart, almond shaped, and slightly slanting. Any other color or shape to be severely faulted since it detracts from the typical expression. Ears: Medium size, V-shaped, pendant, set-on high, dropping forward and hanging close to head. Raised when alert, on level with the top of the skull. The ear leather is thick, covered with soft short hair, and when measured, should reach the inner corner of the eye. Skull: Broad and large, with strongly defined occiput. Broad back skull. Stop: Deep and well defined. Muzzle: Broad, well filled and square when viewed from all sides. Proportions: Measurement from occiput to stop and stop to end of nose, equal or slightly shorter. Nose: Broad, well pigmented, with open nostrils. Black, except with blue/grey or blue/grey and tan dogs, the darkest shade of grey and brown dogs, the darkest shade of brown. Any other color to be severely faulted. Lips: Well developed, thick, with moderate flews and slightly pendulous lower lips. Bite: Complete scissor bite. Level bite acceptable. Essential that dentition fits tightly, to maintain square form of muzzle. Teeth: Canine teeth large, strong, broken teeth not to be faulted. Faults: Missing teeth, overshot, undershot bite.
Neck, Topline and Body—Neck: The neck is well muscled, moderately arched, and may have moderate dewlap. The neck, especially in dogs, is shrouded by a thick upstanding mane. Topline: Topline straight and level between withers and croup. Body: The chest is rather deep, of moderate breadth, with reasonable spring of rib. Brisket reaching to just below elbows. Underline with pronounced (but not exaggerated) tuckup. The back is muscular with firmly muscled loin. There is no slope or angle to the croup. Tail: Medium to long, but not reaching below hock joint; well feathered. Set high on line with top of back. When alert or in motion, curled over back or to one side. Tails that are double curled or carried in an incomplete curl to be faulted.
Forequarters—Shoulders: Well laid back, muscular, strongly boned, with moderate angulation to match the rear angulation. Legs: Straight, with substantial bone and muscle, well covered with short, coarse hair, feathering, and with strong pasterns that have a slight slope. Feet: Cat feet. Fairly large, strong, compact, may have feathering between toes. Nails may be either black and/or white, regardless of coat color. A single dewclaw may be present on the front feet.
Hindquarters—Hindquarters: Powerful, muscular, with all parts being moderately angulated. Seen from behind, the hind legs and stifle are parallel. The hocks are strong, well let down (approximately one-third the overall length of the leg), and perpendicular. Feet: A single or double dewclaw may be present on the rear feet. Removal of rear dewclaws, if present, optional.
Coat—In general, dogs carry noticeably more coat than bitches. The quality of the coat is of greater importance than quantity. Double-coated, with fairly long, thick coarse guard hair, with heavy soft undercoat in cold weather which becomes rather sparse in warmer months. Hair is fine but hard, straight and stand-off; never silky, curly or wavy. Heavy undercoat, when present, rather woolly. Neck and shoulders heavily coated, especially in dogs, giving mane-like appearance. Tail and breeches densely coated and heavily feathered. The Tibetan Mastiff is shown naturally. Trimming is not acceptable except to provide a clean cut appearance of feet. Dogs are not to be penalized if shown with a summer coat.
Color—Black, brown, and blue/grey, all with or without tan markings, and various shades of gold. Tan ranges from a very rich shade through a lighter color. White markings on breast and feet acceptable. Tan markings may appear at any or all of the following areas: above eyes as spots, around eyes (including spectacle markings), on each side of the muzzle, on throat, on lower part of front forelegs and extending up the inside of the forelegs, on inside of rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to the front of the rear legs from hock to toes, on breeches, and underside of tail. Undercoat, as well as furnishings on breeches and underside of tail, may be lighter shades of the dominant color. The undercoat on black and tan dogs also may be grey or tan. Other markings such as sabling, brindling, white on other areas of the body, or large white markings, to be faulted. All other coat colors, while accepted, are to be faulted.
Gait—The gait of a Tibetan Mastiff is powerful, steady and balanced, yet at the same time, light-footed. When viewed from the side, reach and drive should indicate maximum use of the dog’s moderate angulation. Back remains level and firm. Sound and powerful movement more important than speed.
Temperament—The Tibetan Mastiff is a highly intelligent, independent, strong willed and rather reserved dog. He is aloof with strangers and highly protective of his charges and his property. In the ring he may exhibit reserve or lack of enthusiasm, but any sign of shyness is unacceptable and must be severely faulted as inappropriate for a guardian breed. Conversely, given its aloof nature, judges should also beware of putting a premium on showiness.